Professor Nicholas Burns

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IGA 208:

Modern Diplomacy:

Peace and War in the Twenty-First Century
Professor Nicholas Burns

Spring 2011

Tuesdays and Thursdays, 2:40 p.m. to 4 p.m.

Littauer 230

Optional Discussion Session:

Tuesdays 6 – 7 p.m.

Taubman 301
Office Hours: Faculty Assistant:

Tuesday, Thursday 11:00-noon Sarah Kneezle

Littauer L374 Littauer 372

Course Assistants:

Lorin Fries Julian Simcock
This is a class about war and peace from the end of the Cold War in 1989-90 to the present day. We will focus on the importance of diplomacy in a globalized world as a central policy instrument for the United States, China, India, the European countries and other powers. Specifically, we will look at those instances—German Unification in NATO, the end of Apartheid in South Africa, the Peru-Ecuador Border Dispute, the first Gulf War, Bosnia and the U.S.-India relationship—when the international community deployed diplomacy successfully to prevent war or to end an international crisis. We will also study examples of when diplomacy fails and war or conflict ensue—the 2003 Iraq War, Afghanistan, the Israeli-Palestinian Dispute, the North Korea Nuclear Crisis and the Iran nuclear issue. In order to understand properly diplomacy’s usefulness in a complex world, we will examine the global balance of power in our time and ask whether the U.S. can overcome the economic crisis and maintain its leading global position, how soon China will contest the U.S. for influence in the future and how the EU, Russia, India, Japan, Brazil and others will compete for power and influence in the years ahead. While this is not a course specifically and solely about American diplomacy, the United States will be discussed frequently given its current indispensible role in global affairs. We will pay close attention to the “how” of diplomacy. How is diplomacy conducted at the highest levels? How can a country use negotiations and the combination of diplomacy and the threat of force effectively? How can the United Nations and other international organizations operate more effectively to prevent human rights violations, injustice and war?
In addition to lecture and class discussions, we will use class debates, case studies and student presentations to help you practice the skills that are critical to success in public service as well as the private sector—deep intellectual knowledge of the core issues of our time; analytical thinking, effective writing skills and the ability to make clear and succinct oral presentations.
Students should come to class having done all readings and prepared to engage in discussion and debate. We require active class participation with cold calling as the norm. Each of you will be assigned membership in a small group at the start of the course. All small groups will prepare short presentations of ten minutes on assigned class topics. These presentations will give you the chance to practice the kind of cogent and focused briefings common in the professional environment. In addition, there will be a final oral exam at the end of the semester.

  • Class Discussion/Participation 20%

  • Group Presentations 10 %

  • Three Concise Policy Memoranda (max. 1000 words) 30%

  • Oral Exam 40%

I am assigning four books for you to purchase. These books will form the core of the reading list. They are:
Ferguson, Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. New

York: Penguin Books, 2004.

Haas, Richard N. War of Necessity, War of Choice: A Memoir of Two Iraq

Wars. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009.
Holbrooke, Richard. To End A War. New York: Random House, 1998.
Ross, Dennis. Statecraft: And How to Restore America’s Standing in the World.

New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007.

In addition, I will assign other required readings for each class. These can either be found in the mandatory course packet or the course website and will be marked as O for online or M for mandatory packet. Course packets can be picked up at the Course Materials office on the ground floor of the Belfer building. I will designate still other, non-mandatory readings under the rubric “For Further Exploration” for those interested in delving more deeply into particular issues. As this is a course that looks at several contemporary global issues, students are encouraged to read a major international newspaper daily and the Economist weekly.
Students are also encouraged to post articles and discussion topics and to start conversations on the course website.
Thursday, January 20 – Shopping days
Tuesday, January 25
Defining Diplomacy 1
Required Readings:

  • Nicolson, Harold. Peacemaking 1919. Simon Publications, 2001. Pp 3-10; 30-56.

  • Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. Simon and Schuster, 1994. Pp 17-28.

For Further Exploration:

  • Library of Congress. Foreign Service Oral Histories. Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training.

  • Freeman, Chas. W., Jr. The Diplomat’s Dictionary. National Defense University Press, 1993.

  • Mak, Dayton and Charles Stuart Kennedy. American Ambassadors in a Troubled World: Interviews with Senior Diplomats. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1992.

  • Condoleezza Rice, Speech on Transformational Diplomacy, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, January 18, 2006

Thursday, January 27
Defining Diplomacy 2
Required Readings:

  • Yunus, Mohamed. Nobel Peace Prize Lecture, 2006. (O)

  • President John F. Kennedy Commencement Address at American University, Washington D.C., June 10, 1963. (O) Audio and video files also available online

  • Nobel Lecture by Barack H. Obama, Oslo, 10 December 2009. (O)

  • Nye, Joseph. “Public Diplomacy and Soft Power,” The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 2008. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier, America Between the Wars: From 11/9 to 9/11. New York: BBS Public Affairs, 2008.

The American Way of Diplomacy in a Changing World
Tuesday, February 1
Required Readings:

  • Ferguson, Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. pp 105-131, 139-149.

  • Ross, Dennis. Statecraft: And How to Restore America’s Standing in the World. pp Preface ix-xii; 3-28.

  • National Intelligence Council. Global Trends 2025: A Transformed World. “Executive Summary.” Washington D.C.: November 2008. (O)

  • Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994. pp 804-835. (M)

  • Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “America’s Place in the World 2009. December 2009. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Rothkopf, David. Running the World: The Inside Story of the National Security Council and the Architects of American Power. New York, NY: Public Affairs, 2005.

Thursday, February 3
The Rise of China to Diplomatic and Global Power
Required Readings:

  • Ross, Dennis. Statecraft. pp 319-332.

  • Ikenberry, John. “The Rise of China and the Future of the West.” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2008. pp 23-37. (O)

  • Zakaria, Fareed. The Post-American World. pp 87-128.

  • Pei, Minxin. “Think Again: Asia’s Rise.” Foreign Policy, June 2009. (O)

  • Mahbubani, Kishore. “The Case Against the West: America and Europe in the Asian Century.” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2008. (O)

  • Kaplan, Robert. “The Geography of Chinese Power,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2010.

For Further Exploration:

  • Fallows, James. “After the Crash: China to the U.S: Shape up or Else.” The Atlantic, Dec. 2008.

  • Shaplen, Jason and James Laney. “Washington’s Eastern Sunset.” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2007.

  • Cha, Victor. “Winning Asia: Washington's Untold Success Story.” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2007.

WEEK 3: The Peaceful End of the Cold War: German Unification in NATO
Tuesday, February 8
Required Readings:

  • Sarotte, Mary Elise. 1989: The Struggle to Creat Post-Cold War Europe. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2009. pp 1-61.

  • Ross, Dennis. Statecraft, pp 29-47.

  • Cox, Michael and Steven Hurst. “His Finest Hour? George Bush and the Diplomacy of German Unification,” Diplomacy and Statecraft, Dec. 2002. (O)

  • Heuvel, Katrina Vanden and Stephen F. Cohen. “Gorbachev on 1989,” The Nation, October 28, 2009. (O)

Thursday, February 10
Required Readings:

  • Cherniaev, Anatolii. “The Unification of Germany: Political Mechanisms and Psychological Stereotypes.” Russian Science Review, May/June 1999, pp. 50-65. (O)

  • Kusters, Hanns Jurgen. “The Kohl-Gorbachev Meetings in Moscow and in the Caucasus, 1990,” Cold War History, Jan 2002. (O)

  • Zoellick, Robert B. “Two Plus Four: The Lessons of German Unification.” National Interest, Fall 2000. (O)

  • Euronews. “Mikhail Gorbachev, former USSR President: “Perestroika won, but politically I lost,” interview, May 11, 2009. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Hutchings, Robert. American Diplomacy and the End of the Cold War. Princeton: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1997.

  • Rice, Condoleezza and Philip Zelikow. Germany Unified and Europe Transformed. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1997.

  • Genscher, Hans Dietrich. Rebuilding a House Divided. New York: Broadway, 1998.

WEEK 4: The End of Apartheid in South Africa
Tuesday, February 15
First Paper Assignment Due: Your November 10, 1989 Briefing Memorandum to Chancellor Helmut Kohl on the fall of the Berlin Wall and German Unification
Required Readings:

  • Nelson Mandela. A Long Walk to Freedom. London: Abacus, 1994. pp. 612-751

  • Seedat, Tony. Oliver Tambo Remembered. Johannesburg: Macmillan, 2007 pp. 191-197

  • Mufson, Steven. “South Africa 1990”. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 70, No. 1, America and the World 1990/91, pp. 120-141. (O)

  • Biko, Steve. “Black Consciousness and the Quest for a True Humanity.” I Write What I Like. London: Oxford, 1987. pp. 87-98. (O)

Thursday, February 17
Discussion with Jim Smith – An Eyewitness to the End of Apartheid

Required Readings:

  • Lyman, Princeton. Partner to History: The U.S. Role in South Africa’s Transition to Democracy by Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2002 pages, 23-43, 263-283

  • Venter, D. J. South Africa, Sanctions, and the Multinationals. Chichester: Carden, 1989 pages 33-44

  • Treverton, Gregory F. and Pamela Varle. 1992. “The United States and South Africa: The 1985 Sanctions Debate.” Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Klotz, Audie. Norms in International Relations: The Struggle Against Apartheid Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1995 pages 3-18

  • Sanctions Against Apartheid, edited by Mark Orkin. Cape Town: David Philip, 1990 chapters 9-13

  • Woods, Donald. Biko – Cry Freedom. New York: Henry Holt, 1987.

  • Tutu, Desmond. “Leadership.” Essays on Leadership. Washington DC: Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1998. (O)

WEEK 5: The First Gulf War, 1991: A Diplomatic Triumph
Tuesday, February 22
Mini Tutorial on the Military (Speaker TBD)
Required Readings:

  • Ferguson, Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire. pp 132-138.

  • Ross, Dennis. Statecraft, pp 73-99.

  • Haas, Richard N. War of Necessity, War of Choice: A Memoir of Two Iraq Wars, pp. 60-115.

Thursday, February 24
Required Readings:

  • Haas, Richard N. War of Necessity, War of Choice: A Memoir of Two Iraq Wars, pp. 116-153.

For Further Exploration:

  • Barkey, Henri J. “Hemmed in by Circumstances: Turkey and Iraq since the Gulf War,” Middle East Policy, Oct. 2000.

WEEK 6: Ending the Bosnian War: Diplomacy Prevails at the Dayton Peace Talks
Tuesday, March 1
Required Readings:

  • Ross, Dennis. Statecraft, pp 48-72

  • Holbrooke, Richard. To End a War. Pp. xv-xx, 21-33, 112-121, 199-214, 231-240, 288-327; 358-369.

For Further Exploration:

  • Daalder, Ivo H and Michael B.G. Froman. “Dayton’s Incomplete Peace,” Foreign Affairs, Nov-Dec 1999.

  • Halberstam, David. War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton and the Generals. New York: Scribner, 2001.

  • Sharp, Jane. “Dayton Report Card,” International Security, Winter 1997-1998.

  • Nation, R. Craig. “Russia and the Balkans,” Russian National Security: Perceptions, Policies, and Prospects, Dec. 2000.

Thursday, March 3
Required Readings:

  • HKS Case "Getting to Dayton: Negotiating an End to the War in Bosnia." C125-96-1356. (O)

  • Curran, Daniel F., James K. Sebenius, and Michael Watkins. "Two Paths to Peace: Contrasting George Mitchell in Northern Ireland with Richard Holbrooke in Bosnia-Herzegovina." Negotiation Journal 20, no. 4 (October 2004) (O)

WEEK 7: The Peru-Ecuador Dispute: A Latin American Diplomatic Breakthrough
Tuesday, March 8
Required Readings:

  • Simmons, Beth. “Territorial Disputes and Their Resolution: The Case of Ecuador and Peru.” Peaceworks No. 27. United States Institute of Peace, April 1999, pp 10-25.

  • Herz, Monica and Joao Pontes Nogueira. “Ecuador vs. Peru: Peacemaking Amid Rivalry.” International Peace Academy Occasional Paper Series. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002, pp 49-96.

  • Einaudi, Luigi. “The Ecuador-Peru Peace Process.” In Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World. Edited by Chester A. Crocker, Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2003, pp 405-430.

Thursday, March 10
Second memo due
Required Readings:

  • Downes, Richard and Gabriel Marcella eds. Security Cooperation in the Western Hemisphere: Resolving the Ecuador-Peru Conflict. Coral Gables, FL: North-South Center Press, 1999. [Read: Introduction, Chapter 6 “Brazilian Diplomacy”, Chapter 7 “Three Possible Scenarios”, pp 186-189 from Chapter 8 “Political-Military Coordination”, Chapter 9 “New Perspectives on Using Diplomacy”

  • Domínguez, Jorge I. et al. “Boundary Disputes in Latin America.” Peaceworks No. 50. United States Institute of Peace, August 2003.

  • Palmer, David Scott. “Peru-Ecuador border conflict: Missed opportunities, misplaced nationalism, and multilateral peacekeeping.” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, Fall 1997.

WEEK 8: March 12-20 Spring Break
WEEK 9: The U.S. Opening to India: A Diplomatic Breakthrough
Tuesday, March 22
Mini-Tutorial on Negotiations with Professor Burns
Required Readings:

  • Mohan, Raja. Crossing the Rubicon: The Shaping of India’s New Foreign Policy.” pp 57-115

  • Burns, R. Nicholas. "America's Strategic Opportunity with India: The New U.S.-India Partnership." Foreign Affairs. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2007, pp. 131-146. (O)

  • Kaplan, Robert. “Center Stage for the Twenty-first Century.” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2009. (O)

  • Fisher, Roger and William Ury. Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1983.

Thursday, March 24
Required Readings:

  • Armitage, Richard L; Burns, R. Nicholas and Richard Fontaine. “Natural Allies: A Blueprint for the Future of U.S.-India Relations,” CNAS, October 2010.

  • Fontaine, Richard. “Moving Ahead in Afghanistan: The U.S.-India-Pakistan Dynamic.” US-India Strategic Dialogue, The Aspen Strategy Group, 2010.(O)

  • Kaplan, Robert. Monsoon: The Indian Ocean and the Future of American Power. New York: Random House, 2010. pp 5 -17

For Further Exploration:

  • Riedel, Bruce. “American Diplomacy in 1999 Kargill Summit at Blair House,” Center for the Advanced Study of India, 2002.

  • Nayak, Polly and Michael Krepon. “U.S. Crisis Management in South Asia’s Twin Peaks Crisis.” Henry L. Stimson Center, September 2006.

  • Talbott, Strobe. Engaging India: Diplomacy, Democracy and the Bomb. Washington D.C: Brookings Institution Press, 2004.

  • Mohan, C.Raja. Impossible Allies: Nuclear India, the United States and the Global Order. New Delhi: India Research Press, 2006.

  • Cohen, Stephen P. “More than just the 123 Agreement: The Future of U.S.-India Relations.” Testimony before House Committee on Foreign Affairs - June 25, 2008.

  • Kux, Dennis. India and the United States: Estranged Democracies 1941-1991. University Press of the Pacific, 2002.

WEEK 10: The Iraq War 2003: The Breakdown of Diplomacy
Tuesday, March 29

Required Readings:

  • Ferguson, Niall. Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the American Empire, pp 149-166.

  • Haas, Richard N. War of Necessity, War of Choice: A Memoir of Two Iraq Wars, pp. 1-16, 202-266.

  • Fallows, James, "Blind into Baghdad", Atlantic Monthly, January/February 2004. (O)

  • Packer, George. “War after War,” The New Yorker, November 24, 2003. (O)

Thursday, March 31
Class discussion with Prof. Meghan O’Sullivan
Required Readings:

  • Haas, Richard N. War of Necessity, War of Choice: A Memoir of Two Iraq Wars, pp. 267-293.

  • Scowcroft, Brent. “Don’t attack Saddam,” Wall Street Journal, OP-ED. August 15, 2002. (O)

  • Cheney, Dick. Speech to Veterans of Foreign Wars, Nashville, August 27, 2002. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Ricks, Thomas. Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2003 to 2005. New York: Penguin Books, 2007.

  • Gordon, Michael R. and Gen. Bernard E. Trainor. Cobra II: The Inside Story of the Invasion and Occupation of Iraq. New York: Penguin Press, 2006.

  • Packer, George. The Assassins' Gate: America in Iraq. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.

  • Dobbins, James, "Who Lost Iraq?: Lessons from the Debacle,Foreign Affairs, New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2007.

WEEK 11: An Israeli-Palestinian Peace: A Diplomatic Possibility?
Tuesday, April 5
Mini-Tutorial by Course Assistant Laurel Rapp on Israeli and Palestinian Public Attitudes Towards Peace
Required Readings:

  • International Crisis Group Palestinian Strategy Report (April 10, 2010). (O)

  • Said, Edward. “The One State Solution,” The New York Times: January 19, 1999.

  • Ross, Dennis. Statecraft, pp 259-285.

  • Haass, Richard and Martin Indyk. “Beyond Iraq: A New U.S. Strategy for the Middle East,” Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb2009. (O)

  • Agha, Hussein & Malley, Robert.  "The Last Negotiation: How to End the Middle East Peace Process."  Foreign Affairs, May/June 2002 (O)

  • Kurtzer, Daniel C. and Scott B. Lasensky, Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace, (Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press 2008), "Making Peace among Arabs and Israelis", pp. 25-73.

Thursday, April 7
Required Readings:

  • Mead, Walter Russell. “Change They Can Believe In: To Make Israel Safe, Give Palestinians Their Due,” Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2009. (O)

  • Bröning, Michael.  “Hamas 2.0: The Islamic Resistance Movement Grows Up.”  Foreign Affairs, August 5, 2009. (O)

  • "Palestinian Refugees and the Politics of Peacemaking," International Crisis Group Report, February 5, 2004. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Haass, Richard and Martin Indyk. “Restoring the Balance: A Middle East Strategy for the Next President.” Saban Center-CFR Middle East Strategy Project, 2008.

  • Miller, Aaron. The Much Too Promised Land: America's Elusive Search for Arab-Israeli Peace. New York: Bantam Press, 2008.

  • Kurtzer, Daniel C. Negotiating Arab-Israeli Peace: American Leadership in the Middle East. Washington D.C: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2008.

  • Ross, Dennis. The Missing Peace: The Inside Story of the Fight for Middle East Peace. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.

Week 12: The Afghan War 2010: Is There A Diplomatic Solution?
Tuesday, April 12
Required Readings:

  • Barno, David and Andrew Exum. “Responsible Transition: Securing U.S. Interests in Afghanistan Beyond 2011.” CNAS, 2010.

  • Rashid, Ahmed, Descent Into Chaos, Chapter 17, The Taliban Offensive, pgs. 349-373.

  • Jones, Seth, In the Graveyard of Empires: America's War in Afghanistan, Chapters 6 & 7, Operation Enduring Freedom and A Light Footprint, pages 86-133.

  • Kaplan, Robert "Man versus Afghanistan".  The Atlantic, April 2010. (O)

  • Obama, Barack. “Statement by the President on the Afghanistan-Pakistan Annual Review” December 16, 2010. (O)

Thursday, April 14
Third memo due
Required Readings:

  • Rashid, Ahmed, “A Dangerous Void in Pakistan,” Epoch Times, March 18, 2009. (O).

  • Henry Kissinger, “A Strategy for Afghanistan,” The Washington Post. (O).

  • Coll, Steve. "Thinking about Afghanistan." The New Yorker, September 23, 2009. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Woodward, Bob. “Obama’s Wars.” Simon and Schuster, 2010.

  • Afghanistan Study Group Report, January 30, 2008, pages 7-25

  • The Afghan-Pakistan Conflict: US Strategic Options in Afghanistan, pages 1-16.

  • Dobbins, James. After the Taliban: Nation-Building in Afghanistan, Potomac Books, 2008.
  • Coll, Steve. Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.

  • Rubin, Barnett R. and Ahmed Rashid, "From Great Game to Great Bargain: Ending Chaos in Afghanistan and Pakistan", Foreign Affairs, New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2008, pp. 30-44.

  • Rubin, Barnett R. “Saving Afghanistan,” Foreign Affairs, Jan/Feb 2007.

WEEK 13: The Iranian Nuclear Crisis: Can Diplomacy Prevent War?
Tuesday, April 19
Mini-Tutorial on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle by former Course Assistant Matt Raifman
Required Readings:

  • Ross, Dennis. Statecraft, pp 286-318.

  • Nasr, Vali. “When the Shiites Rise.” Foreign Affairs, July/August 2006. (O)

  • Sadjadpour, Karim. “Iran: Is Productive Engagement Possible?” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, October 2008. (O)

  • Burns, R. Nicholas. “Obama’s Opportunity in Iran,” The Boston Globe: Opinion/Editorial, Oct 1 2009. (O)

  • Cohen, Eliot. “There are only two choices left on Iran,” The Wall Street Journal: Opinion/Editorial, September 27, 2009. (O)

Thursday, April 21
Required Readings:

  • Videotaped Remarks by President Obama in Celebration of Nowruz, transcript, March 20, 2009. (O) Video also available online

  • Speech by Iranian Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei in response to President Obama’s video, March 22, 2009. (O)

  • Remarks by President Obama on a New Beginning. Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, June 4, 2009. (O)

For Further Exploration:

  • Tekeyh, Ray. Guardians of the Revolution: Iran and the World in the Age of the Ayatollahs, Oxford University Press, 2009.

  • Nasr, Vali. The Shia Revival. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2007.

  • Pollack, Kenneth M. The Persian Puzzle: The Conflict Between Iran and America. New York: Random House, 2005.

  • Ganji, Akbar. “The Latter-Day Sultan.” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2008.

  • Podhoretz, Norman. “The Case for Bombing Iran.” Commentary Magazine, June 2007.

  • Perkovich, George. “Iran Says ‘No’—Now What?” Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Policy Brief No. 63 September 2008.

  • Limbert, John W. Negotiating with Iran: Wrestling the Ghosts of History. United States Institute of Peace, 2009.

WEEK 14:
Tuesday, April 26:The North Korea Nuclear Crisis

Readings TBD
Thursday, April 28: Central Lessons on Diplomacy’s use in the Modern World and review of course
April 30 – May 13: Thirty Minute Oral Final Exams for all Students to be scheduled

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