Presidency Chart – Dwight D. Eisenhower



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Presidency Chart – Dwight D. Eisenhower (34th) (1953-1961)

Election of 1952:

Election of 1956:

Candidates:

  • GOP = Eisenhower (Pres.) & Nixon (VP)

  • Demo. = Adlai Stevenson (Pres.) & Sparkman (VP)

Slogans:

  • “I like Ike”

Issues:

  • Korean War, Communism & Government Corruption.

  • The Republicans blamed the Democrats for the military's failure to be fully prepared to fight in Korea & promised to end the war; they accused the Democrats of "harboring" Communist spies within the federal government; and they blasted the Truman Administration for the numbers of officials who had been accused of various crimes.

  • In return, the Democrats criticized Senator Joseph McCarthy and other GOP conservatives as "fearmongers" who were recklessly trampling on the civil liberties of government employees.

Nixon Campaign Scandal & “Checkers” speech =


Candidates:

  • GOP = Eisenhower (Pres.) & Nixon (VP)

  • Demo. = Adlai Stevenson (Pres.) & Sparkman (VP)

Campaign Highlights:

  • Stevenson campaigned hard against Ike, with TV ads for the 1st time being the dominant medium for both sides. Because Eisenhower's 1952 election victory was due, in large part, to winning the female vote, there were a lot of "housewife" focused ads.

  • Stevenson proposed big increases in government spending for social programs and treaties with the Soviet Union to lower military spending and end nuclear testing on both sides. He also proposed to end the military draft and switch to an "all-volunteer" military.

  • Eisenhower publicly opposed these ideas, even though in private he was working on a proposal to ban atmospheric nuclear testing. Eisenhower had retained the enormous personal and political popularity he had earned during the WWII, and he maintained a comfortable lead in the polls throughout the campaign.

  • Eisenhower was also helped by two foreign-policy crises that developed in the weekend before the election. In Soviet-occupied People's Republic of Hungary, many citizens rose up in revolt against the Soviet Army; their revolt was brutally crushed within a few days by Soviet troops. In Egypt, a combined force of Israeli, British and French troops seized the Suez Canal; Eisenhower condemned the seizure and pressured the allied forces to return the canal to Egyptian control. These two events led many Americans to rally in support of the President, thus swelling his expected margin of victory. The Eisenhower administration had also supported the Brown vs. Board of Education ruling in 1954; this ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court ended legal segregation in public schools. As a result, Eisenhower won the support of nearly 40% of black voters; he was the last Republican presidential candidate to receive such a level of support from black voters.

  • On Election Day Eisenhower took over 57% of the popular vote and won 41 of the 48 states. Eisenhower carried Louisiana, making him the first Republican presidential candidate to carry the state since Reconstruction in 1876.

Important Cabinet Members:

Supreme Court Appointments:

Secretary of State =

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Foreign Policy

Armistice in Korea (1953) =

Shah of Iran returns to power (1954) =
Khrushchev in power (1954) =

SEATO (1954) =
Fall of Dien Bien Phu (1954) =

Brinkmanship” over Taiwan (1954) =



Geneva Conference (1955) =
Warsaw Pact (1955) =

Suez Crisis (1956) =

Hungarian Revolution (1956) =
Suez Crisis (1956-7) =
Eisenhower Doctrine (1957) =


Sputnik (1957) =

Cuban Revolution (1959) =
U-2 incident (1960) =


Domestic Policy

Dynamic conservatism =

Rosenbergs executed (1953) =
Termination policy (1953) =

Army-McCarthy hearings (1954) =
Brown v. BOE (1954) =
Montgomery bus boycott (1955) =

AFL and CIO merge (1955) =

Howl by Ginsberg published (19956) =

Interstate Highway Act (1956) =


Civil Rights Act (1957) =

Little Rock Crisis (1957) =

On The Road by Kerouac published (1957) =

National Defense Education Act (1958) =

NASA (1958) =

Labor Reform Act (1959) =
Alaska and Hawaii admitted (1959) =

Greensboro sit-in (1960) =
Civil Rights Act (1960) =
Farewell Address (1961) =

Trends

Affluent Society =

Rise of Suburbia =

Baby Boom =










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