Postclassical spice charts



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POSTCLASSICAL SPICE CHARTS

Byzantine 476 CE -1453 CE (TIP: on a blank map trace the beginning, peak, and decline of the Byzantine)

Social

Political

Interactions

Cultural

Economy

> impact of Christianity

on values

>women subordinate

>upper classes used arranged marriages to keep power

>stratification: upper classes dominated, supported by military, UWD


>develops from Constantine 330 CE

>after Rome falls,



Byzantine Empire

builds a centralized government; ruled by an

emperor (monarch w/religious authority)

>reached its peak



under Justinian

legal code; autocratic

>bureaucracy: taxes

strong army

>weakened by Muslims

(expansion of Abbasid Caliphate led to Crusades

>overtaken by Ottoman Turks in 1453

(Fall of Mongols in late 1300s allowed for the rise of the Ottoman Empire; Russia also began to develop, but

lagged behind Europe in technology—Mongol yoke theory).




> Byzantine heavily influenced Russia

(Russia’s people were

a combination of Slavs

and Vikings):

- onion dome churches spread to Russia

>Cyrillic alphabet

from Byzantine to Russia

>Eastern Orthodox religionRussian Orthodox religion

>autocratic political style autocracy of Russian czars


>onion dome churches

>Cyrillic alphabet

>Hagia Sophia

>mosaics


>illuminated manuscripts


>Trade in Mediterranean,

picked up Silk Road goods in Middle East

>trade across Black

Sea to Russia

Cultural diffusion

(see interactions)

Study tip:

Look at a Byzantine map

Which shows the rise, peak and decline of the Byzantine)

Study tip: Make up questions for each of these

Descriptions. Many of them should be questions that ask ‘how.’



Tang Dynasty 618 CE -907 CE

Social

Political

Interactions

Culture

Economic

Draw hierarchy in top margin

-women subordinate

(Confucianism)

-accepts Buddhism until

800s (Neo-Confucianism sees Buddhism as barbaric)


-Sui reunification 589 CE,

Tang takes over in 618

-strong central government

-bureaucracy

-administrators (civil service exam scholar gentry)

-strong military



-heavy Silk Road trade to Middle East

(Abbasid Caliphate)

-cultural diffusion to Japan via Korea:

> calendar

> writing

> Buddhism



Golden Age:

Writings: Mulan

>paintings

>poetry


>porcelain


-Silk Road trade

-period from 500 CE to 1450 CE is the Chinese Millennium (highest productive capacity of goods: silk & porcelain)




Song Dynasty 907 CE -1271 CE

Social

Political

Interactions

Culture

Economic

Confucian hierarchy

(continuity)




-continuity from Tang

(bureaucracy)



-limited Silk Road trade b/c of enemies (Uighurs)

Technology: great shipbuilding influenced Ming Dynasty

-produced vast amount of goods for internal trade

-limited Silk Road trade b/c of enemies (Uighurs)

-sea trade with Southeast Asia


Mongols (see 2005 Compare and Contrast essay)

Social

Political

Interactions

Cultural

Economic

>nomads from Central Asia

>polytheistic

>traditionally lived in tents (yurts)


>Genghis khan starts Mongol conquests in the early 1200s

>Kublai Khan starts Yuan dynasty in 1271 lasts until 1368

>largest contiguous empire in the world

>skilled horsemen and bowmen; flaming arrows; catapults

> foreign administrators (Persians, Arabs) to facilitate government (bookkeeping, census, tax collection)

>no civil service exam (to suppress Chinese influence)

>Black Plague led to the fall of the Mongols rise of the Ottomans; rise of Russia


>conquered Russia, which fell behind, & stayed behind Western Europe in Renaissance (Mongol Yoke theory)

>Muscovy (Moscow) became the leading economic centercapital of Russia

>Conquered and ended the Abbasid caliphate in 1258


> Many Mongols converted to IslamMughal (Mogol) rule of India

>most achievements related to military skill



>Pax Mongolia

>collected taxes from conquered people



Ming Dynasty 1368 CE - 1644 CE

Social

Political

Interactions

Culture

Economic




-continuity

-(see economic)

-interactions decline greatly after Zheng He’s death in 1430 (toward the end of the postclassical era)






-extensive sea trade (tribute or tributary) , expeditions led by Zheng He, financed by Zhu Di (Yongle Emperor)

Abbasid Caliphate 750-1258 see chapter 9 NOTESHRINK the vocabulary

Social

Political

Interactions in Afro-Eurasia

Cultural

Economic

-umma (community of believerssocial stability)

-diverse ethnically

(Arabs, Seljuk Turks,

Berbers, Persians)

-syncretism (blend of ideas)  decline in women’s status as Islam spreads to Persia


-Abbasid army conquers Umayyad Caliphate

-political fragmentation



(more power in cities)

starts in the 800s (ninth century); political power is more localized

-decentralized

-Seljuk Turks take control

-Mongols kill last caliph in 1258


-war stops spread of Tang Dynasty

-but trade with Tang dynasty continued via silk road

-heavy IOMS trade after 1000 CE  Swahili language in East Africa; Islam spreads to East African coastal cities

(map them)

-Islam spreads to

Indonesia peacefully through trade & missionaries

-attacks on Byzantine 1000s Crusades (1100-1300)



-Islamic Golden Age in

medicine, math, science

-trade with Europe brings Europe out of feudal manorial period


-trade with Europe 1100-1300 Crusades

--heavy IOMS trade 1000-1450



--connects with trans-Saharan trade routes

-Silk Road

Note: add Ghana and Mali SPICE charts to packet


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