Population and Settlement – Study Guide Population and settlement in Québec today



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Population and Settlement – Study Guide

Population and settlement in Québec today


  1. The approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of Québec’s population

    • 8 million inhabitants

    • French majority, English minority, several aboriginal nations, increasingly pluricultural due to immigration

  2. Current demographic trends

    • low natural growth (few babies being born)

    • aging population

    • increased immigration

  3. Government measures to promote population increase

    • public daycare system

    • parental insurance plan

    • policies promoting immigration to Quebec

  4. Effects of the aging of Québec’s population since the end of the 20th century

    • labour scarcity in some sectors

    • increased costs in the health sector

First occupants – Around 1500


  1. Demography

    1. Migrations

  1. How the First Occupants came to settle in North America

    • nomads from Asia crossed the Bering Strait

  1. Territory

    1. Occupation

  1. Groups belonging to the Iroquoian language family

    • the Huron, the Mohawk and the Iroquois

  2. Groups belonging to the Algonquian language family

    • the Maliseet, the Abenaki and the Innu

    1. Organization

  1. How groups of nomadic Amerindians organized their territory

    • among the Innu, a camp of wigwams was set up on hunting grounds

  2. How groups of sedentary Amerindians organized their territory

    • among the Huron, the village was made up of longhouses and surrounded by a palisade

French régime 1608-1760


  1. Demography

    1. Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population

  1. In 1663

    • a population of roughly 3 000 inhabitants

    • mainly male and of French origin, and Native population

  2. In 1760

    1. Population growth

  1. The main measures taken by the state to settle the colony between 1666 and 1672

    • Sending the Filles du Roy

    • Granting land to engagés and soldiers

    • Encouraging marriage and large families

  2. Results of policies encouraging immigration and large families implemented by the state between 1666 and 1672

    • increase in the number of women

    • doubling of the population

  3. Main factor in the growth of the population of New France between 1672 and 1760

    • natural growth

  1. Effects of the European presence on the Amerindians

    1. On the population

  1. Effects of the presence of the French on the Amerindian population

    • mixed births

    • spread of disease

    • sedentarization

    1. On the territory

a. Effects of the presence of the French on the territory occupied by Amerindians

    • establishment of missions

    • construction of forts

3. French territory in North America

3.1 Territory possessed



  1. Locate on a map of eastern North America the territory possessed by France in 1663 and the territory possessed by France after the Treaty of Utrecht

3.2 Organization of the territory

  1. The mode of territorial organization used in New France:

    • the seigneurial system

  2. The mode of land division used in New France:

  3. Basic elements of a seigneury:

    • land belonging to the fabrique [parish corporation]

    • censives

    • manor house

C. British Rule 1760-1867


  1. Demography

1.1 approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population

  1. The approximate number of inhabitants and the composition and the composition of the population after the Treaty of Paris (1763):

    • A population of roughly 65 000 inhabitants,

    • consisting overwhelmingly of Canadiens, a minority of British subjects, a population of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerinidians and Blacks being slaves

  2. Approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the constitutional act:

    • a population of roughly 160 000 inhabitants,

    • consisting mainly of Canadiens, a minority of British subjects, a population of Amerindians and Blacks, some Amerindians and Blacks being slaves

  3. Approximate number of inhabitants and the composition of the population after the act of union:

    • a population of roughly 665 400 inhabitants,

    • consisting mainly of Francophones, a growing Anglophone minority, Amerindians and Blacks

1. 2 population growth

  1. Main population growth factor in the Province of Quebec during the second half of the 18th century:

    • natural growth

  2. Main population growth factors during the first half of the 19th century:

    • natural growth in Lower Canada/ Canada East

    • immigration in Upper Canada/ Canada West

2. Migration flows

2. 1 immigration of British subjects

  1. Reasons for immigration:

  2. Conditions that prompted immigration:

    • free land grants in the early 19th

  3. Places where immigrants settled after the conquest and during the first half of the 19th century:

    • St. Lawrence valley after the conquest, Eastern Townships and Upper Canada during the first half of the 19th century

2.2 immigration of loyalists

  1. Main factors underlying the immigration of loyalists:

    • loyalty to the British crown,

    • fear of reprisal from Americans

  2. Places where loyalists settled:

    • Eastern Townships,

    • New Brunswick,

    • Upper Canada

    1. Emigration of French Canadians

  1. Main factors underlying the emigration of French Canadians to the United States beginning in 1830:

  1. Places where French Canadian migrants settled in the second half of the 19th century:

  • Massachusetts, Maine,

  • areas of internal colonization such as the Mauricie, the Saguenay, the Laurentians

3. Effects of migration flows

3.1 On the society

a. effects on the colony of transatlantic crossing conditions of British immigrants:

  • the spread of disease, compulsory quarantine at the Grosse-Ile

b. change in linguistic composition of the population of Montreal around 1845:

  • the Anglophone population became the majority

c. findings of the 1851 census:

  • the population of Canada East was smaller than that of Canada West

3.2 On the territory

a. effects of British and loyalist immigration in the colony:

  • construction of protestant churches and English schools,

  • township development,

  • division of the province of Quebec into Lower Canada and Upper Canada

b. regions that were settled by migrants from overcrowded holdings in Lower Canada in the early 19th century

  • Outaouais, Mauricie

4. Amerinidian population

4.1 Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the Amerinidian population in the St. Lawrence valley around 1800:

  • a population of roughly 5 000 Algonquians and Iroquoians

4.2 effects of immigration on the Amerinidians

  • reduction in the size of hunting and fishing territories

D. Contemporary period 1867 to the present


1. Demography

1.1. Approximate number of inhabitants and composition of the population

a. approximate number of inhabitants of Quebec

  • 1901: 1.7 million inhabitants

  • 1961: 5 million inhabitants

  • 2006: 7.6 million inhabitants

b. composition of the population of Quebec

  • 1901: a majority of French Canadians, a minority of English Canadians, a small proportion of native people and people of other origins

  • 1961: a majority of Francophones, a minority of anglophones, a small proportion of allophones

  • 2006: a majority of Francophones, a minority of allophones, a small proportion of anglophones

1.2 Population growth

a. factors that contributed to population growth in Quebec during the 20th century:

  • natural growth,

  • immigration

b. period of strong population growth that began after the second world war and ended in the early 1960s:

  • the baby boom

2. Migration flows

2.1 Immigration

a. factors that contribute to migration flows

  • improvement of socio-economic conditions,

  • flight from political regimes,

  • family reunification

b. the countries or regions of origin of the main immigrant groups in Quebec in the second half of the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century

  • Great Britain and the United States in the second half of the 19th century;

  • Eastern Europe, Haiti and Southeast Asia in the second half of the 20th century

2.2 Emigration of French Canadians

a. Factors that contribute to the emigration of French Canadians to the United States in the second half of the 19th century

  • scarcity of agricultural land

  • existence of job prospects in New England factories

b. Places where French Canadian migrants settled in the second half of the 19th century

  • Massachusetts & Maine

  • Areas of internal colonization such as the Mauricie, the Saguenay, and the Laurentians

c. Effect of French Canadian emigration to the United States on Quebec's population in the second half of the 19th century

  • Net migration was negative

2.3 Measures taken by the state

a. Measures regarding immigration implemented by the Canadian government in the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century

b. Main measure implemented by the Quebec government to halt the emigration of French Canadians to the United States during the second half of the 19th century

  • Opening of new areas of colonization

c. Provisions of Canada's 1952 Immigration Act

  • Preference given to immigrants from Western European countries and the United States

  • Discrimination against Blacks, Asians and homosexuals

d. Measures implemented by the Quebec government in the area of immigration since the creation of Quebec's Department of Immigration

  • Establishment of a selection criteria, such as knowledge of French

  • Creation of reception services and linguistic and cultural integration services

e. Main categories of immigrants recognized by Canada's 1976 Immigration Act

  • family class immigrants, who receive financial support from relatives

  • refugees

f. Provisions of Canada's 2001 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act

  • broadening of the powers of the immigration services regarding permanent residents who may present a threat to security

  • tightening the conditions for obtaining refugee status

3. Effects of migration flows

3.1 On the society

a. Effects of immigration on Quebec society at the end of the 20th century

  • presence of various religious denominations

  • spread of ethnic art

3.2 On the territory

a. Effects of immigration of Quebec's territory at the end of the 20th century



  • development of ethnic neighbourhoods in some cities

  • opening of businesses managed by members of cultural communities

  • establishment of places of worship

4. Cities and regions

4.1 Urbanization

a. The relative proportion of urban and rural population in Quebec

  • in 1901: urban population smaller than rural population

  • in 1931: urban population slightly larger than the rural population

  • in 2001: urban population much larger than the rural population

b. The main factors contributing to the increase in Quebec's urban population between 1851 and 1901

c. Factors contributing to the increase in Quebec's urban population in 2001

  • settlement of immigrants

  • concentration of specialized services

  • diversified cultural life

d. Effects of the increase in the urban population on the society and the territory since the early 20th century

  • urban sprawl

  • development of transportation infrastructure

  • construction of shopping centres

e. Means used by the Quebec government and municipalities to improve living conditions in urban areas since the early 20th century

  • dissemination of information on hygiene and public health

  • vaccination campaigns

  • construction of water supply and sewage systems

4.2 Regional growth and decline

a. Effects of the development of certain regions on the society and the territory

b. Factors that contributed to a population decline in certain regions after 1970

  • business closures

  • reduction in services

  • attraction of urban poles

5. Relations with the Native peoples

5.1 Effects of immigration on Native populations

a. Effects of immigration of the social and territorial organization of the Metis and Amerindians in Western Canada

  • changes in their way of life

  • reduction in the size of hunting and fishing territories

b. Reactions of the Metis and some Native peoples following the failure of the 1869 uprising against the federal government

Diversity of social identities and sense of belonging to Quebec society today

a. Elements of membership in a society

  • language

  • religion

  • ethnic or national origin

b. Communities that share elements of identity with Quebec society

  • Abenaki

  • Haitian

  • Vietnamese communities

c. Values shared by Quebec citizens

  • the French language

  • democracy

  • human rights and freedoms


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