Politics new directions and new uncertainties

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1. The spread of liberal principles and political democracy slowed after 1894

2. The rise of a new right-wing politics based on racism

3. Workers elect socialists who demanded new reforms

4. The demand of women for the right to vote

5. Authoritarian govts in central and eastern Europe refuse to make reforms


Early movement in the 1830’s for women’s rights -

1. Reform of marriage family and marriage laws

2. Difficult for women to divorce

3. Property laws gave husbands control over the property of wives

4. Early efforts were not particularly successful

5. Progress was made with middle and upper class women gaining access to higher education

6. Entry into new occupations - teaching, nursing
In the 1840’s and 1850’s women began to focus on gaining equal political rights -

1. Women’s movement most active and vocal in Britain

2. Millicent Fawcett - organized a moderate group

3. Emmeline Pankhurst - organized a radical group = the Women’s Social and Political Union 1903

4. Used media attention and publicity stunts to get people’s attention

5. Suffragettes - confrontational methods to gain full citizenship/voting rights

6. Women for the most part gained the right to vote only after 1914 and World War I


1. Renounced traditional feminine roles

2. Some supported new political ideologies like socialism

3. Sought new freedom outside the household = new roles other than wives and mothers
Maria Montessori -

1. Establish a new system of education based on natural and spontaneous activities

2. Students worked at their own pace

3. Montessori schools were established throughout Europe and the United States

4. Montessori is a model of the “new woman”


End of the 19th century saw a revival of

1. Racism + extreme nationalism

2. This produced a new right wing politics

3. One group targeted by this new thinking were Jews = anti-Semitism

The ideals of the Enlightenment and the French Revolution led to increased legal equality for Jews in many European countries
After 1848 Jews were emancipated throughout central and Western Europe
Jewish emancipation meant -

1. Leave the ghetto

2. Assimilate = blend in with the rest of society

3. Access to university and government

The Dreyfus Affair -

1. Captain Alfred Dreyfus was a Jewish officer in the French army

2. In 1895 he was convicted of treason and sentenced to life on Devil’s Island

3. Evidence is late revealed that Dreyfus was wrongly accused

4. The military and the government try to cover up everything

5. The case became a great public political scandal

military, government, Catholic Church = against Dreyfus

Liberals and radicals = for Dreyfus

6. The French novelist writes a famous pamphlet - J’Accuse = accusing the govt

7. The Dreyfus Affair revealed the deep anti-Semitism in French society

Austria and Vienna became a center of intense anti-Semitism and German nationalism
Anti-Semitism was most extreme in Eastern Europe

1. Persecution

2. Pogroms = organized massacres
Many European Jews responded to the persecution and anti-Semitism by emigrating to the United States and Canada
Zionism -

1. A Jewish nationalist movement

2. Advocated a return to Palestine - the ancient land of the Jews

3. Theodor Herzl = the father of political Zionism

4. The goal of Zionism was a create an independent homeland/nation for the Jews in Palestine

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