Powers of the President (A)



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Powers of the President (A)

Article II, Section 2

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, … he may require the Opinion (Advice), in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, … and he shall have Power to grant Pardons (reduce or remove punishment) for Crimes, ….


He shall have Power, …with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties (agreement with another country), provided two thirds of the Senators present concur (agree); and he shall nominate (choose), and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers …, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, …:
Article II, Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such [ideas] as he shall judge necessary…; he may, in extreme situations, convene (order a meeting of) both Houses, or either of them, … he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, ….


Article I, Section 7 (Legislative)

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law, be presented to the President of the United States;



  1. If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it (veto), with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.

  2. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. …


Executive Powers

Using the constitution (above), place the powers of the president in the appropriate box below:

Legislative





















Foreign Affairs





















Judicial









Executive/Other




















“The United States has one President, but it has two Presidencies; one for domestic affairs, and the other is concerned with defense and foreign policy.” -Aaron Wildavsky



SHOULD THE PRESIDENCY BE DIVIDED INTO TWO POSITIONS?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Powers of the President (B)

Article II, Section 2

The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States, when called into the actual Service of the United States; he may require the Opinion (advice), in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.


He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United States, …:
Article II, Section 3

He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures (ideas) as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses, or either of them, … he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the United States.


Article I, Section 7

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States;



  1. If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it.

  2. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. …


Executive Powers

Using the constitution (above), place the powers of the president in the appropriate box below:

Legislative





















Foreign Affairs





















Judicial









Executive/Other




















“The United States has one President, but it has two Presidencies; one for domestic affairs, and the other is concerned with defense and foreign policy.” -Aaron Wildavsky



SHOULD THE PRESIDENCY BE DIVIDED INTO TWO POSITIONS?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________




Can a President Be Too Strong?
What do you think? Below are arguments on either side of the question. Decide which argument is strongest.

The Case Against a Strong President

The President doesn’t get much personal contact with the American people because the Secret Service fears they may be attacked. As one critic says: "No one speaks to him unless spoken to first. No one ever tells him to STOP when his demands become unreasonable."
The president has taken more and more power away from Congress. But today, the president is more powerful than Congress.
One example of what has happened is in the power to declare war. The Constitution clearly gives that power to Congress only. Yet recent presidents have been able to fight wars without the approval of Congress. Take, for example, Vietnam. The president never asked Congress for a declaration of war.
Congress passed a law allowing the president "to take all necessary measures to ... prevent a threat [in Vietnam]." Then, over the course of the years, it continued to give the president the money that he said he needed to do so. It may be said that by doing this, Congress gave up its exclusive power to declare war.


The Case for a Strong President

The growth of the president's power is necessary. Presidents should be strong and powerful. The U.S. today needs a strong president. We need strong nation leadership. Who else can make the quick decisions that are needed in a national emergency?


In the old days, an army could move only as fast as its horses and sailing ships. There was plenty of time for Congress to debate issues of war and peace. But not today. Only the president can act fast enough in an emergency.
Furthermore, only the president can give real leadership on the many national problems. Congress cannot lead as well as the president simply because there is only one president, but there are 435 Representatives and 100 Senators. Members of Congress seldom agree on what to do.
Unlike members of Congress, the president is elected by all the voters. The president does not represent just one part but the whole of the country. And if the people think that the president has taken too much power, they can always elect someone else every four years.


Adapted from The Presidency, Congress, and the Supreme Court, Scholastic Inc.

WHICH DO YOU PREFER: A STRONG PRESIDENT OR A WEAK PRESIDENT?

  • Take a clear position

  • Support your position with 2 reasons

  • Support your reasons with evidence from the text

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Can a President Be Too Strong?

Below are arguments on either side of the question. Decide which argument is strongest.

The Case Against a Strong President

We often treat our presidents as if they were royalty. Presidents live in a big mansion. They have servants and assistants whose only job is to make sure the president has everything he or she wants.


The President doesn't get much personal contact with the American people because the Secret Service fears they may be attacked. As one critic says: "No one speaks to him unless spoken to first. No one ever tells him to go soak his head when his demands become unreasonable."
The president has taken more and more power at the expense of Congress. The people who wrote the Constitution believed in checking and balancing power between Congress and the president. But today, the president is more powerful than Congress.
One example of what has happened is in the power to declare war. The Constitution clearly gives that power to Congress only. Yet recent presidents have been able to fight wars without a formal declaration of war by Congress.

Take, for example, Vietnam. Though the president never asked Congress for a declaration of war against anyone in Southeast Asia, Congress allowed the president to conduct a war there.
Congress passed a resolution allowing the president "to take all necessary measures to ... prevent aggression [in Vietnam]." Then, over the course of the years, it consistently gave the president the money that he said he needed to do so. It may be said that by doing this Congress willingly gave up its exclusive power to declare war.


The Case for a Strong President

The growth of the president's power is necessary. Presidents should be strong and powerful. The U.S. today needs a strong president. Who else can give the nation leadership? Who else can make the quick decisions that are needed in a national emergency?


In the old days, an army could move only as fast as its horses and sailing ships. There was plenty of time for Congress to debate issues of war and peace. But not today. Only the president can act fast enough in an emergency.
Furthermore, only the president can give real leadership on the many national problems. Congress cannot lead as well as the president simply because there is only one president, but there are 435 Representatives and 100 Senators. Members of Congress seldom agree on what to do.
Unlike members of Congress, the president is elected by all the voters. The president does not represent just one part but the whole of the country. And if the people think that the president has taken too much power, they can always elect someone else every four years.


Adapted from The Presidency, Congress, and the Supreme Court, Scholastic Inc.

WHICH DO YOU PREFER: A STRONG PRESIDENT OR A WEAK PRESIDENT?

  • Take a clear position

  • Support your position with 3 reasons

  • Support your reasons with evidence from the text

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

LESSON PLAN SAMPLE

Aim: Does the President have too much power?

Content Standards:

Key Idea 4: The skills of historical analysis include the ability to: explain the significance of historical evidence; weigh the importance, reliability, and validity of evidence; understand the concept of multiple causation; understand the importance of changing and competing interpretations of different historical developments.

Key Idea 4: The skills of historical analysis include the ability to investigate differing and competing interpretations of the theories of history, hypothesize about why interpretations change over time,


CCLS

RH1. Use relevant information from documents to support analysis

RH2. Determine the main idea of a document

RH5. Identify and analyze arguments/ideas presented in documents

RH8. Identify and analyze evidence

W1. Write an argument to support claims

W4. Produce writing appropriate to task, purpose and audience

SL1. Initiate and participate in collaborative discussion

SL2. Accurately use multiple sources of information


Motivation / “Do Now”

Motivation: Leg, Exec, Jud. Chairs Cartoon

• Describe what you see?

• What is the message about the power of the President?

• Do you agree with cartoonist’s criticism that power of the president is like a monarchy?

Transition: Elicit Aim: What question might we ask today based on the president’s power?


Mini-Lesson / Content:

I)Constitution

  • Why is the President defined in Article II of the constitution and not Article I?

Group Activity: (Students will be arranged in heterogenous reading level groups

–Read the Constitution and describe and categorize the powers of the President.

-Fill-in the chart of the powers of the president.


Full Class Activity: On the Smartboard: Arrange the powers of the President correctly
II) Debrief the President’s Powers

  • Why would the Constitution give these powers to the President

  • Is there anything you would add? Take away?

  • DOES THE PRESIDENT HAVE TOO MANY POWERS


III) Wildavsky Quote

-What is the message of the quote?


Pair Activity: TURN AND TALK with a PARTNER -Do you agree with the quote that the presidency should be divided?
IV) “Strong President” Group Activity - Read as a group:

-Evaluate the arguments for and against a ‘strong president’.


Independent Assessment

-Which do you support? (Take a clear position, support with 3 reasons, support with detail)




Assessments:

FORMATIVE assessment



  • Complete chart, Answer question on Dividing Presidency, Discussion questions

SUMMATIVE assessment –Based on the Application below

  • Exit ticket: Do we want a strong or weak president?




Application:

  • Read Headline/ paragraph: “Modern Imperial Presidency”

  • Have our presidents taken too much power?

Obama Chooses Sotomayor for Supreme Court Nominee



By Jeff Zeleny, May 26, 2009, New York Times

President Obama will nominate Judge Sonia Sotomayor of the United States Court of Appeals as his first appointment to the court, ….

If confirmed, Judge Sotomayor, 54, would replace Justice David H. Souter to become the second woman on the court and only the third female justice in the history of the Supreme Court. She also would be the first Hispanic justice to serve on the Supreme Court.

Judge Sotomayor has sat for the last 11 years on the federal appeals bench in Manhattan. As the top federal appeals court in the nation’s commercial center….

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------http://blogs.venturacountystar.com/vcs/greenberg/archives/harrietmiers1009.gif

classified-usat

Bush Defends His Pick for Court

Miers Withdraws Her Nomination to Supreme Court

Miers Joins 34 on List of Failed Nominees
Bush's Unhealthy Veto

Sebastian Mallaby, October 1, 2007



President Bush has spent six-plus years not using his veto. In 2005, he became the first president since 1829 to complete a term in the White House without once standing up to Congress; …

Politically, this is crazy. The bill that Bush is poised to veto has bipartisan (both parties) backing, and two-thirds of the public say they like it. The bill would extend the State Children's Health Insurance Program, a successful initiative that Bush himself supports. …

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



PRESIDENTIAL VETOES

Pocket

Totals VETO Override
Franklin D. Roosevelt 635 9 97.4%
Harry S. Truman 250 12 93.3%

Dwight D. Eisenhower 181 2 97.3%
John F. Kennedy 21 0 100%

Lyndon B. Johnson 30 0 100%

Richard Nixon 43 7 73.1%

Gerald R. Ford 66 12 75.0%

Jimmy Carter 31 1 2 84.6%
Ronald Reagan 78 9 76.9%
George Bush 44 1 96.6%

William J. Clinton 37 2 94.4%

George W. Bush 12 4 63.6%

Bush Pardons 15 Convicts


Tuesday , March 25, 2008, fc1, WASHINGTON —

The Justice Department announced Tuesday that President Bush has issued 15 new pardons.

All 15 pardons were for men who were convicted of non-violent and mostly minor offenses, some dating back decades. Among the convictions were drug possession and distribution, illegal firearms dealing, false housing statements and wildlife infractions.

Bush also lessened the sentence for one prisoner. Patricia Beckford was sentenced in 1992 to 23 years in federal prison for conspiracy and attempt to distribute more than 50 grams of crack cocaine. She was released.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------



CBS News: Mark Knoller reports that the number of pardons granted by Mr. Bush is 58. By comparison:
George H.W. Bush 74 in four years;

Bill Clinton 396 in eight years;

Ronald Reagan 393 in eight;

Jimmy Carter 534 in four.

Richard Nixon 863 in six

President Sends Troops to Little Rock,

Federalizes Arkansas National Guard
President Eisenhower said, "The President's responsibility is inescapable. The law and the national interest demanded that the President take action."
"The very basis of our individual rights and freedoms is the certainty that the President and the Executive Branch of Government will support and insure the carrying out of the decisions of the Federal Courts….”

http://ken_ashford.typepad.com/blog/images/2007/09/20/littler.jpg







Obama Meets Iraqi Prime Minister in Baghdad


21obama2-650

--------------------------------------------------------------


President Bush Meets with Chinese President Hu Jintao


Published April 20, 2006

Chinese president Hu Jintao's visited the White House. Both leaders discussed the North Korea and Iran nuclear issues. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-07/17/xin_0220703170757125260353.jpg
China promised to help negotiate (discuss issues) with these countries, stressing the need to use diplomatic means.


Bush declares warhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/bush_announces_operation_iraqi_freedom_2003.jpg/400px-bush_announces_operation_iraqi_freedom_2003.jpg


U.S. President George W. Bush has announced that war against Iraq has begun. In his address, Bush said:

- That every effort would be made to spare the lives of innocent civilians

- No outcome but victory will be accepted,

- America's freedom will be defended, and freedom will be brought to others.
--------------------------------------------------------------

Obama announces Libya

"Will not deploy any U.S. troops on the ground"


http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2011/03/21/world/21libya_511cham/21libya_511cham-custom2.jpg


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Obama Chooses Sotomayor for Supreme Court Nominee

By Jeff Zeleny, May 26, 2009, New York Times

President Obama will nominate Judge Sonia Sotomayor of the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit as his first appointment to the court, ….

If confirmed by the Democratic-controlled Senate, Judge Sotomayor, 54, would replace Justice David H. Souter to become the second woman on the court and only the third female justice in the history of the Supreme Court. She also would be the first Hispanic justice to serve on the Supreme Court.

Judge Sotomayor has sat for the last 11 years on the federal appeals bench in Manhattan. As the top federal appeals court in the nation’s commercial center….

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------http://blogs.venturacountystar.com/vcs/greenberg/archives/harrietmiers1009.gif

classified-usat

Bush Defends His Pick for Court

Miers Withdraws Her Nomination to Supreme Court

Miers Joins 34 on List of Failed Nominees

Bush's Unhealthy Veto

Sebastian Mallaby, October 1, 2007



President Bush has spent six-plus years not using his veto. In 2005, he became the first president since 1829 to complete a term in the White House without once standing up to Congress; …

Politically, this is crazy. The bill that Bush is poised to veto has bipartisan backing, and two-thirds of the public say they like it. The bill would extend the State Children's Health Insurance Program, a successful initiative that Bush himself supports. …

The president asserted, to begin with, that the bill involves "taking a program meant to help poor children and turning it into one that covers children in households with incomes of up to $83,000 a year."

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



PRESIDENTIAL VETOES

Pocket

Totals VETO Override

Franklin D. Roosevelt 635 9 97.4%
Harry S. Truman 250 12 93.3%

Dwight D. Eisenhower 181 2 97.3%
John F. Kennedy 21 0 100%

Lyndon B. Johnson 30 0 100%

Richard Nixon 43 7 73.1%

Gerald R. Ford 66 12 75.0%

Jimmy Carter 31 1 2 84.6%
Ronald Reagan 78 9 76.9%
George Bush 44 1 96.6%

William J. Clinton 37 2 94.4%

George W. Bush 12 4 63.6%

Bush Pardons 15 Convicts


Tuesday , March 25, 2008, fc1, WASHINGTON —

The Justice Department announced Tuesday that President Bush has issued 15 new pardons and commuted one prison sentence.

All 15 pardons were for men who were convicted of non-violent and mostly minor offenses, some dating back decades. Among the convictions were drug possession and distribution, illegal firearms dealing, false housing statements and wildlife infractions.

The single commutation announced Tuesday was for a Portsmouth, Va., woman convicted of attempted drug distribution. Patricia Beckford was sentenced in 1992 to 23 years in federal prison for conspiracy and attempt to distribute more than 50 grams of crack cocaine.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------



CBS News: Mark Knoller reports that the number of pardons granted by Mr. Bush is 58. By comparison:
George H.W. Bush 74 in four years;

Bill Clinton 396 in eight years;

Ronald Reagan 393 in eight;

Jimmy Carter 534 in four.

Richard Nixon 863 in six

President Sends Troops to Little Rock,

Federalizes Arkansas National Guard
President Eisenhower said, "The President's responsibility is inescapable." At another he said that when the decrees of a Federal court were obstructed, "the law and the national interest demanded that the President take action."
"The very basis of our individual rights and freedoms," he said, "is the certainty that the President and the Executive Branch of Government will support and insure the carrying out of the decisions of the Federal Courts, even, when necessary with all the means at the President's command.

http://ken_ashford.typepad.com/blog/images/2007/09/20/littler.jpg







Obama Meets Iraqi Prime Minister in Baghdad


21obama2-650

--------------------------------------------------------------


President Bush Meets with Chinese President Hu Jintao


Published April 20, 2006

Though not an official state trip, this was Chinese president Hu Jintao's first visit to the White House. Both leaders discussed the North Korea and Iran nuclear issues; China promised to help negotiate with these countries, stressing the need to use diplomatic means.http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-07/17/xin_0220703170757125260353.jpg

Bush declares warhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cb/bush_announces_operation_iraqi_freedom_2003.jpg/400px-bush_announces_operation_iraqi_freedom_2003.jpg


U.S. President George W. Bush has announced that war against Iraq has begun. In his address, Bush said:

- That every effort would be made to spare the lives of innocent civilians

-But the campaign will be "broad and concerted" and will use "decisive force."

- No outcome but victory will be accepted,

- America's freedom will be defended, and freedom will be brought to others.

--------------------------------------------------------------


Obama announces Libya airstrikes from Brazil

"Will not deploy any U.S. troops on the ground"


http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2011/03/21/world/21libya_511cham/21libya_511cham-custom2.jpg


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Presidential Evaluation

Read the scenarios on these pages to determine which power of the presidency you encounter and identify. Then evaluate them as using or abusing the power of the Presidency. Explain your answers.


Power to Pardon”
Used or Abused? __________
Why? ________________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

__________________________________________

_____________________

_____________________



Veto Acts of Congress”
Used or Abused? __________
Why? ____________________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

__________________________________________

_____________________

_____________________




Nominate Judges”
Used or Abused? __________
Why? ____________________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

__________________________________________

_____________________

_____________________




Enforce Laws”
Used or Abused? __________
Why?

____________________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

__________________________________________

_____________________

_____________________


Commander in Chief”
Used or Abused? _________
Why?

_______________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

__________________________________________

_____________________

_____________________


Legislative Process”
Used or Abused? __________
Why? ____________________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

__________________________________________

_____________________

_____________________


U.S. President Barack Obama delivers remarks at United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon’s Summit on Climate Change at U.N. headquarters September 22, 2009 in New York City. The summit is coinciding with the 64th session of the United Nations General Assembly. u.s. president barack obama delivers remarks at united nations secretary general ban ki-moon?s summit on climate change at u.n. headquarters september 22, 2009 in new york city. the summit is coinciding with the 64th session of the united nations general assembly.



I,






“She’s my friend and a woman and my friend and a Texan and my friend, what else does anybody need to know?”



PRESIDENTIAL VETOES
Franklin D. Roosevelt Totals VETO Override

  1. 9 97.4%


Harry S. Truman Totals 250 12 93.3%

Dwight D. EisenhowerTotals 181 2 97.3%
John F. Kennedy Totals 21 0 100%

Lyndon B. Johnson Totals 30 0 100%

Richard Nixon Totals 43 7 73.1%

Gerald R. Ford Totals 66 12 75.0%

Jimmy Carter Totals 31 1 2 84.6%
Ronald Reagan Totals 78 9 76.9%
George Bush Totals 44 1 96.6%

William J. Clinton Totals 37 2 94.4%

George W. Bush Totals 12 4 63.6%


President Bush Pardons 14 People

WASHINGTON, Sept. 28, 2005
(CBS/AP) President Bush granted pardons Wednesday to 14 people, including a member of the mineworkers union who was convicted for his role in bombings at a West Virginia coal mine, a counterfeiter and a bootlegger.

CBS News correspondent Mark Knoller reports that the pardons Wednesday bring to 58 the number of pardons granted by Mr. Bush.


By comparison:

President George H.W. Bush, granted 74 in four years; President Bill Clinton granted 396 in eight years;

President Ronald Reagan did 393 in eight;

President Jimmy Carter did 534 in four.

President Richard Nixon granted 863,

President Gerald Ford gave 382 pardons

Some pardons, like the one Mr. Ford gave Nixon in 1974, protect recipients from going to jail or reduce their sentences.

U.S. Adds Tariffs on Chinese Tires

By EDMUND L. ANDREWS, September 12, 2009

WASHINGTON — In a break with the trade policies of his predecessor, President Obama announced on Friday night that he would impose a 35 percent tariff on automobile and light-truck tires imported from China.

The decision is a major victory for the United Steelworkers, the union that represents American tire workers. And Mr. Obama cannot afford to jeopardize his relationship with major unions as he pushes Congress to overhaul the nation’s health care system.
The decision signals the first time that the United States has invoked a special safeguard provision that was part of its agreement to support China’s entry into the World Trade Organization in 2001.
“The president decided to remedy the clear disruption to the U.S. tire industry based on the facts and the law in this case,” the president’s spokesman, Robert Gibbs, said in a statement Friday night.







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“We give the president more work than a man can do, more responsibility than a man should take, more pressure than a man can bear. We abuse him often, and rarely praise him. We wear him out, use him up, eat him up. And with all this, Americans have a love for the president that goes beyond party loyalty or nationality; he is ours and we exercise our right to destroy him.” -John Steinbeck, 1940

“The United States has one President, but it has two Presidencies; one for domestic affairs, and the other is concerned with defense and foreign policy.”

-Aaron Wildavsky

“Public sentiment is everything. With public sentiment nothing can fail; without it nothing can succeed.”

-Abe Lincoln

“The essence of a President’s persuasive task with congressmen and everybody else, is to induce them to believe that what he wants of them is what their own appraisal of their own responsibilities require them to do in their interest, not his.”

-Richard Neustadt




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