Prior to the development of the national nominating convention, Presidential candidates were chosen by



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1. B

Prior to the development of the national nominating convention, Presidential candidates were chosen by


  1. state legislatures.

  2. Congressional delegations.

  3. the incumbent President and Vice-President.

  4. local party caucuses.

  5. an informal meeting of electoral college delegates.

2. C

Great Britain justified her refusal to evacuate the military posts in the Northwest Territories, as she was obligated to do by the 1783 Treaty of Paris, on the grounds that


  1. the forts were necessary to the defense of Canada.

  2. Indian uprisings made the evacuation impossible.

  3. debts owed to the Loyalists had not been paid.

  4. Napoleon threatened to develop an empire in North America.

  5. Spain threatened to extend her claims along the Mississippi River.

3. E

Which of the following actions by the administration of President Washington most closely approaches what is usually termed "appeasement"?


  1. dismissal of Edmund Randolph

  2. proclamation of neutrality

  3. negotiation of the Pinckney Treaty

  4. delivery of the Farewell Address

  5. signing of the Jay Treaty

4. B

During both the Washington and Jefferson administrations, Western settlers' most urgent and consistent demand on the federal government was for the


  1. repeal of the whiskey tax.

  2. guarantee of a secure outlet to the sea for their produce.

  3. establishment of a national banking system.

  4. reduction in the tariff.

  5. removal of the Indians to reservations.

5. A

Whom did Lewis and Clark encounter as they traveled down the Missouri River on their return from the Pacific Coast?


  1. small parties of trappers venturing far upriver in search of furs.

  2. frontiersmen with their laden packhorses driving livestock westward.

  3. missionaries en route to Oregon to convert the Indians.

  4. Indians who were surprised to see white men.

  5. squatters and their families clearing patches for their crude cabins.

6. D

"...that every power vested in a government is in its nature sovereign, and includes, by force of the term, a right to employ all means requisite to the attainment of the ends of such power."

This statement is found in



  1. Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank, by Thomas Jefferson.

  2. John Adams' state of the union message of 1799.

  3. Letter, Thomas Jefferson to John Adams, 1823.

  4. Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank, by Alexander Hamilton.

  5. Patrick Henry, speech to the U.S. House of Representatives, 1800.

7. B

Which best accounts for the spirit of nationalism that was dominant in the United States between 1815 and 1824?


  1. Fear of European interference fostered harmony.

  2. Economic rivalry was temporarily in abeyance.

  3. The Federalist Party had replaced opposing factions.

  4. The concessions won in the Treaty of Ghent had stirred up nationalist emotions.

  5. The successful financing of the War of 1812 had developed cooperation among the states.

8. D

Which of the following did not reflect the spirit of nationalism that characterized the United States during the period 1816 to 1824?


  1. the McCulloch v. Maryland decision

  2. the Monroe Doctrine

  3. the tariff of 1816

  4. the Tallmadge Amendment

  5. the charter of the second Bank of the United States

9. A

Select the quotation that is most likely to be part of the decision handed down in McCulloch v. Maryland.


  1. "Let the ends be legitimate within the scope of the Constitution, and all means to those ends which are appropriate and not prohibited, are constitutional."

  2. "Each department of the government is truly independent of the others and has equal right to decide for itself the meaning of the Constitution."

  3. The authority therefore given to the Supreme Court to issue writs of mandamus to public officers appears not to be warranted by the Constitution."

  4. "The right of property in a slave is distinctly and expressly affirmed in the Constitution."

  5. "The claim of the police power would be a mere pretext, become another and delusive name for the supreme power of the state to be exercised free of constitutional restraint."

10. D

Which of the following Supreme Court case decisions expanded the contract clause of the Federal Constitution?


  1. Marbury v. Madison

  2. McCulloch v. Maryland

  3. Gibbons v. Ogden

  4. Dartmouth v. Woodward

  5. Wabash v. Illinois

11. B

The constitutionality of federal regulation of business and labor may be traced to


  1. Marbury v. Madison

  2. Gibbons v. Ogden

  3. Martin v. Hunter's Lesse

  4. Dartmouth v. Woodward

  5. Fletcher v. Peck

12. C

On which point was John Marshall's decision in Gibbons v. Ogden not clear cut?


  1. Commerce should be defined as traffic.

  2. Internal commerce was reserved to state regulation.

  3. Federal and state power over interstate commerce were concurrent.

  4. Enumerated powers of Congress should not be construed narrowly.

  5. Congress' power to regulate interstate commerce may be limited by the Constitution.

13. D

Which policy of the United States government is incorrectly paired with the constitutional interpretation by which it can be justified?


  1. Louisiana Purchase - loose interpretation

  2. creation of Federal District Courts - strict interpretation

  3. election of John Quincy Adams as President by the House of Representatives - strict interpretation

  4. creation of the Bank of the United States - strict interpretation

  5. sending the U.S. Marines against the Barbary Pirates - strict interpretation

14. E

Historians disagree on the major cause of the War of 1812. A state-by-state study of Congress' vote on the declaration of war would support as the chief cause


  1. Britain's practice of impressment.

  2. Britain's interference with American shipping on the high seas.

  3. Britain's refusal to repeal the Orders in Council.

  4. pro-French sentiment.

  5. the expansionist sentiments of the War Hawks.

15. E

The political purpose for proposing the Tariff of 1828 (the "Tariff of Abominations") was to


  1. take revenge on New England for the resolutions of the Hartford Convention.

  2. secure the support of the shipping interests of New England by depriving manufacturers of protection against imports.

  3. assure the Jacksonians of Southern support in the election of 1828.

  4. gain the favor of producers of such raw materials as hemp, wool, and flax.

  5. discrediting the administration of John Quincy Adams while presenting Jackson as both a protectionist and a supporter of free trade.

16. B

The significance of the decision in McCulloch v. Maryland is that it


  1. set forth the principle of judicial review.

  2. affirmed the doctrine of implied powers.

  3. established a precedent for reviewing previous court decisions.

  4. established the right of the Supreme Court to overturn previous court decisions.

  5. upheld the sanctity of private contracts.

17. B

When John Adams was nominated for President, he was selected as a candidate by


  1. the Federalist state governors.

  2. the Federalist members of Congress.

  3. a national convention of the Federalist Party.

  4. the national committee of the Federalist Party.

  5. the national committee chairman of the Federalist Party, Alexander Hamilton.

18. B

Of the following people, which would have been least likely to support the Federalist Party in 1800?


  1. Shipbuilders in Providence, R.I.

  2. Farmers in the Mohawk Valley.

  3. Boston coppersmiths.

  4. Philadelphia merchants.

  5. New Jersey shopkeepers.

19. B

Which of the following contributed least to the decline of the Federalist Party?


  1. Its policy of neutrality in the European war.

  2. Its opposition to the extension of suffrage.

  3. Dissention within the party itself.

  4. Taxation unwelcome in certain areas of the country.

  5. The passage of laws infringing upon civil liberties.

20. A

"By the end of 1816 the adoption of Federalist principles by the Jeffersonian Republicans was so complete that there was no longer any need for the Federalist Party to exist."

Which Republican policy best illustrates this view?



  1. increasing the ad valorem duties on certain goods

  2. making internal improvements at federal expense

  3. removing the Indians to reservations

  4. granting pre-emption rights to squatters on western lands

  5. approving the demilitarization of the Great Lakes

21. E

The major reason that Napoleon decided to sell Louisiana to the united States was that he


  1. wished to enlist the United States as an ally in his planned war against Great Britain.

  2. wished to placate the United States because of its loss of the right of deposit in New Orleans.

  3. hoped to encourage a maritime rivalry between the United States and Great Britain.

  4. expected that the addition of western territory would lead eventually to a division of the United States

  5. feared that after losing control of Santo Domingo, Louisiana would a purposeless, expensive hostage to British attack

22. C

Which of the following residues of the Revolutionary War was not repudiated subsequently?


  1. the treaty of alliance with France

  2. continental currency

  3. the foreign debt

  4. promises of compensation to loyalists

  5. the privilege of British subjects to recover prewar debts

23. D

Evidence of a division of interests in the United States during the War of 1812 was shown by the


  1. objections of the agrarian faction to a war they feared would benefit only the mercantile interests.

  2. a Southern-Western coalition attempting at the last minute to restrain Eastern war fever.

  3. charges that the was declaration was prompted by owners of infant industries for protectionist purposes.

  4. lack of enthusiasm for the war in New England.

  5. unsuccessful bid of the Federalists to return to power on a pro-war platform in the 1812 election.

24. E

The United States declared war on Britain and not France in 1812 for all the following reasons except


  1. the British were our more vulnerable foes.

  2. the French had promised to respect our neutral rights.

  3. desire still existed in the United States for the acquisition of Canada.

  4. Britain had still not fulfilled all her obligations under the 1783 Treaty of Paris.

  5. the British government had repealed the Orders in Council.

25. A

The problems which impelled the United States into war in 1812 were removed by the


  1. end of war in Europe.

  2. issuance of the Monroe Doctrine.

  3. Treaty of Ghent.

  4. Rush-Bagot Agreement.

  5. Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle.

26. A

One immediate effect of the end of the War of 1812 was the


  1. temporary reduction in sectionalist tension.

  2. exclusion of New Englanders from important posts in the Federal government.

  3. growth of demands in the West for internal improvements as the price of their remaining in the Union.

  4. recognition by the Supreme Court that equality before the law was an essential element of federalism.

  5. passage of constitutional limitations of the war making powers of the President.

27. A

The willingness of the Madison administration to return to certain policies of the Hamilton (in particular the chartering of the second Bank of the United States) was caused by the


  1. financial difficulties attendant upon the War of 1812.

  2. emergence of a powerful merchant class.

  3. decrease in revenue from the sale of public land.

  4. increase in cotton cultivation in the South.

  5. panic of 1819.

28. A

The first bank of the United States was most satisfactory to the advocates of


  1. private control of banking.

  2. a decentralized banking system.

  3. government control of banking.

  4. government ownership of banking.

  5. a policy of laissez faire regarding banking.

29. A

Base your answer to the question on the following passages and your knowledge of American history.

“It required no very profound economic insight to grasp the import of Hamilton’s program: holders of the old debt would simply exchange their old paper for new at face value, with the new bonds backed by a government with taxing power adequate to the guarantee of interest payments. The prime public securities now being issued would pass as money from hand to hand, thus augmenting the fluid capital of the country while stimulating commerce and industry. If government bonds failed to realize the expected capital expansion, notes issued by the bank would supply the deficiency. So American enterprise would be supplied with currency and credit while at the same time being protected against foreign competition by favorable commercial legislation. On the one hand, those who stood to benefit from the new system were delighted, while on the other, mere owners of land and consumers of goods believed that they would be compelled to pay for this new venture without gaining anything from it.”

The words "commercial legislation" as used by the author of this paragraph refer specifically to


  1. a protective tariff.

  2. a national bank.

  3. assumption of state debts.

  4. an increase in credit and currency.

  5. subsidies to agriculture.

30. B

Base your answer to the question on the following passages and your knowledge of American history.

“It required no very profound economic insight to grasp the import of Hamilton’s program: holders of the old debt would simply exchange their old paper for new at face value, with the new bonds backed by a government with taxing power adequate to the guarantee of interest payments. The prime public securities now being issued would pass as money from hand to hand, thus augmenting the fluid capital of the country while stimulating commerce and industry. If government bonds failed to realize the expected capital expansion, notes issued by the bank would supply the deficiency. So American enterprise would be supplied with currency and credit while at the same time being protected against foreign competition by favorable commercial legislation. On the one hand, those who stood to benefit from the new system were delighted, while on the other, mere owners of land and consumers of goods believed that they would be compelled to pay for this new venture without gaining anything from it.”

The economic approach employed by Hamilton to refinance the government's past financial obligations is called


  1. amortization.

  2. funding the debt.

  3. deficit financing.

  4. progressive taxation.

  5. issuance of fiat currency.

31. E

Base your answer to the question on the following passages and your knowledge of American history.

“It required no very profound economic insight to grasp the import of Hamilton’s program: holders of the old debt would simply exchange their old paper for new at face value, with the new bonds backed by a government with taxing power adequate to the guarantee of interest payments. The prime public securities now being issued would pass as money from hand to hand, thus augmenting the fluid capital of the country while stimulating commerce and industry. If government bonds failed to realize the expected capital expansion, notes issued by the bank would supply the deficiency. So American enterprise would be supplied with currency and credit while at the same time being protected against foreign competition by favorable commercial legislation. On the one hand, those who stood to benefit from the new system were delighted, while on the other, mere owners of land and consumers of goods believed that they would be compelled to pay for this new venture without gaining anything from it.”

The program of Alexander Hamilton as explained by the paragraph would most likely have the greatest appeal to


  1. a debtor in Massachusetts.

  2. a bank clerk in New York.

  3. a landowner in Virginia.

  4. an apprentice in Boston.

  5. a mortgage holder in Philadelphia.

32. C

Base your answer to the question on the following passages and your knowledge of American history.

“It required no very profound economic insight to grasp the import of Hamilton’s program: holders of the old debt would simply exchange their old paper for new at face value, with the new bonds backed by a government with taxing power adequate to the guarantee of interest payments. The prime public securities now being issued would pass as money from hand to hand, thus augmenting the fluid capital of the country while stimulating commerce and industry. If government bonds failed to realize the expected capital expansion, notes issued by the bank would supply the deficiency. So American enterprise would be supplied with currency and credit while at the same time being protected against foreign competition by favorable commercial legislation. On the one hand, those who stood to benefit from the new system were delighted, while on the other, mere owners of land and consumers of goods believed that they would be compelled to pay for this new venture without gaining anything from it.”

According to the author, the Hamilton program was designed to


  1. increase consumer purchasing power.

  2. encourage business by lowering taxes.

  3. provide for the expansion of credit and money.

  4. provide relief for those suffering financial distress.

  5. maintain a high level of prices by increasing the money supply.

33. D

Base your answer to the question on the following passages and your knowledge of American history.

“It required no very profound economic insight to grasp the import of Hamilton’s program: holders of the old debt would simply exchange their old paper for new at face value, with the new bonds backed by a government with taxing power adequate to the guarantee of interest payments. The prime public securities now being issued would pass as money from hand to hand, thus augmenting the fluid capital of the country while stimulating commerce and industry. If government bonds failed to realize the expected capital expansion, notes issued by the bank would supply the deficiency. So American enterprise would be supplied with currency and credit while at the same time being protected against foreign competition by favorable commercial legislation. On the one hand, those who stood to benefit from the new system were delighted, while on the other, mere owners of land and consumers of goods believed that they would be compelled to pay for this new venture without gaining anything from it.”

In general one can say that the author of the paragraph considers Hamilton's program to be


  1. desirable, because it provided for the purchase of state bonds at market price.

  2. undesirable, because it did not follow the benefit theory of government.

  3. undesirable, because it was not understood by the average citizen.

  4. both desirable and undesirable, because it did not benefit all economic groups equally.

  5. both desirable and undesirable because though some parts of the plan were constitutional, others were not.

34. B

Base your answer to the question on the following passages and your knowledge of American history.

“It required no very profound economic insight to grasp the import of Hamilton’s program: holders of the old debt would simply exchange their old paper for new at face value, with the new bonds backed by a government with taxing power adequate to the guarantee of interest payments. The prime public securities now being issued would pass as money from hand to hand, thus augmenting the fluid capital of the country while stimulating commerce and industry. If government bonds failed to realize the expected capital expansion, notes issued by the bank would supply the deficiency. So American enterprise would be supplied with currency and credit while at the same time being protected against foreign competition by favorable commercial legislation. On the one hand, those who stood to benefit from the new system were delighted, while on the other, mere owners of land and consumers of goods believed that they would be compelled to pay for this new venture without gaining anything from it.”

The term "Hamiltonian program" refers to


  1. the refinancing of the debt during a critical period.

  2. a set of proposals submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Treasury.

  3. a reorganization of finances at the Constitutional Convention.

  4. the exchange of continental dollars for new currency at face value.

  5. the assumption of all state and national debt by the new Federal government.

35. D

Base your answer to the question on the following passages and your knowledge of American history.

“It required no very profound economic insight to grasp the import of Hamilton’s program: holders of the old debt would simply exchange their old paper for new at face value, with the new bonds backed by a government with taxing power adequate to the guarantee of interest payments. The prime public securities now being issued would pass as money from hand to hand, thus augmenting the fluid capital of the country while stimulating commerce and industry. If government bonds failed to realize the expected capital expansion, notes issued by the bank would supply the deficiency. So American enterprise would be supplied with currency and credit while at the same time being protected against foreign competition by favorable commercial legislation. On the one hand, those who stood to benefit from the new system were delighted, while on the other, mere owners of land and consumers of goods believed that they would be compelled to pay for this new venture without gaining anything from it.”

The Hamiltonian program as described in the paragraph was most vulnerable to criticism in respect to the


  1. use of import duties to raise money.

  2. establishment of a sinking fund to repay the debt.

  3. sales of government bonds above par in Europe.

  4. creation of fortunes by speculators in government bonds.

  5. rapid subscription of the stock in the national bank.

36. D



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An unauthorized military action undertaken by General Andrew Jackson, coupled with astute diplomacy on the part of Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, resulted in American acquisition of the territory labeled



  1. B

  2. C

  3. E

  4. F

  5. H

37. B



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The greatest achievement of Thomas Jefferson's first administration in some opinions was the acquisition of the territory labeled



  1. A

  2. B

  3. C

  4. D

  5. E

38. A



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The data on the graph for the years 1790 to 1800 reflect



  1. the overall success of the Hamilton financial program.

  2. the reasons for the decline of the Federalist Party.

  3. the economic reforms of the Adams administration.

  4. the rapid growth of American industry.

  5. the rise of the cotton economy in the South.

39. C



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The data on the graph for the years from 1805 to 1810 reflect the effects of



  1. Macon's Bill # 2.

  2. the Non-Intercourse Act.

  3. the Embargo Act.

  4. the Undeclared Naval War (Quasi-War) with France.

  5. the U.S. need for the right of deposit in New Orleans.

40. B



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The data on the chart for the years 1810 to 1815 provide an explanation for the



  1. Treaty of Ghent.

  2. Hartford Convention.

  3. Flushing Remonstrance.

  4. Rush-Bagot Agreement.

  5. Connecticut and Vermont Resolutions.

41. B



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The cartoon is making reference to the



  1. Non-Intercourse Act.

  2. Embargo Act.

  3. Non-Importation Act.

  4. Macon's Bill # 2.

  5. Alien and Sedition Acts.

42. D



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In this 1808 cartoon about the Embargo Act of 1807, the cartoonist is making reference to all of the following features of his contemporary situation except



  1. the idea of economic response to military action.

  2. American dependence upon trade with Britain.

  3. the impact of the law on both land and sea.

  4. the widespread smuggling which resulted from the law.

  5. the responsibility of Jefferson for the adverse effects of the law.

43. E



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The cartoon refers to a situation which caused distress to members of the



  1. Republican Party.

  2. National Republican Party.

  3. Whig Party.

  4. Free-Soil Party.

  5. Federalist Party.

44. B



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The situation to which the cartoon makes reference was ended by the passage of the



  1. Non-Importation Act of 1806.

  2. Non-Intercourse Act of 1809.

  3. Macon's Bill # 2 of 1810.

  4. Orders in Council of 1807.

  5. Treaty of Ghent in 1814.

45. D



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This cartoon is a piece of campaign literature from an American election. In which year was this picture probably published?



  1. 1800

  2. 1808

  3. 1812

  4. 1816

  5. 1820

46. C



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The "Hartford Convention Candidate" is portrayed as a devil because it was at the Convention that the first serious mention was made of



  1. nullification.

  2. interposition.

  3. secession.

  4. segregration.

  5. manifest destiny.

47. E



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The candidate who stood for "The People's Rights" in 1816 was



  1. Rufus King.

  2. Elbridge Gerry.

  3. Aaron Burr.

  4. John Quincy Adams.

  5. James Monroe.

48. D

The 1840 campaign slogan, "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" referred to General William Henry Harrison's victory at the Battle of Tippecanoe over the forces of


  1. Pontiac.

  2. Chief Joseph.

  3. Chingachook.

  4. Tecumseh.

  5. Wovoka.

49. B

Before the 1820's, most farmers in the Ohio Valley sent their products to eastern markets by way of the


  1. Great Lakes.

  2. Cumberland Road.

  3. Erie Canal.

  4. Mississippi River.

  5. St. Lawrence River.

50. A

The Embargo Act and the Non-Intercourse Act were illustrations of the


  1. desire of the United States to isolate itself from European affairs.

  2. success on the part of the United States in gaining recognition of our neutral rights.

  3. temporary submergence of sectionalism as a domestic political issue.

  4. overwhelming popular support enjoyed by the Jefferson administration.

  5. inability of the Republicans fully to distance themselves from the policies of their predecessors, the Federalists.

51. B

The XYZ Affair demonstrated that


  1. the American people would not tolerate a French seizure of Louisiana.

  2. the American people were developing a sense of national pride.

  3. the Federal government was pursuing a course of aggression.

  4. the United States was still bound by the 1778 French Alliance.

  5. the policies of the Federalists were leading to war.

52. C

Which of the following would be the most reliable source of information on the attitude of the Federalist Party to the Louisiana Purchase?


  1. Thomas Jefferson's diary

  2. The issues of the Congressional Record including the debates on the treaty

  3. Editorials in Federalist newspapers, especially the New York Post.

  4. The Journals of Lewis and Clark

  5. Alexander Hamilton's diary

53. D

President Washington established a cabinet, even though the Constitution made no provision for one, in order to


  1. help him execute the laws made by Congress.

  2. imitate the British cabinet system.

  3. carry out his obligations under the 10th Amendment.

  4. obtain the advice and assistance of people in whom he had confidence.

  5. make certain that a line of succession to the presidency be established.

54. D

Which of the following events occurred during the period from 1815 to 1825?


  1. The United States annexed Texas.

  2. Andrew Jackson wad elected president.

  3. Lewis and Clark explored the Louisiana Territory.

  4. The United States acquired Florida.

  5. The charter of the Second Bank of the United States expired.

55. D

The election of 1800 is highly significant in American history because


  1. it led to rioting in frontier settlements.

  2. basic financial policies of the previous administration were soon to be repealed.

  3. the power of properties individuals was ended.

  4. power was transferred peacefully from one political party to another.

  5. the incoming party was sympathetic to agrarian concerns more than commercial concerns.

56. A

A major foreign policy objective during the Washington administration was the


  1. settlement of disputes with foreign powers through peaceful negotiations.

  2. acquisition of further territory to the west.

  3. prevention of any further colonization in the western hemisphere.

  4. development of a colonial empire as a market for our manufactured goods.

  5. the acquisition of New Orleans and Cuba.

57. D

Which of the following contributed to making the Federalist Party a minority party?


  1. Hamilton's financial program

  2. The Proclamation of Neutrality

  3. The Pinckney Treaty

  4. The Alien and Sedition Acts

  5. The Jay Treaty

58. A

Under the leadership of Chief Justice John Marshall, the Supreme Court succeeded in


  1. establishing the principle of judicial review.

  2. weakening the power of the cabinet.

  3. increasing the membership of the House of Representatives.

  4. obstructing the treaty powers of the Senate as it related to the American Indians.

  5. compelling the President to enforce court orders.

59. D

The suppression of the Whiskey Rebellion was important because the suppression


  1. was the first conflict between North and South.

  2. illustrated the power of state governments to nullify Federal laws.

  3. violated the principle of "no taxation without representation."

  4. demonstrated the power of the Federal government.

  5. was the first application of the elastic clause.

60. D

The primary purpose of Hamilton's financial plan was to


  1. win support from Western farmers for the Federalist Party.

  2. achieve a compromise with Jefferson over the issue of deficit spending.

  3. eliminate the necessity of issuing bonds.

  4. establish the credit of the United States by paying the debts.

  5. create a national banking system which could control the money supply.

61. B

The Alien and Sedition Acts were related to the problem of


  1. military alliance in a time of crisis.

  2. treasonable activities in the United States.

  3. the education of European immigrants.

  4. the employment of aliens in wartime industries.

  5. relocation of enemy aliens to camps in the interior of the country.

62. B

The tariff policies of President John Quincy Adams was opposed by the Southern states because they felt that


  1. the tariff did not apply to enough agricultural products.

  2. they would be paying to support the economic development of the North.

  3. the tariff would discourage immigrant labor.

  4. the policy did not protect southern industry.

  5. a higher rate would be needed to effect adequate protection.

63. C

The Republicans objected to the appointment of the "midnight judges" by President John Adams because he


  1. had legally completed his term of office.

  2. acted against the advice of his own cabinet.

  3. tried to maintain Federalist control of the judiciary.

  4. appointed Northerners to serve in Southern courts.

  5. appointed Southerners to serve in Northern courts.

64. E



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The illustration refers to a practice which first occurred



  1. New York in 1801.

  2. Pennsylvania in 1809.

  3. Virginia and New Jersey, both in 1810.

  4. Georgia in 1812.

  5. Massachusetts in 1812.

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