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Government Archives.
Governments that had a relationship with the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th century and early 20th century such as Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany and the United States, have extensive archives consisting of official and unofficial reports(consular, church, organizational, individual), various types of correspondence, eyewitness accounts, etc. about goings on in the Empire, particularly as relating to the massacres and forced deportations of the Armenians from the Eastern Provinces (historic Armenia) and elsewhere in Turkey (1915-1923). Parts of such archives have been published either in the form of microfilms, photoreproductions , or as published books.
Österreich-Armenien 1872-1936: Faksimilesammlung diplomatischer Aktenstücke / herausgegeben und eingeleitet on Artem Ohandjania. 3. auf. Wien : Ohandjanian, 1995. 12 v. .
France. Ministère des affaires étrangères.

Archives diplomatiques. Série A, Guerre, 1914-1918—Turquie. Microfilm. Paris : Service international de microfilms, 1981?- <3> microfilm reels.

France. Ministère des affaires étrangères.

Archives diplomatiques. Série E, Levant, pt. 1 [1918-1929- Arménie. Microfilm. Paris : Service international de microfilms, 1982- . 24 vols. in <13> microfilm reels.

France. Ministère des affaires étrangères.

Archives diplomatiques. Série E, Levant, 1918-1940—Syrie-Liban. Microfilm. Paris: Service international de microfilms, [1982?- <5> microfilm reels.

Armianskii vopros I genotsid Armian v Turtsii, 1913-1919; materialy Politicheskogo arkhiva Ministerstva inostrannykh dei Kaizerovskoi Germanii: sbornik / sostavitel, otvetstvennyi redactor, avtor predisloviia, vvedeniia I primechanii Vardges Mikaelian. Erevan : Izd-vo “Gitutiun” NAN RA, 1995. (Imperial German sources). 642 p.

Great Britain. Foreign Office.

Foreign Office archives. FO 96 [Miscellanea, Series II, vols. 205-12 Turkish atrocities

in Armenia, 1915-1917. Microfilm]. London : Public Record Office, 1986. 8 vols. in 5 microfilm reels.

Great Britain. Foreign Office.

Foreign Office archives. FO 371 [Correspondence concerning Armenia and Armenians, 1918-1922. Microfilm] London : Public Record Office, 1971?-<1984> 13 vols. in 9 microfilm reels.

United States. Dept. of State.

Records of the Department of State relating to internal affairs of Armenia, 1910-1929. Washington :The National Archives, National Archives and Records Service, 1975. (National Archives microfilm publications; microcopy no. T1192). 8 microfilm reels.

United States. National Archives and Records Service.

“Inquiry documents”: special reports and studies, 1917-1919. Washington : The National Archives and Records Service, 1980. (National Archives microfilm publications, microcopy no. M1107). 47 microfilm reels.

The Armenian genocide in the U.S. Archives, 1915-1918. Alexandria, Va. : Chadwyck-Healey, 1991. 396 microfiches 11 x 15 cm. Accompanied by printed guide, compiled and edited by Rouben Paul Adalian, entitled: Guide to The Armenian genocide in the U.S. Archives, 1915-1918. xii, 476 p.
United States Official Documents on the Armenian genocide / compiled and introduced by Ara Sarafian. Watertown, Mass. : Armenian Review, 1993-<1996> So far 3 vols. published.

Oral Histories
Oral histories of Armenian genocide survivors, especially of those that escaped into the Caucasus, exist in various archives. The conscious effort of collecting oral histories, especially in the West, started late. It seems to have its beginnings in the 1970s and the first person that comes to mind is UCLA’s Armenian history professor Richard Hovannisian who initiated the course Armenian Oral History and had his students interview and record the testimonies of survivors. Some 800 oral histories have been recorded and at the present time they are being digitally copied. The collection is in Prof. Hovannisian’s possession.
There are other organizations and institutions and individuals that have also collected oral histories in California and the East Coast, especially in Massachusetts and Washington D.C. Some oral histories have been published:

  • Miller, Donald E. & Lorna Touryan Miller. Survivors: an oral history of the Armenian genocide. Berkeley : University of California Prress, 1993.

  • Svazlian, Verzhine. Hayots’ ts’eghaspanut’yun : akanates veraprogheri vkayutyunner (The Armenian genocide: eyewitness accounts of survivors). Erevan : HH GAA “Gitut’yun” Hratarakch’ut’yun, 2000. Summaries in English, French and Russian.

Personal Narratives
There are hundreds of published personal narratives by survivors in Armenian, English, French, etc. In libraries, these can be looked up under “Armenian massacres, 1915-1923 – Personal narratives”. Here are some examples in English:

  • Avakian, Asdghig. A Stranger among friends: an Armenian nurse from Lebanon tells her story. Beirut, 1960.

  • Aved, Thomas G. Toomas, the little Armenian boy: childhood reminiscence of Turkish-Armenia. Fresno : Pioneer Pub., 1979.

  • Baronian, Haig. Barefoot boy from Anatolia. Los Angeles : Abril Printing, 1983.

  • Bedoukian, Kerop. The urchin : an Armenian’s escape. London : J. Murray, 1978.

  • Davidson, Khoren K. Odyssey of an Armenian of Zeitun. New York : Vantage Press, 1985.

  • Hartunian, Abraham H. Neither to laugh nor to weep: a memoir of the Armenian genocide. (translated into English from the original Armenian manuscripts). Boston : Beacon Press, [1968].

  • Highgas, Dirouhi Kouymjian. Refugee girl. Watertown, Mass. : Baikar Pubs., 1985.

  • Jernazian, Ephraim K. Judgment unto truth: witnessing the Armenian genocide. (translated from the Armenian) . New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Pubs., 1990.

  • Kerr, Stanley. The lions of Marash : personal experiences with American Near East Relief, 1919-1922. Albany : State Univ. of New York Press, 1973.

  • Ketchian, Bertha Nakshian. In the shadow of the fortress: the genocide remembered. Cambridge, Mass. : Zoryan Institute, 1988.

  • Mardiganian, Aurora. The auction of souls: the story of Aurora Mardiganian, the Christian girl who survived the great massacres / interpreted by H.L. Gates. (formerly printed in America … as Ravished Armenia. Also made into a film in 1918). London : Phoenix Press, [193-].

  • Minassian, John. Many hills yet to climb: the memoirs o an Armenian deportee. Santa Barbara, Calif. : J. Cook, 1986.

  • Papazian, Suren A. Odyssey of a survivor (translated from the Armenian). Prince Frederick, Md. : Jensen Press, 2002.

  • Shipley, Alice Muggerditchian. We walked, then ran. Phoenix, Ariz. : A. M. Shipley, 1983.

  • Taft, Elise Hagopian. Rebirth: the story of an Armenian girl who survived the genocide and found rebirth in America. Plandome, N.Y. : New Age Publishers, 1981.

Eyewitness Accounts
This type of account is also plentiful and usually takes the form of telegrams, letters, reports. The witnesses are either Armenians that have escaped slaughter, or foreigners such as journalists, doctors, nurses, teachers, clergymen, missionaries, officials representing western governments or western organizations in Turkey, travelers, etc. Their testimonies may be housed in various government archives, in personal archives located in various libraries (such as LC), or church and organizational archives such as the Near East Relief archives, the Patriarchate of Jerusalem archives, the Armenian National Delegation archive (now housed in the State Historical Archive of Armenia in Erevan). . Many such materials have been collected and published. Many eyewitnesses have also published their own memoirs. Some examples of published works:

  • Toynbee, Arnold and James Bryce. The treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916: documents presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon, Secretary of State for Foreig Affairs, by Viscount Bryce. With a preface by Viscount Bryce. London : H.M. Stationery Office, 1916.

  • Lepsius, Johannes. Bericht über die Lage des Armenischen Volkes in der Türkei (Secret report of Dr. Johannes Lepsius, President of the German Near East Mission). Potsdam : Tempelverlag, 1916. (French translation 1918, Armenian translation 1919).

  • Atkinson, Tacy. The German, the Turk and the devil made a triple alliance: Harpoot diaries, 1908-1917. Princeton : Gomidas Institute, 2000. Atkinson was from Nebraska who lived in Harput at the time.

  • Barby, Henry. Au pays de l’épouvante: l’Arménie martyre (In the land of terror: martyred Armenia). Paris : A.Michel, 1917 (repr. 1965, 1972). Armenian version 1919 and 1965.

  • Jacobsen, Maria. Diaries of a Danish missionary : Harpoot, 1907-1919. Translated by Kristen Vind. Princeton : Gomidas Institute, 2001.

  • Knapp, Grace Higley. The tragedy of Bitlis / by Grace H. Knapp; being mainly the narratives of Grisell M. McLaren and Myrtle O. Shane. New York ; Chicago : Fleming H. Revell co., [1919]

  • Morgenthau, Henry. Ambassador Morgenthau’s story. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, 1918. Morgenthau was the American Ambassador to Turkey during the genocide years. His memoirs have gone through several editions and many translations.

  • Morley, Bertha B. Marsovan 1915 : diaries of Bertha B. Morley / edited by Hilmar Kaiser. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Gomidas Institute, 2000. Morley was an American missionary in Marsovan.

  • Niepage, Martin. The horrors of Aleppo, seen by a German eyewitness: a word to Germany’s accredited representatives by Dr. Martin Niepage, higher grade teacher in the German Technical School in Aleppo. London : Fisher Unwin, 1916. (Also 1917, 1918 and 1975). Mentions photographs taken by German Consul Hoffman (Consul of Alexandretta, representing Consul of Aleppo at the time of the writing of the report).

  • Riggs, Henry H. Days of tragedy in Armenia: personal experiences in Harpoot, 1915-1917. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Gomidas Institute, 1997.

  • Stuermer, Harry. Zwei Kriegsjahre in Konstantinopel; skizzen deutsch-jungtürkischen moral und politik (Two war years in Constantinople; sketches of German and Young Turkish ethics and politics). Stuermer was a correspondent of the German Kölner-Gazette. Lausanne : Payot, 1917. English and French translations in same year.

  • Turkish atrocities : statements of American missionaries on the destruction of Christian communities in Ottoman Turkey, 1915-1917 / compiled by James L. Barton. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Gomidas Institute, 1998. (Personal archive of an eyewitness published by the Gomidas Institute).

The Contemporary International Press

  • Kloian, Richard Diran.(comp.) The Armenian genocide, first 20th century holocaust; 65th anniversary memorial 1915-1980. Fresno: United Armenian Commemorative Committee, 1981, c1980. On cover: “The events in Turkish Armenia (1914-1916) as reported in The New York Times, and various periodicals of the time… with selected entries to 1922.”

  • Le Génocide arménien dans la presse canadienne = The Armenian genocide in the Canadian press, prepared by A.R.F. Youth Organization of Canada. Montreal : A.N.C. of Canada, 1985- Vol. 1: 1915-1916.

  • The Armenian genocide reported in the Australian press / compiled by the Armenian National Committee, Australia. Sydney, Australia : The Armenian National Committee, 1983.

Official/Government Documents
To this category belong numerous types of official records such as telegrams, letters, orders, memoirs, minutes, communications, speeches, announcements, notes etc. among administrative members of a government, ambassadors, consuls and other types of government officials. In this group also belong various types of communications between two or more governments including notes, agreements, treaties, etc. Thousands of such documents exist in various government archives. Numerous such documents are available either in microform or printed form. Some examples:

  • Davis, Leslie A. The slaughterhouse province : an American diplomat’s report on the Armenian genocide, 1915-1917. Edited with an introd. By Susan K. Blair. New Rochell, N.Y. : A.D. Caratzas, Orpheus Pub., 1989. Davis was the American Consul in Harput at the time.́́

  • Lepsius, Johannes. Archives du génocide des Arméniens, 1914-1918 : recueil de documents diplomatiques allemands, extraits de Dueutschland und Armenien (1914-1918). / traduit de l’allemand par Marie-France Letenoux. [Paris] : Fayard, 1986.

  • Armenian Church. Catholicos of Ciliica, 1902-1939 (Sahak II). Kilikean kskitsner, 1903-1915 ; Vaweragrer Kilikioy Kat’oghikosakan Diwanēn. Pēyrut’ : Tp. “Hrazdan”, 1927 Official correspondence of Sahak II Catholicos of Cilicia.

  • Dadrian, Vahakn N.. Documentation of the Armenian genocide in German and Austrian sources. New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Publishers, 1994.

  • Genotsid armian v Osmanskoi imperii :sbornik dokumentov i materialov (The Armenian genocide in the Ottoman Empire: collection of documents) / pod red. M.G. Nersisiana ; [sosstavitel M.G. Nersisian, R.G. Saakian. Erevan : Izd-vo AN Armianskoi SSR, 1966. Official documents as well as eyewitness accounts, letters, etc. in Russian or translated into Russian from Turkish, German, French, English, Greek, etc.

  • Germanskie istochniki o genotside armian : period pervoi mirovoi voiny : sbornik dokumentov i materialov v 2-kh tomakh (German sources on the Armenian genocide, WWI period: collection of docs. In 2 vols.) Erevan : “Aiastan”, 1991- .

  • Les Grandes puissances, l’empire ottoman et les Arméniens dans les archives françaises (1914-1918) : documents réunis et présentés par Arthur Beylerian. Paris : Université de Paris 1—Panthéon-Sorbonne, 1983.

  • Kirakosian, J. (Jon), ed. Hayastane mijazgayin divanagiut’ean ev Sovetakan artak’in k’aghak’akanut’yan p’astat’ght’erum, 1828-1923. (Documents on Armenia in international diplomacy and Soviet foreign policy, 1828-1923). Erevan “Hayastan”, 1972. Includes important documents in Armenian or translations into Armenian.

Other Official Documents, Records

(Minutes of court trials, e.g.)

  • The Armenian genocide and the trials of the Young Turks / Vartkes Yeghiayan. La Verne, Calif. : American Armenian International College, 1990. “Based on the Armenian translations by A.H. Papazian of the records and resolutions of the proceedings of the trials in Instanbul, 1919-1920, of members of the Young Turk government leaders and officials connected with the massacres and deportations of Armenians, that were published in part in the supplements of “Takvim-I vekayi”.

  • T’ēhlirian, Soghomon. The case of Soghomon Tehlirian (translation of Prozess Talaat Pascha by Vartkes Yeghiayan). Cambridge : Mass. : A.R.F. Gomideh, 1985. Minutes of the trial of S. Tehlirian who assassinated one of the genocide perpetrators.

Local Histories by Armenian Compatriotic Unions

Documents of Armenian Organizations.

Interviews Between Official Figures.

Photographs, Songs, Prison Inscriptions, etc.
There are numerous studies of the Armenian genocide and in many languages. The most notable of those writing in the English language are Prof. Richard Hovannisian of UCLA and Prof. Vahakn Dadrian of the Zoryan Institute (Boston and Toronto). Some important titles:

  • Hovannisian, Richard G. ed. The Armenian genocide in perspective. New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction Books, 1986.

  • ------------------. Ed. The Armenian genocide : history, politics, ethics. New York : St. Martin’s Press, 1992. Conference papers.

  • ____________, Ed. Looking backward, moving forward : confronting the Armenian genocide. New Brunswick, N.J. : Transaction publishers, 2003.

  • Dadrian, Vahakn N. The history of the Armenian genocide : ethnic conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus. New York ; Oxford : Berghahn Books, 2003.

  • _________________. German responsibility in the Armenian genocide : a review of the historical evidence of German complicity. Watertown, Mass. : Blue Crane Books, 1996.

  • Akçam, Taner. Dialogue across an international divide: essays towards a Turkish-Armenian dialogue. Cambridge, Mass. ; Toronto : Zoryan Institute, 2001.

  • ______________. From empire to republic : Turkish nationalism and the Armenian genocide. London ; N.Y. : Zed Books, 2004.

  • Balakian, Peter. Black dog of fate : a memoir. New York : Broadway books, 1998.

  • ______________. The burning Tigris : the Armenian genocide and America’s response.. New York : Harper Collins, 2003.

  • Boyajian, Dickran H. Armenia : the case for a forgotten genocide. Westwood, N.J. : Educational Book Crafters, 1972.

  • Chaliand, Gerard and Yves Ternon. The Armenians, from genocide to resistance (translated from the French). London : Zed, 1983.

Some other names to look into: Stephan Astourian, Hilmar Kaiser, Robert Melson, Moussa Prince, Gerard Libaridian, Jon Kirakosian, and many more.
Turkish Denial

  • Armenian allegations: myth and reality: a handbook of facts and documents / compiled & edited by the Assembly of Turkish American Associations. Washington, D.C. : [ATAA], 1986.

The Internet and Turkish TV are replete with this subject.
Books Dealing with Turkish Denial

  • Akçam, Taner. The genocide of the Armenians and the silence of the Turks. New York : St. Martin’s Press, [199?].

  • Charny, Israel W. “Innocent denials of known genocides: a further contribution to the psychology of denial” in Human Rights Review, 1, no. 3 (2000): 15-39.

  • Dadrian, Vahakn N. The key elements in the Turkish denial of the Armenian genocide. Toronto : Zoryan Institute, 1999.

  • _________. Ottoman archives and denial of the Armenian Genocide. [S.l. : s.n., 1992?].

  • Hovannisian, Richard G., ed. Remembrance and denial : the case of the Armenian genocide. Detroit, Mich. : Wayne State University Press, 1998.

  • Smith, Roger W. “Genocide and denial: the Armenian case and its implications” in Armenian Review, v. 42, no. 1 (Spring 1989): 1-38.

Documentary Films

  • Everyone’s not here : families of the Armenian genocide /Armenian Cultural Foundation. videorecording. Armenian Cultural Foundation [distributor],1989.

  • Check listings of the documentary films of the Armenian Film Foundation (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) on the Internet.

Educational/Study and Teaching

  • The Armenian genocide, 1915-1923 : a handbook for students and teachers / Simon Payaslian. Glendale, Calif. : Armenian Cultural Foundation, 2001.

  • Strom, Margot Stern and William S. Parsons. Facing history and ourselves : holocaust and human behavior. Watertown, Mass. : Intentional Educations, 1982.

Literary Works

  • Arlen, Michael. Passage to Ararat. N.Y. : Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1975. Autobiographical.

  • Antreassian, Antranig. Death and resurrection: a novel of the Armenian massacres. New York : Ashod Press, 1988.

  • Marcom, Micheline Aharonian. Three apples fell from heaven. New York : Riverhead Books, 2001.

  • Najarian, Peter. Daughters of memory.: a story. Berkeley : City Miner Books, 1986.

  • Saroyan, Aram. An Armenian trilogy. Edited by D. Kouymjian. Fresno : California State University Press, 1986. Three plays.

  • Tekeyan, Vahan. Sacred Wrath: the selected poems of Vahan Tekeyan. (translated from the Armenian by Diana Der Hovanessian and Marzbed Margossian), New York : Ashod Press, 1982.

  • Werfel, Franz. Forty days of Musa Dagh. (Translated from the German). New York : Carroll & Graf, c2002, c1990. Originally published in 1934.

Bibliographies on the Genocide

  • Hovannisian, Richard G. The Armenian holocaust : bibliography relating to the deportations, massacres, and dispersion of the Armenian people, 1915-1923. Cambridge, Mass. : NAASR, c1980, c1978.

  • Armenian resource guide. Washington, D.C. Armenian Assembly of America, 1988.

  • Vassilian, Hamo B. The Armenian genocide: a comprehensive bibliography and library resource guide. Glendale : Armenian Reference Books, 1992.

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