Portraits of Two Islamist Women: Escape from Freedom or from Tradition?1



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Gender and Islamic Fundamentalism: Feminist Politics in Iran, Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. by Chandra T. Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991); and idem, Gender, Modernization, and Islamization in Iran, Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies, ed. by Valentine Moghadam (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994).

11 Payam-e Zan, vol. 2, no. 6 (Shahrivar 1372 [August/September 1993]): 10.

12 Payam-e Zan, vol. 4, no. 1 (Farvardin 1374 [March/April 1995]): 17.

13 Payam-e Zan, vol. 5, no. 12 (Esfand 1375 [February/March 1997]): 4.

14 Afary, The War Against Feminism, p. 110.

15 Payam-e Zan, vol. 7, no. 10 (Dey 1377 [December 1998/January 1999]): 4.

16 Muhammad Muhammadi, Majera-ye taghir-e zan dar farsi-ye avval, Zanan vol. 8, no. 56 (1992): 2-3.

17 Margot Badran writes of a somewhat similar phenomenon in the earlier Arab women’s journals, when, “portraits of women famous for their public achievements, undermined the press’s own cult of domesticity.” See her Feminists, Islam, and the Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995), 65.

18 Payam-e Zan, vol.2, no. 3 (Mordad 1372 [July-August 1993]): 14-18.

19 Payam-e Zan, vol. 2, no. 5 (Mordad 1372 [July-August 1993]): 16-55.

20 Payam-e Zan, vol. 2, no. 5 (Mordad 1372 [July-August 1993]): 20-33.

21 For a list of Rahnavard’s publications, I am grateful to Hirmand Hassass.

22 The statue has been controversial among modern architects and artists. For a criticism, see Sima Kuban, Tehran ers-e pedar-e kasi nist, Ketab-e Tahran, vol. 4 (1994): 136-37.

23 See Payam-e Zan, vol. 7, no. 9 Azar 1377 ([November/December 1998]): 29.

24 Payam-e Zan, vol. 3, no. 5 (Mordad 1373 [July/August 1994]): 5.

25 Ibid., p. 6.

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid.

28 Ibid., p. 5.

29 See further Ervand Abrahamian, Iran Between Two Revolutions (Princeton University Press, 1982), p. 258.

30 Payam-e Zan, vol. 3, no. 5 (Mordad 1373 [July/August 1994]): 7.

31 Ibid., p. 8.

32 Ibid.

33 Ibid.

34 Ibid., p. 10.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid., p. 11.

37 Ibid.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid.

40 Ali Shariati, What is to be Done? edited by Farhang Rajaee (Houston: Institute for Research and Islamic Studies, 1986).

41 Zahra Rahnavard, Safar be diyar-e zanan-e botparast (Tehran: Soroush Publications, 1987), p. 31.

42 Thanks to Dr. Akbar Mahdi for information on Rahnavard’s activities in the United States in 1976-77.

43 Quoted in Neil McLaughlin, Nazism, Nationalism, and the Sociology of Emotions: Escape from Freedom Revisited, Sociological Theory, vol. 14, no. 3 (1996): 249.

44 Ibid.

45 Payam-e Zan,vol.1, no.11 (Bahman 1371 [January-February 1993]): 22.

46 Ibid., pp. 21-22.

47 For details of this period see Nikki R. Keddie, Roots of Revolution: An Interpretive History of Modern Iran, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981); Abrahamian, Iran: Between Two Revolutions; Eric Hooglund, Land and Revolution in Iran, (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1982); and Shaul Bakhash, The Religion of the Ayatollahs, (New York: Basic Books, 1990).

48 Payam-e Zan, vol. 1, no. 11 (Bahman 1371 [January-February 1993]): 24.

49 Ibid.

50 Ibid.; Sa’idi later was arrested by the secret police, known as Savak, and died under torture.

51 Payam-e Zan, vol. 1, no. 11 (Bahman 1371 [January-February 1993]): 24

52 Ibid.

53 Ibid.; for more details on such practices, see Shahla Haeri, Law of Desire: Temporary Marriage in Shi’i Iran (Syracuse University Press, 1989).

54 Payam-e Zan, vol. 1, no. 11 (Bahman 1371 [January-February 1993]): 25.

55 Ibid., pp. 25-26.

56 Ibid., p. 28.

57 Ibid.

58 Ibid., p. 75.

59 Fromm, Escape from Freedom, p. 231.

60 Payam-e Zan, vol. 1, no. 11 (Bahman 1371 [January/February 1993]): 74.

61 Parvin Paydar, Women and the Political Process in Twentieth-Century Iran (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 240-241; and Payam-e Zan, vol. 3, no. 6 (Shahrivar 1374 [August/September 1995]): 4.

62 Zahra Rahnavard, Safar be diyar-e zanan-e botparast.

63 Ibid., p. 21 ff. For presentation of Iran’s non-Muslims, especially Baha’is, see Janet Afary and Reza Afshari, ed. Non-Muslim Communities of Iran. Special issue of Iran Nameh, vol. 19, nos. 1-2 (Winter-Spring 2001).

64 Ibid., p. 27.

65 Ibid., p. 88.

66 For summaries of the issue, see Zakia Pathak and Rajeswari Sunder RajanRajan, “Shahbanoo,” Signs, vol. 14, no. 3 (1989): 558-81; and Nadita Haksar and Anju Singh, Demystification of Law for Women (New Delhi: Lancer Press, 1986). On how Shahbanoo’s case fueled the Hindus’ campaign against the Babri Mosque, see Nikki R. Keddie, The New Religious Politics and Women Worldwide, Journal of Women’s History, vol. 10, no. 4 (Winter 1999): 18.

67 Rahnavard, Safar, p. 82.

68 Mir-Hosain Musavi, Rahnavard’s husband, was criticized while he was prime minister because of her pre-revolutionary conduct; pictures of her dressed in a miniskirt were reprinted in order to discredit him. Information from Azar Nafisi, personal communication, 2000.

69 Hirmand Hassas, personal communication, 1999.

70 Zanan, vol. 7, no. 51 (Farvardin 1378 [March/April 1999]): 9.

71 Payam-e Zan, vol. 2, no. 3 (Khordad 1372 [May-June 1993]): 7 and 11-12.

72 Ibid., p. 74.

73 Ibid., p. 13.

74 Zan-e Ruz, vol. 26 (Khordad 1375 [May/June 1996]): 8.

75 Payam-e Zan, vol. 3, no. 13 (Esfand 1373 [February/March 1995): 26. For further information about domestic violence in Iran, see Mehrangiz Kar, Khoshunat `aleyheh zanan dar Iran (Tehran: Roshangaran va mutale’at-e zanan, 2000).

76 Payam-e Zan, vol. 2, no. 3 (Khordad 1372 [May/June 1993]): 10.

77 Idem, vol. 1, no. 11, (Bahman 1371 [January-February 1992]): 75.

78 Idem, vol. 3, no. 12, (Esfand 1373 [February-March 1995]): 26

79 Idem, vol. 2, no. 3 (Khordad 1372 [May/June 1993]): 10.

80 Idem, vol. 2, no. 6 (Shahrivar 1372 [August/September 1993]): 17.

81 Idem, vol. 2, no. 3 (Khordad 1372 [May-June 1993]):

82 Idem, vol. 3, no. 6 (Shahrivar 1373 [August/September 1994]): 4.

83 See further Afary Bar amadan az Zolmat, pp. 194-219.


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