Posci-4 Study Guide 2 Ball & Dagger 8 th edition



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POSCI-4 Study Guide 2 Ball & Dagger 8th edition

Robert J. Brem; College of Alameda

______________________________ ___________________________


3. Liberalism


  1. Liberals have historically favored which of the following?

A. a planned economy

B. the minimal state

C. religious toleration

D. All of the above are correct.

E. None of the above is correct.


  1. That government should not forbid “capitalist acts between consenting adults” (R. Nozick) is the view taken by

A. welfare-state liberals.

B. libertarians.

C. classical conservatives.

D. neoconservatives.

E. None of the above is correct.


  1. John Stuart Mill’s “one very simple principle” is the

A. greatest happiness of the greatest number principle.

B. principle of: from each according to his ability, to each according to his need.

C. principle of fair play.

D. principle: what touches all should be decided by all.

E. None of the above is correct.


  1. Adam Smith was an early critic of

A. self-interest.

B. mercantilism.

C. rationalism.

D. hedonism.

E. utilitarianism.


  1. Welfare liberals usually support which of the following policies in order to promote equal opportunity?

A. affirmative action

B. differential worth

C. comparable compensation

D. desert-based discrimination

E. compensatory retribution


  1. Social Darwinists believe that

A. no government can effectively rule people of two different races.

B. government should be nothing more than a “night watchman state.”

C. society has a responsibility to care for the weak and disabled.

D. government promotes social progress when it helps the weak.

E. Both B and D are correct.


  1. John Stuart Mill believed that people should be

A. free to do whatever they want.

B. free to do what they want as long as they do not harm or threaten harm to others.

C. free to do what they want as long as they do not harm others or themselves.

D. protected against the tyranny of the majority.

E. Both B and D are correct.


  1. According to John Locke’s idea of the social contract,

A. all governments deserve the consent of the people they govern.

B. the pursuit of happiness is a natural right.

C. Catholics and atheists should not be tolerated.

D. people consent to establish government to protect their natural rights.

E. government must act to promote the prosperity of the people.


  1. According to Thomas Hobbes, “a general inclination of all mankind” is

A. to enjoy life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

B. to compete for profits in the economic marketplace.

C. a belief in the importance of worshiping as each person sees fit.

D. a restless desire for power after power that ceases only with death.

E. to buy copies of Hobbes’s books.


  1. John Rawls argues in A Theory of Justice that

A. inequalities in wealth and resources are just only when they benefit the least-advantaged people in society.

B. “victimless crimes” should be legal because they are “capitalist acts between consenting adults.”

C. the profit incentive will not be necessary if people are paid what they truly deserve.

D. what goes around comes around.

E. Both B and C are correct.


  1. John Stuart Mill’s uneasy acceptance of democracy is seen in his

A. proposal for plural voting.

B. warning about the tyranny of the majority.

C. attack on public education.

D. defense of mercantilist restrictions on commerce.

E. Both A and B are correct.



4. Conservatism





  1. Some of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s and Herman Melville’s fiction illustrate the

conservative belief in

A. unrestrained capitalism.

B. the importance of winning the culture war.

C. the folly of trying to overcome human imperfection.

D. the benefits of scientific discovery.

E. the value of levelling policies.


2. A good society, according to most conservatives, is one that values

A. innovation, progress, and change.

B. order, stability, and continuity.

C. individual freedom, equality, and democracy.

D. liberty, equality, and fraternity.

E. sex, drugs, and rock ‘n’ roll.


3. Conservatives reject attempts to promote equality by transferring wealth to the poor as misguided

A. communizing.

B. fraternizing.

C. dieting.

D. equalizing.

E. levelling.


4. Members of the Religious Right believe that the United States should return to a society in which

A. the government is small, the citizens are virtuous, and traditional values are upheld.

B. the government requires that Christianity be taught in schools as the one true religion.

C. the true natural aristocracy resumes its rightful place as the leader of the masses.

D. people are free to do as they please as long as they do not harm or threaten harm to others.

E. Christianity should be the only religion allowed.


5. Prejudice is usually a good thing, according to Edmund Burke, because it is

A. a form of latent wisdom that allows people to deal with new situations in time-tested ways.

B. always changing, which gives it the advantage of flexibility in meeting challenges.

C. always looking for new ways of doing things that lead to social progress.

D. a disposition to follow one’s gut instincts and to act impulsively.

E. true that you can judge a book by looking at its cover.

6. The belief that human beings are interconnected, like the parts of the body, is part of

A. the social contract theory.

B. the organic view of society.

C. levelling.

D. individualist conservatism.

E. the atomistic view of society.


7. The great danger of mass society, according to José Ortega y Gasset, is that it

A. leads to a powerful state that destroys all opposition.

B. destroys freedom of religion by forcing everyone to follow the religion of the masses.

C. leads to a weak state that is unable to bridle and subdue the passions of the people.

D. leads to a “dumbing down” of books and movies to appeal to a mass audience.

E. leads to overcrowding in Roman Catholic churches.


11. Neoconservatives and traditional conservatives are somewhat suspicious of capitalism because they

A. think that capitalism encourages people to believe that they can be perfect.

B. think that capitalism dissolves traditional relationships and encourages reckless spending.

C. believe that capitalist firms devote too much time and energy to planning for progress.

D. think that capitalism has led to the levelling of society.

E. are just naturally suspicious people.


13. The difference between reactionaries and other conservatives is that reactionaries

A. favor levelling programs; other conservatives oppose them.

B. are more sympathetic to democracy than other conservatives are.

C. want to speed up the pace of change; other conservatives want to slow it down.

D. want to reverse social changes and return to an earlier form of society and politics.

E. Both A and D are correct.

20. Joseph de Maistre believed that

A. the French Revolution was a necessary step on the path to a truly free society.

B. the aristocracy must compromise with the working class in order to outvote the liberals.

C. society needs monarchy, aristocracy, and religion to keep people’s selfish desires in check.

D. the best way to promote the public interest is to let people pursue their private interests.

E. Both A and D are correct.


21. Neoconservatives like Irving Kristol are usually people who

A. favor capitalism but fear that it weakens the discipline necessary for a strong society.

B. object to all government interference in economic matters.

C. favor levelling programs in order to give the benefits of conservative planning to the poor.

D. believe that other conservatives have put too much stress on the need to fight communism.

E. prefer Eminem’s singing to that of Renee Fleming.


22. Burke and most conservatives believe that society is best described as

A. an organism in which individual people are the parts.

B. an atomistic collection of individuals who are largely independent of one another.

C. the result of a social contract between the living members of society.

D. the combination of prejudice and prescription that leads to the levelling of achieved status.

E. a necessary evil.


23. As an ideology, conservatism began as a reaction against the liberal elements of the

A. American Revolution.

B. Glorious Revolution.

C. French Revolution.

D. Russian Revolution.

E. Velvet Revolution.


15. Socialism and Communism: More to Marx

1. All socialists agree that one of the major obstacles to human freedom is

A. religious belief, which divides people into fiercely antagonistic groups.

B. the desire to cooperate and get along with others, which prevents people from thinking freely.

C. the division of society into social classes based on who does or does not own property.

D. the drive to compete and outshine others that is part of human nature.

E. the difficulty of spelling Marxist terms, such as bourgeoisie.


2. Which aspect of Hegel’s philosophy had the most influence on Karl Marx?

A. Hegel’s philosophy of religion, which stressed how alienation led to sin

B. Hegel’s physiocratic philosophy of economics

C. Hegel’s philosophy of history, in which history moves through the clash of opposing forces

D. Hegel’s philosophy of property, in which mixing your labor with something makes it yours

E. Hegel’s philosophy of music, which emphasizes the dialectic between opera and rap


8. The basic belief that socialists typically share is that

A. Karl Marx’s program for society should be followed without question.

B. property should be owned and controlled publicly rather than privately.

C. human nature is selfish and individualistic.

D. capitalism and government are by nature evil and should be overthrown.

E. every member of society should have the same abilities and income.


9. Marx’s conception of history differs most notably from Hegel’s in that Marx believes that history ________, while Hegel believes that history ________.

A. unfolds by the conflict between ideas; develops through the cooperation of ideas

B. is marked by alienation; shows little record of alienation

C. is the story of the control of material resources; is the story of the evolution of the human spirit

D. is the story of the evolution of the human spirit; is the story of the control of material resources

E. is an interesting subject; is boring


10. In Charles Fourier’s ideal community, or phalanstery, people will happily work because they will be able to do the work that suits their talents and interests. Fourier based this claim on his principle of

A. the labor theory of value.

B. market socialism.

C. attractive labor.

D. fraternity.

E. the Protestant work ethic.


11. After the revolution, Marx says, there will be a “dictatorship of the proletariat” that

A. takes control of the government in order to prevent a bourgeois counterrevolution.

B. establishes a totalitarian state that controls every aspect of people’s lives.

C. enables the bourgeoisie to use the power of the state to crush all opposition from the working class.

D. makes everyone work and gives everyone an equal share of the profits.

E. denies basic rights and liberties to the proletarians.

19. According to the materialist conception of history, every human society must have which of the following?

A. a material-productive “base”

B. an ideological “superstructure”

C. a ruling class

D. Both A and C are correct.

E. Both A and B are correct.


20. Who among the following was NOT a socialist?

A. Charles Fourier

B. Adam Smith

C. Saint-Simon

D. Robert Owen

E. Friedrich Engels


21. Which of the following is NOT a step in the revolutionary sequence as envisioned by Karl Marx?

A. seizure of state power

B. withering away of the state

C. dictatorship of the proletariat

D. higher wages for workers

E. All of the above were steps in the revolutionary sequence.


22. The interim or transitional state that Marx predicts will “wither away” is the

A. dictatorship of the proletariat.

B. dictatorship of the bourgeois.

C. phalanstery.

D. welfare state.

E. state of nature.





  1. Marx termed which of the following “the opiate of the masses/people”?

  1. capitalism

  2. feudalism

  3. religion

  4. All of the above are correct.

  5. None of the above is correct.



  1. Marx viewed human history as the story of struggles between

  1. nations.

  2. individuals.

  3. generations.

  4. classes.

  5. None of the above is correct.

30. Ideologies are always bad things, according to Karl Marx, because they are



  1. ideas that mask, defend, and rationalize the interests of the dominant class in society.

  2. “useless clarifications” that do not help people understand what political action to take.

  3. “terrible simplifiers” that are nothing more than “intellectual vending machines.”

  4. essentially contested concepts that defy clear definition.

  5. complicated and confusing attempts to inspire people to think for themselves.








6. Socialism and Communism: After Marx

1. Lenin argued that the proletariat, without assistance, could only attain the level of

A. “trade-union consciousness.”

B. “democratic consciousness.”

C. “revolutionary class consciousness.”

D. “revisionist consciousness.”

E. “unconsciousness.”
3. Socialism can and should be achieved gradually and peacefully, not by revolution, according to

A. the Fabian socialists.

B. the Marxist-Leninists.

C. Maoists.

D. revisionist Marxists.

E. Both A and D are correct.

4. The revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat is neither necessary nor desirable, according to

A. Vladimir I. Lenin.

B. Eduard Bernstein.

C. Mao Zedong.

D. Mikhail (Michael) Bakunin.

E. Both B and D are correct.


8. Lenin extended Marx’s theory by arguing that

A. the Communist Party must be the vanguard of the revolution.

B. socialism or communism cannot begin until capitalism has run its course.

C. communist society will begin only when the state withers away.

D. the Communist Party must be the dictator in the name of the proletariat.

E. Both A and D are correct.


11. Eduard Bernstein and other revisionist Marxists usually argue that

A. class struggle plays no part in the movement toward socialism.

B. Marx’s predictions are correct, but his revolutionary strategy is wrong.

C. workers in capitalist society no longer suffer from alienation or exploitation.

D. Marx’s theory is basically correct, but some of his key predictions were wrong.

E. Marx’s theory needs to be revised to take account of imperialism.


15. Evolutionary theory justifies anarcho-communism, according to Peter Kropotkin, because it shows that

A. innovative schemes like anarchism increase the chances for survival.

B. only the strongest survive, and the anarchists are the strongest.

C. nature rewards those species that learn to cooperate for the good of all their members.

D. competition is natural, and no society is more competitive than anarchy.

E. Both A and D are correct.


17. According to Vladimir I. Lenin, the vanguard party should

A. serve as a tutor and guide for the masses, who don’t understand their true interests.

B. be led by one all-powerful, authoritative leader.

C. encourage discussion and debate to continue after a decision has been made.

D. maintain revolutionary unity by not allowing free discussion within the party.

E. be composed entirely of members of the working class.


18. Lenin used which of the following to explain how the revolution could begin in a country like Russia?

A. democratic centralism

B. anarcho-communism

C. peasant populism

D. recidivism

E. imperialism


19. One of Mao Zedong’s contributions to Marxist theory was the

A. ideal of a gradual, peaceful evolution from capitalism to socialism.

B. idea of democratic centralism.

C. idea that whole countries, such as China, are proletarian nations.

D. idea that dialectical materialism explains scientific as well as political changes.

E. decision to make everyone wear comfortable, pajama-style clothes.


23. Friedrich Engels’ reinterpretation of Marx’s theories centers around

A. materialism and scientific socialism.

B. the vanguard party and the cult of personality.

C. original sin and alienation.

D. democratic centralism and imperialism.

E. replacing the command economy with market socialism.


24. Proponents of decentralized forms of socialism usually support

A. a command economy.

B. control of the economy by a vanguard party of intellectuals.

C. Stalinist forms of government.

D. control of the economy by various local groups of workers.

E. state control of the economy.


25. Friedrich Engels altered Marx’s theory in the direction of philosophical

  1. idealism.

  2. pragmatism.

  3. Kantianism.

  4. materialism.

  5. None of the above is correct.



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