Political: Rise to Power: Characteristics: Military Bureaucracies Administration Key figure heads



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The Islamic Gunpowder Empires - Land based powers - represent the height of Muslim political and military power in World History




Ottoman Empire

Safavid Empire

Mughal Empire

Political:

Rise to Power:

Characteristics:

Military

Bureaucracies

Administration

Key figure heads


Sultan - autocrat/basis of power is religious piety

Large central bureaucracies; sultan aided by vizier

Millet system

Land grants to aristocracy (reward for military service)

Gunpowder empires - to withstand powerful nomadic invaders and enlarge territory; ghazi and Janissaries (devshirme)

Powerful Navy



Battle of Chaldiran - illustrated the importance of gunpowder technology - Ottomans victorious but held up due to winter; extended warfare

Osman - founder

Mehmed II

Suleyman/Suleiman the Magnificent/the Lawgiver

Sultan - autocrat/basis of power is religious piety

Large central bureaucracies

Land grants to aristocracy (reward for military service)

Gunpowder empires - to withstand powerful nomadic invaders and enlarge territory; ghazi and Russian slaves - slave infantrymen



Battle of Chaldiran - illustrated the importance of gunpowder technology - Ottomans victorious but held up due to winter; extended warfare Marker event - showed the limits of Shiite expansion (still today the Shiites are surrounded by Sunni and conflicts continue)

Inland capitals - sea vessels privately owned - control of sea ports to Europeans

Shah Ismail - founder

Shah Abbas the Great

Sultan - autocrat/basis of power is religious piety

Large central bureaucracies

Land grants to aristocracy (reward for military service)

Gunpowder empires - to withstand powerful nomadic invaders and enlarge territory



Army of the pure - attempt of the tenth guru to challenge the Mughal army and reassert Sikh beliefs

Babur the Tiger invaded for plunder

Founder


Akbar

Aurangzeb - less religiously tolerant

Shah Jahan

Economic Characteristics

Trade

Economy


Based on agriculture but trade important - most favorably located of the three

Emperor owned everything

Jizra (head tax)

Little impact from Americas - Coffee and tobacco

Shared parts of Silk Road

Large number of merchants and artisans/guilds supervised by govt




Based on agriculture but trade important

Inland capitals - sea vessels privately owned - control of sea ports to Europeans

Emperor owned everything

Jizra (head tax)

Little impact from Americas - Coffee and tobacco

Shared parts of Silk Road - Persian carpets



Based on agriculture but trade important

Inland capitals - sea vessels privately owned - control of sea ports to Europeans

Emperor owned everything

Jizra (head tax)

Little impact from Americas - Coffee and tobacco

Not as interested in trade; allowed Europeans to set up trading posts



Religion/culture


Sunni

Ottoman - from Osman

Cultural differences led to frequent warfare

Encouraged the arts and unique artistic styles developed


Shiite - Twelver Shiism - followers: qizilbash

Safavid after Safi al-Din (Sufi)

Cultural differences led to frequent warfare

Blend of Turkish and Persian influences

Encouraged the arts and unique artistic styles developed - Persian calligraphy emphasized



Divine Faith - Akbar encouraged Muslim Hindu tolerance (primarily Sunni)

Hindu -sati



Mughal - Persian for Mongol

Cultural differences led to frequent warfare

Encouraged the arts and unique artistic styles developed

Influenced by Hindu preference for intricate designs



Social Characteristics


Steppe Turkish traditions and intra-family conflicts for power

Patriarchal - wives of elite had influence; purdah and veiled

Multiplicity of faiths in each empire led to tension

Sons kept in palace to prevent coups/led to sheltered less competent rulers and instability threatened the empire




Against technology

Steppe Turkish traditions and intra-family conflicts for power

Patriarchal - wives of elite had influence - purdah and veiled

Multiplicity of faiths in each empire led to tension

Princes fought to become heir; political instability caused by family controversies always threatened the empire


Steppe Turkish traditions and intra-family conflicts for power

Patriarchal - wives of elite had influence; purdah and veiled

Multiplicity of faiths in each empire led to tension

Princes fought to become heir; political instability caused by family controversies always threatened the empire




Decline:

Looked inward, felt superior, and tried to keep out new ideas, which led to their eventual decline and extinction

Political decline by 1750's - expansion dried up

Ottoman princes become lazy through luxury

Wahhabi movement

Foreign trade controlled by Europeans

Military, administrative network expensive to maintain

Islamic empires less interested in outside world - thus didn't understand the tremendous changes Europe was bringing to the world


    • Thought they had it all

Swiftly fell behind in technological development

Corruption among local govt officials (taxing/pocketing)



Disadvantage in world economy because of inflation caused by New World silver - Europeans controlled (sultans taxes were fixed rate - value of the taxes decreased) Empire had less money to pay, etc.

Marched on Europe, stopped just outside of Vienna

Lost famous sea battle of Lepanto to Spanish - end of Ottoman Lake

Gradually loses power and dominance


Looked inward, felt superior, and tried to keep out new ideas, which led to their eventual decline and extinction

Political decline by 1750's - expansion dried up

Safavid Shiites persecute Sunnis, non-Muslims, and even Sufis

Foreign trade controlled by Europeans

Military, administrative network expensive to maintain

Islamic empires less interested in outside world - thus didn't understand the tremendous changes Europe was bringing to the world



    • Thought they had it all



Swiftly fell behind in technological development

Disadvantage in world economy because of inflation caused by New World silver - Europeans controlled - difficult to pay army and bureaucracy

Collapsed in 1720's (Turkish and Afghani attack - a victim of Islamic infighting and growing dominance of sea-based powers)


Looked inward, felt superior, and tried to keep out new ideas, which led to their eventual decline and extinction

Political decline by 1750's - expansion dried up

Foreign trade controlled by Europeans

Military, administrative network expensive to maintain



Islamic empires less interested in outside world- thus didn't understand the tremendous changes Europe was bringing to the world

    • Thought they had it all

Swiftly fell behind in technological development

Disadvantage in world economy because of inflation caused by New World silver - Europeans controlled

Unstable empire after Akbar's death - Europeans ready to take advantage of disunity



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