Portuguese efforts



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Chronology of European Empires and the Americas



Portuguese efforts:

1419-1460, Henry the Navigator of Portugal financed several naval explorations

1420s, Portuguese colonized Madeira and Canary Islands

1430s, Portuguese colonized the Azores

1460-1480, Portuguese discovered:

Sierra Leone (1460)

Sao Tome (1472)

Angola (1480)

1488, Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope

1498, Da Gama reached India

1500, Portugal reached and began colonizing Brazil

Spanish efforts:

1492, Reconquista of Iberian Peninsula complete, last of the Muslim rulers kicked out of Iberia

1492, Columbus reached Hispaniola (Caribbean)

1519-22, Magellan’s fleet circumnavigated (sailed around) the world

1522, Cortes conquered the Aztecs

1533, Pizarro conquered the Incas

1545, Potosi silver mines in Peru discovered

French efforts:

1604, Acadia in Northeast America established

1608, Quebec founded

English efforts:

Late 1500s, England undertook several expeditions looking to finding a path to Asia through the Northwest Passage (going north and around the Americas)

1577-80, Francis Drake led the second circumnavigation of the world

1607, Jamestown founded in Virginia

Chronology of Jamestown and the Chesapeake Colonial Enterprise and Puritanism and the “Exodus” to New England

Chesapeake Settlements

1584, 1587, Sir Walter Raleigh dispatched two settlement attempts on Roanoke Island; both attempts ended in failure

1607, Jamestown established by Virginia Company of London

1614, tobacco first exported from Jamestown

1619, African slaves first arrived in Jamestown

1622-32, after close to a decade of uneasy peace between the English settlers and the natives, Opechancanough, the indigenous leader of the Powhatan Confederacy, directed a surprise attack on Virginia, which led to war with the English colonists

1634, Maryland colonization began

1660 - The English Crown approved a Navigation Act requiring the exclusive use of English ships for trade in the English colonies and limited exports of tobacco and sugar and other commodities to England or its colonies. The act was not vigorously enforced

1660s, Overproduction of tobacco led to drastic reduction in tobacco price

1670, start of colonization of Carolina (both north and south)

1676, Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion (Bacon’s Rebellion), supported by frontier blacks and whites alike, against colonial authority of Jamestown, Virginia, after the latter’s refusal to attack Native Americans. The rebellion was crushed by colonial authority shortly after Bacon’s death



New England Settlements

1620-40, Puritan migration to New England

1620, Pilgrims (Puritans who left England for the Netherlands) arrived in Massachusetts

1630, Puritans founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony

1634-8, Pequot War between Pequot tribe and the Massachusetts and Plymouth colonies

1636, Rhode Island founded by Roger Williams after he was banished from Massachusetts

1637, Anne Hutchinson banished from Massachusetts

1692, Salem witch trials led to the prosecution of over one hundred people and the death of nineteen


Chronology of Colonial American Society and Contact and Conflict with Native Americans


Colonial American Society

1676, Nathaniel Bacon led a rebellion (Bacon’s Rebellion), supported by frontier blacks and whites alike, against colonial authority of Jamestown, Virginia, after the latter’s refusal to attack Native Americans. The rebellion was crushed by colonial authority shortly after Bacon’s death

1681, William Penn, a Quaker, founded Pennsylvania

1733, Georgia founded by James Oglethrope, a social reformer

1700-1750, Early slave revolts:

1712, New York slave revolt was suppressed

1739, Stono Rebellion occurred where 80 armed African slaves led an armed campaign against slave owners in South Carolina. It was later suppressed

Wars of Colonial America

1640s-1701, the Beaver Wars were fought between the Iroquois Confederacy, backed by English and Dutch, and several native tribes, including the Huron, who were supported by the French

1664, English took over New Netherlands, which was renamed New York, from the Dutch

1675-6, King Philip’s War/Metacom’s War broke out between New Englanders and surrounding natives over land disputes and continual expansion of English settlements, leading to heavy losses on both sides but eventual New England victory

1715, Yamasee and Creek uprising in South Carolina ended with the tribes’ defeat

1754-63, the French and Indian War, fought as part of the conflict between France and Great Britain (called the Seven Years’ War), led to France’s loss of Canada and the Mississippi area to Britain

1763-6, Pontiac, a Native American leader, with support from numerous other local tribes, led a war against Great Britain in the historic Northwest Territory. While the war (Pontia’s War) ended with the natives’ defeat, Britain later recognized land rights held by certain tribes

Chronology of The Road to American Independence (1763-73), Proclaiming Independence (1773-6), and The American War of Independence (1775-1783)



Prelude to war (1760-1775)

1754, Benjamin Franklin drafted the Albany Plan of Union

1754-63, the French and Indian War, fought as part of the conflict between France and Great Britain that originated in Europe, led to France’s loss of Canada and the Mississippi area to Britain and high debt on both sides

1763, Britain’s king issued the Proclamation of 1763

1764 and 1765, Sugar Act and Stamp Act, both tax measures targeting the American colonies, were passed, leading to protests from colonists

1767, the Townshend Acts were passed to help raise revenue for colonial administration. This was done by imposing new taxes on products imported into the colonies

1770, British soldiers in Boston fired upon hostile civilians demonstrating against British military presence

1773, Britain passed the Tea Act to raise revenue for colonial administration, after the Townshend Acts were repealed (except taxation on tea). The Sons of Liberty responded by dumping tea from ships that arrived in Boston (known as the Boston Tea Party)

1774, Britain responded to the Boston Tea Party by passing the Intolerable Acts, which punished the Massachusetts colonists with the closure of the Boston port, limitations of colonial charters, and forced housing of British soldiers in unoccupied buildings. These acts led the colonists’ convening of the Continental Congress

American War of Independence (1775-83)

1775, Virginia governor Dunmore issued a proclamation declaring martial law and promising to free slaves and indentured servants willing to fight for Great Britain

1775, Battles at Lexington and Concord, the first battles in the war, was fought

1776, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress, formally announcing the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

1777, the colonists defeated the British at the Battle of Saratoga, helping secure future French aid

1778, France signed alliance treaty with American representatives

1781, Battle of Yorktown led to the British general Cornwallis’s surrender

1783, Treaty of Paris ended the war with American independence


Chronology of Creating a Constitution and Duals of the First Party System



Creating a Constitution

1781, Articles of Confederation ratified

1786-7, Shay’s Rebellion in Massachusetts highlighted many of the problems that can develop from a decentralized government system

1787, Constitutional Convention convened to rewrite a new constitution

1787-9, US Constitution was ratified and the Articles of Confederation dissolved

1789-9, Bill of Rights was introduced and ratified



Duals of the First Party System

1789-97, Presidency of George Washington (no affiliation but Federalist leaning)

1789, Washington signed Northwest Ordinance of 1787 into law, thereby setting the precedent for establishing new states

1791, First Bank of the United States established

1794, Jay’s Treaty was signed, which led to British withdrawal from forts in the historic Northwest and brought US closer economic ties to Britain.

1794, Whiskey Rebellion occurred when Pennsylvanian distillers refused to pay a tax meant to pay off the national debt.

1797-1801, Presidency of John Adams (Federalist)

1798-1800, Quasi War between US and France

1798, Alien and Sedition Acts passed

1801-1809, Presidency of Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republicans)

1803, the Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of US

1808, Congress prohibited importation of slaves to the US

1809-1817, Presidency of James Madison (Democratic-Republicans)

1812-4, US and Britain fought the War of 1812

1829-1837, Presidency of Andrew Jackson (Democratic-Republicans)

Chronology of The American Republic and Native American Experience and The West in the American Imagination



The Republic and Native Americans

1785-95, Northwest Indian War was fought over the historic Northwest, with US gaining a large territorial concession

1787, Northwest Ordinance established a formal procedure for territories to become states, which became the model for US expansion into the West

1803, Thomas Jefferson made the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of US territory

1811-3, Tecumseh's War, fought in part as part of the War of 1812, was an attempt by Tecumseh, a Native American leader, to prevent further US expansion in the historic Northwest

1813-4, US intervened in the Creek War, a civil war within the Creek nation, leading to US territorial gain and fame for Andrew Jackson, later to become the seventh President of the US

1830, Indian Removal Act passed

1831-9, US removal of Native American tribes (Choctaw, Seminole, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek) from the South to present day Oklahoma

The West

1835-6, Texas War of Independence (Texan Revolt) ended with Texan victory

1843, over a thousand people migrated to Oregon in the Great Migration

1845, Andrew O’Sullivan coined the term “manifest destiny”

1845, US annexed Texas

1846, Oregon became part of US territory

1846-8, US-Mexican War; ended with US obtaining huge land gains

1848, gold discovered in California

1862, Homestead Act of 1862 passed, spurring further settlement of the West by providing a procedure for settlers to apply for ownership of federal land

Chronology of Early Industrialization, Immigration and Nativism and Slavery and the Political Economy of the South



Industrialization

1790, first factory established in US

1807, 1st successful commercial steamship produced

1813, Boston Manufacturing Co. opened the first full cotton textile factory at Waltham, MA

1817, Erie Canal construction began

1825, New Harmony established as a utopian community to

1828, Delaware & Hudson Canal and Baltimore and Ohio Railroad construction began

1837, The Panic of 1837 led to a 5-year recession of the American economy

1840, 10-hour work day for federal employees signed by executive order

1859, value of industrial products exceeded value of agricultural products

1869, the First Transcontinental Railroad that connected eastern US with the west was completed

Immigration

1790, The Naturalization Act of 1790 limited naturalized citizenship to “free white persons”

1840s, Crop failures in Germany and the Irish Potato Famine led to spike in emigration to the US

1845, The Know-Nothing Party, a primarily anti-Catholic political organization, was founded

1850s, German and Irish immigration peaked

Slavery and the Political Economy of the South

1794, Eli Whitney patented the cotton gin, which pulls seeds from cotton. The invention turned cotton into the cash crop of the American South—and created a huge demand for slave labor

1800, cotton production began to expand throughout the South

1808, Congress prohibited importation of slaves to the US

1800-1860 Slave revolts

1800, Gabriel Prosser’s Conspiracy

1811, Louisiana Revolt

1822, Denmark Vesey’s Conspiracy

1831, Nat Turner’s rebellion

1859, John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry

1850, Fugitive Slave Law passed, dictating punishment for those who helped slaves escape
Chronology to Antebellum Reform Movements and The Road to the Civil War

Antebellum Reform Movements

1790s-1840s, the Second Great Awakening led to a wave of religious revivals

1816, American Bible Society established to promote reading of the Bible, especially through Sunday school

1816, American Colonization Society established with the intended goal of emancipating blacks and settling them in Africa or elsewhere

1825, New Harmony, a utopian settlement, was established

1826, American Temperance Society founded

1831, The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper was founded

1833, American Anti-Slavery Society founded

1834, Female Moral Reform Society organized

1839, First Married Women’s Property Act passed

1848, Seneca Falls Convention

1860, public school system established with compulsory education in every state



The Road to the Civil War

1820, In the Missouri Compromise, Missouri is admitted to the Union as a slave state and Maine as a free state. Slavery is forbidden in any subsequent territories north of latitude 36

1846-8, US victory in the US-Mexican War led to a large territorial increase that also exacerbated the slaver state-free state question

1850 (Sept.), Compromise of 1850 was settled. In exchange for California’s entering the Union as a free state, a harsher Fugitive Slave Act was passed

1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a novel that depicts the horrors of slavery, was published

1854, Kansas-Nebraska Act Setting aside the Missouri Compromise of 1820, Congress allows these two new territories to choose whether to allow slavery

1854, Republican Party established, with a anti-slavery platform

1856, Bleeding Kansas

1857, Dred Scott Decision The United States Supreme Court decides, seven to two, that blacks can never be citizens and that Congress has no authority to outlaw slavery in any territory

1859, John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry

1860 (Nov.), Abraham Lincoln, a Republican of Illinois, was elected president

1860 (Dec.), South Carolina seceded from the Union, with much of the South doing the same in the following months

Chronology of The American Civil War and Reconstruction

The American Civil War

1860 (Nov.), Abraham Lincoln won the presidential election of 1860

1860 (Dec.), secession of Southern states began with South Carolina

1861 (Apr.), Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, a federal military installation

1862 (Sept.), Battle of Antietam ended in Union victory

1863 (Jan.), Lincoln proclaimed the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing slaves from rebel territory

1863 (July), Battle of Gettysburg ended in decisive Union victory

1863 (July), New York City draft riots occurred in response to North’s institution of a national draft

1865 (Mar.), Union forces captured Richmond, Virginia

1865 (Apr.), General E. Lee of the South surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House



Reconstruction

1863 (Jan.), Lincoln proclaimed Emancipation Proclamation

1864 (Nov.), Lincoln reelected

1865 (Jan.), Sherman ordered Field Order 15

1865 (Mar.), Freedmen’s Bureau was established to help former slaves

1865 (Apr.), Lincoln assassinated, leading to Andrew Johnson to succeed the presidency

1865 (Dec.), 13th Amendment (abolished slavery) passed

1865-67, Presidential Reconstruction, a period in which Johnson headed a conciliatory approach to dealing with the Southern states, seeking to restore them to statehood as soon as possible

1867-1877, Radical Reconstruction, a period in which Radical Republicans created five military districts in the South with each directed by a military general and supported by the military

1868 (July), 14th Amendment (citizenship and due process) passed

1870 (Feb.), 15th Amendment (right to vote) ratified

1875, Civil Rights Act of 1875 passed, prohibiting discrimination of anyone from equal treatment in public accommodations



1877, Rutherford B. Hayes assumed the presidency, leading to the withdrawal of troops from the South and the end of Reconstruction


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