Political Economy of Development School of International and Public Affairs



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Political Economy of Development

School of International and Public Affairs

Columbia University

Spring 2016
Syllabus – 19 January 2016

Your instructor


Christopher Blattman

Associate Professor, SIPA & Political Science

IAB 819, 420 W 118th St

chrisblattman@columbia.edu

http://chrisblattman.com

Sign up online for office hours


Important times


Credits: 3

Prerequisites: None, but since this is de facto a class full of second-year EPD students, I’m going to assume you’re familiar with basic theories of economic development as covered in the EPD core economic development class (understanding that some of you are taking the class concurrently).

Location: Tuesdays 2:10p to 4pm, IAB 403

Recitation sections: None


Admissions


This is a core class for EPD students, who need it to graduate, so priority will be given to EPD students, starting with second-year students. Following that I will open it up to other SIPA students, then non-SIPA students. Unfortunately, it’s unlikely there will be spaces even for all the EPD students who want the course. Sorry for that.

If there are seats in the class I am happy to take official and unofficial auditors. IAB 403 is large and so I do not foresee a problem.


Other important information


How detailed, orderly, and excessively fussy can a syllabus be? You’re about to find out! You should read the syllabus closely. I’m not going to be able to say all this stuff in class, but it’s important and I’ll expect you to be familiar after the first class.

Course Overview


Nobody agrees on what “political economy of development” actually means. It’s a catch-all course title. In this case, the class is going to tackle a number of “big questions”:

Why are some countries so poor, repressive, and violent?

What did rich and stable countries do to end political violence and develop complex, specialized, productive economies?

Can today’s poor, stagnant and violent countries not copy this? What’s stopping them? Why don’t they reform?

What role has the West played in either their failure and success?

What role (if any) should the West play in future? Can any of the things the West does—aid, peacekeeping, military intervention, democracy promotion, state building (whatever that means)—make a difference? Can they make things worse?

Why do so many programs and reforms and organizations sound good on paper, but then turn out to be so dysfunctional in practice?

Another way to think about my course goal is this: Looking at the countries that are still stagnant or violent, a lot of smart people are genuinely surprised that these countries’ leaders have not been able to make more progress in end violence or implementing good policies. This class is going to try to demystify what’s going on. There are some good reasons leaders don’t make headway, bureaucrats seem slothful, and programs gets perverted. The idea is to talk about the political, economic, and natural logics that lead to function and dysfunction.

A lot of you will graduate and go and do development work of some kind. I can’t tell you what specific programs or reforms to focus on, or how to implement them. What I can do is help you to understand some of the big, revolutionary ideas about why the best plans so often goes awry—ideas that surprisingly few development practitioners ever acquire.

Mostly we’re going to talk about poor and fragile states, and how those states can get on track to growth and middle income status. I’m going to focus on that transition, in part because that’s the big development challenge of your generation: fragile countries are the only ones not growing, and the rest are well on their way to middle or high income status.

Of course, it’s also important to know what middle income states need to do to stay on track and become less corrupt, more just, and develop more complex industrialized economies. But we only have 14 weeks of class, and I don’t really know much about these topics, so like any course this one has a focus. Whatever your plans, I think this class will be helpful and fun for you. But if you really want to know the political economy of development for middle-income nations, one of the other political development core classes might be for you.

This is a global class, but a slightly unbalanced one. A lot of the examples are going to draw on Africa and Latin America, with a good deal on historical European and U.S. development, plus some material on the Middle East and Asia—an ordering determined largely by my knowledge and ignorance.

Finally, as a core course in the Economics and Political Development concentration, this course will be more theoretical and more reading and writing intensive than most other SIPA classes. It is designed to give you an appreciation for big ideas and theories in comparative politics, international relations, political economy, sociology, geography, and development economics.

I won't have the concrete policy answers in many cases. Actually, no one does, and one of my big aims in this class is to help you learn enough and think critically enough to know why everyone with a clear solution is wrong, and why “development” is the hardest thing in the world. There is no single answer. But there are some principles to finding the right answer in the right situation, and history to learn from. That’s what you’re signing up for in this class.


Lectures and lecture notes:


I’ll typically post PDFs of my lecture slides to Courseworks about 45 seconds before class begins, after I put the caffeine-fueled finishing touches to them. You may find it useful to annotate these PDFs in class on your laptops, and I encourage that.

Taking notes will be important, because I don’t like a dense amounts of text on speaking slides, and so a lot of the material will come out of my mouth or from class discussion. Everything we talk about in class is fair game for the midterm and final.

But one note about laptops. Normally I would not care if you check email or surf the web, since that’s your choice. But it’s often distracting to the person beside or behind you. So please be considerate. If you’re like me and have no self control or attention span, consider this: I turn off my wifi in meetings and close other programs, and sometimes I just close my laptop and handwrite notes.

Grading


SIPA guidelines basically require that I grade on a curve, especially for large core classes. The median grade SIPA expects is a B+. Thus you are graded relative to your peers. Since this is completely subjective subject matter, the process is pretty straightforward: where you land in the final distribution will depend on how much you read, prepare, write, and think critically.

By the way, unless you are applying for a PhD, no one will ever ask you about your grades again. Ever. This is all about how much you want to get out of the course and the material. Most of you want to change the way you look at the world, and that’s what I aim to do. I love this stuff, and I hope it’s infectious. But you’re a grownup, and if you want to pay tens of thousands of dollars to just float by and do the barest minimum to pass the class and get a piece of parchment with Columbia written on it, that’s your prerogative.

For the vast majority of you, if want to do well and get a lot out of the class, it’s pretty simple: read a lot, think about what you’re reading, spend time figuring out how it all fits together, and learn to write these ideas out clearly and coherently.

Here are the specifics:


Lecture attendance (10%)


I will circulate an attendance sheet during class. You will not be penalized for missing one or perhaps two lectures, since everyone falls sick or has other obligations. You may not sign on another’s behalf; violators risk penalties at minimum and potentially failure of the course.

Midterm (40%)


The midterm is in class, and will be 110 minutes long. I will distribute a list of up to 10 short essay questions roughly two weeks before the midterm. Your exam will include three to five of these essay questions.

Final exam (50%)


The final exam will be held during the exam slot designated by the University registrar. I will distribute a list of up to 10 essay questions at least two weeks in advance. Your final will include four to six of these essay questions. The more you research and prepare your answers in advance, the better and more organized your essays will be on the final.

Important information about both the midterm and the final


You will be allowed to bring in a single “cheat sheet” of 8.5 x 11 paper with whatever you want to put on it. It can be hand-scrawled notes, a picture of a puppy, or machine-printed answers in 1-point font. You cannot bring a magnifying glass.

Let me state the obvious: the more you research and prepare your answers in advance, the better and more organized your essays will be on the final.

I will reward originality, creativity, critical thinking, and displays of your understanding and appreciation of the assigned readings and the material we discuss in class. Sometimes I will highlight key arguments from recommended readings in class. This is testable material, but I don’t expect you to read those recommended materials or know them in detail, but rather be familiar with the core ideas I highlight in class.

In addition to your own ideas, critical analysis, and synthesis, I want your answers to show that you understand the readings and lectures, and give credit where it is due. Thus your answers should reference the relevant readings directly, showing a deep appreciation of the class material. You do not need to reference formally. For instance, an acceptable approach would be the following:

While Sawyer argues such and such, the theory presented by Fearon suggests an alternative explanation: blah-de-dee-blah. I think that the common ground between Sawyer and Fearon is such and such. But a crucial assumption differentiating them is blah blah. Thus Sawyer’s approach makes much more sense in places like this, and Fearon in places like that. As we discussed in class, however, North Wallis and the third guy I can’t remember calls both of these arguments into question in their book, because…”

You should study and prepare independently. While casual discussion between students is permitted and natural, your specific answers should not be shared with others, and most of all you should never divvy up questions in a group in order to share answers. Highly similar or rote answers will be penalized. Also, you should not text your friend in class the night before the exam and beg them for their answers, and you should not share these answers if you’re asked.

If a calamity befalls you, and you cannot write the midterm or you utterly fail, we will take it on a case by case basis. Typically I offer some kind of make-up exercise if you are going to fail the course (and ONLY if you are in danger of failing—this is not a way to go from a C to a B or B to an A). If you have a medical excuse and doctor’s note (or similar) then there will be no penalty and we’ll do a make-up exam or something. If there is some other issue, there may be limits to what grade you can obtain. But as long as we determine a way for you to do the readings and develop coherent answers to the midterm and final, we will find a way for you to pass the course.

If at any point you are panicked, depressed, hyperventilating into a bag, have not slept for three days, or whatever, come by my office at any time or send me an email. We will work it out. If it means delaying an exam or missing class, I can't promise you’ll get a great grade, but if you’re willing and able to put in the time to understand the material we will find a way for you to pass the class and graduate.


Academic Integrity


The School of International & Public Affairs does not tolerate cheating and/or plagiarism in any form. Those students who violate the Code of Academic & Professional Conduct will be subject to the Dean’s Disciplinary Procedures. Here is the Code of Academic & Professional Conduct.

We’re not writing formal papers in this class, so you won’t need formal references or bibliographies. But the principle of citation will be applied in the midterm and final, as I discussed above. So please familiarize yourself with the proper methods of citation and attribution.

Violations of the Code of Academic & Professional Conduct should be reported to the Associate Dean for Student Affairs.

Weekly readings and schedule


There are few better ways to learn than to read a lot. “Required” readings are, well, required—you’ll need to show that you’ve read and thought about them to do well on the midterm and final.

“Recommended” readings are not required, but I’ll often discuss a key idea or concept in the lecture. You are not responsible for reading these readings, but the ideas we discuss in class are testable.

“Further reading” are designed to give you a sense of the books or articles I have found most relevant on the topic, in case you want to read more on the topic in future.

All the required readings are articles or book chapters that are downloadable online through Columbia’s network or a proxy server. The book chapters that are not on the Internet have Dropbox links. Let me know if any links are broken.

Week 1.Introduction to political and economic development (January 19)

Required readings


Ferguson, J. with L. Lohmann (1994). “The anti-politics machine: 'development' and bureaucratic power in Lesotho.” The Ecologist 24(5).

Amartya Sen (1988). “The Concept of Development,” Handbook of Development Economics, Volume 1, Edited by H. Chenery and T.N. Srinivasan, Elsevier Science Publishers.

Marshall, Monty G, and Benjamin R Cole. 2011. “Global Report 2011: Conflict, Governance, and State Fragility.” Polity IV Project. Vienna, VA: Center for Systemic Peace.

Rodrik, Dani. “The Past, Present, and Future of Economic Growth.” Global Citizen Foundation Working Paper 1 (2013). (Skip technical bits in sections 6-8)


Recommended readings


Chapter 2 of David J. Samuels (2012). Comparative Politics. Pearson Higher Education.

Courtney Martin, January 11 2016. “The Reductive Seduction of Other People’s Problems,” The Development Set, Medium.com.

World Justice Project. “Rule of Law Index,” 2015.

Huntington, Samuel P. "Political development and political decay." World Politics 17.03 (1965): 386-430.

Pye, Lucian W. 1965. “The Concept of Political Development.” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 358: 1–13.

Chapters 1 to 3 of Maddison, Angus. 2001. “The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective” OECD.

Binyavanga Wainaina (2005). How to Write About Africa. Granta 92.

Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo (2006). “The Economic Lives of the Poor,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21(1), 141-167

Chong, A., La Porta, R., Lopez‐de‐Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2014). Letter grading government efficiency. Journal of the European Economic Association, 12(2), 277-299.

Rauch, James E., and Peter B. Evans. 2000. “Bureaucratic Structure and Bureaucratic Performance in Less Developed Countries.” Journal of Public Economics 75 (1): 49–71.


Further reading


Amartya Sen. 1999. Development as Freedom. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pritchett, Lant. 1997. "Divergence, Big Time" The Journal of Economic Perspectives 11 (3): 3-17.

Orwell, George. Down and out in Paris and London. Vol. 11. Penguin UK, 2001.

Zola, Émile. Germinal. Oxford University Press, 2008.

Steinbeck, John. The grapes of wrath. Penguin, 2006.

CORE is an open-access, interactive ebook-based course for anyone interested in learning about the economy and economics.


Week 2.Order and violence (January 26)

Required readings


James Fearon (1995). “Rationalist Explanations for War,” International Organization 49(3), p379-414.

Amos Sawyer (2004). "Violent conflicts and governance challenges in West Africa: the case of the Mano River basin area." The Journal of Modern African Studies 42(03).

Olson, Mancur. 1993. "Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development." American Political Science Review 87(3): 567-576.

Tilly, Charles (1985). “War making and state making as organized crime,” in Bringing the State Back In, eds P.B. Evans, D. Rueschemeyer, & T. Skocpol. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.


Recommended readings


Chapter 2 in Robert H. Bates (2008). When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Bates, Robert, Avner Greif, and Smita Singh. "Organizing violence." Journal of Conflict Resolution 46.5 (2002): 599-628.

Introduction and Chapter 1 of Gambetta, D. (1996). The Sicilian Mafia: the business of private protection. Harvard University Press.

Henry Farrell. “Dark Leviathan: The Silk Road might have started as a libertarian experiment, but it was doomed to end as a fiefdom run by pirate kings.” Aeon. 20 February, 2015.

David Skarbek on Prison Gangs and the Social Order of the Underworld. EconTalk. March 2015.

Skarbek, David. "Governance and prison gangs." American Political Science Review 105.04 (2011): 702-716.

de la Sierra, Raúl Sánchez. 2015. “On the Origin of States: Stationary Bandits and Taxation in Eastern Congo.” Working paper.

Collier, Paul, and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and grievance in civil war." Oxford economic papers 56.4 (2004): 563-595.


Further reading


Blattman, Christopher, and Edward Miguel. "Civil War." Journal of Economic Literature 48.1 (2010): 3-57.

Hobbes. 1651. “Leviathan”

Hansen-Lewis, Jamie, and Jacob N. Shapiro. 2015. “Understanding the Daesh Economy.” Perspectives on Terrorism 9 (4).

Pinker, Steven. The better angels of our nature: Why violence has declined. Vol. 75. New York: Viking, 2011.

Wood, Elisabeth J. 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Horowitz, D. L. The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press, 2003.

Laitin, David D. Nations, States, and Violence. Oxford University Press, 2007.

Scott, James C. 1976. Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in South East Asia. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Robert H. Bates (2008). When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

William Reno (1999). “Warlord Politics and African States”. Lynne Rienner.

William Reno (2011). “Warfare in Independent Africa”. Cambridge University Press.

Asbury, Herbert. "The gangs of New York: an informal history of the underworld.[Sl]." (1928).


Week 3.Order through states (February 2)

Required readings


Pages 1-24 of Timothy Besley and Suresh Naidu (2015). “Chapter 21: Political Economy,” core-econ.org

Chapters 1 and 2 in Jeffrey Herbst (2000). States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Chapter 1 of Dipali Mukhopadhyay (2014). Warlords, strongman governors, and the state in Afghanistan. Cambridge University Press. (The Kindle version of Chapter 1 is also available on Amazon for free by clicking on “Send a free sample”)

Preface (p. ix-xxvi) in James C. Scott. (2012). Two Cheers for Anarchism.


Recommended readings


Chapter 2 of David J. Samuels (2012). Comparative Politics. Pearson Higher Education.

Pritchett, Lant, Michael Woolcock, and Matt Andrews. "Looking like a state: techniques of persistent failure in state capability for implementation." The Journal of Development Studies 49.1 (2013): 1-18.

Vu, Tuong. "Studying the state through state formation." World politics 62.01 (2010): 148-175.

Spruyt, Hendrik. "The origins, development, and possible decline of the modern state." Annual Review of Political Science 5.1 (2002): 127-149.

Chinese Legalism, BBC4 In Our Times podcast

James A. Robinson (2002). "States and Power in Africa by Jeffrey I. Herbst: A Review Essay." Journal of Economic Literature 40(2): 510-519.

Chapter 7 of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson (2012). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty

Barry Weingast on Law. EconTalk. August 2014.

Weingast on the Violence Trap. August 2013. EconTalk.

Herbst, Jeffrey. "War and the State in Africa." International Security (1990): 117-139.


Further reading


Dipali Mukhopadhyay has a Columbia TEDx talk on her Afghanistan work

Tilly, Charles. Coercion, capital, and European states, AD 990-1992. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen: the modernization of rural France, 1870-1914. Stanford University Press, 1976.

Weber, Max. From Max Weber: essays in sociology. Routledge, 2009.

Robb, Graham. The discovery of France. Pan Macmillan, 2008.

Sahlins, Peter. Boundaries: the making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees. University of California Press, 1989.

North, D. C., J. J. Wallis, and Barry Weingast. (2006). A conceptual framework for interpreting recorded human history, National Bureau of Economic Research. 12795.

North, D. C., J. J. Wallis, et al. (2009). Violence and social orders, Cambridge University Press.

Noel Johnson and Mark Koyama. 2015. “States and Economic Growth”

Dincecco, Mark. "The Rise of Effective States in Europe." Available at SSRN (2015).

Besley, Timothy, and Torsten Persson. "State capacity, conflict, and development." Econometrica 78.1 (2010): 1-34.

Week 4.States, democracy, and economic growth (February 8)

Required readings


North, Douglass Cecil. Transaction costs, institutions, and economic performance. San Francisco, CA: ICS Press, 1992.

Sections 1 to 4 of Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson. (2005). "Institutions as a fundamental cause of long-run growth." Handbook of Economic Growth 1: 385-472.

Read introductory sections of:

Glaeser, Edward L., et al. "Do institutions cause growth?" Journal of Economic Growth 9.3 (2004): 271-303.

Dell, Melissa, Nathan Lane, and Pablo Querubin. "State Capacity, Local Governance, and Economic Development in Vietnam." (2015).

Akee, Randall, Miriam Jorgensen, and Uwe Sunde. "Critical junctures and economic development–Evidence from the adoption of constitutions among American Indian Nations." Journal of Comparative Economics 43.4 (2015): 844-861.

Recommended readings


We discuss neoclassical economic growth models, which you will have seen in the EPD core economic development course. If you need a review, see Chapter 4 of Perkins et al. (2012). Economics of development.

Abhijit Banerjee and Lakshmi Iyer, "History, Institutions and Economic Performance: the Legacy of Colonial Land Tenure Systems in India." American Economic Review 95, no. 4 (September 2005): 1190-1213.

Leonard Wantchekon, Natalija Novta, and Marko Klasnja (2012). “Education and Human Capital Externalities: Evidence from Colonial Benin,” Working Paper.

Przeworski, Adam. "Democracy and economic development." Mansfield & R. Sisson (Eds.), The evolution of political knowledge. democracy, autonomy, and conflict in comparative and international politics (2004): 300-324.

Daron Acemoglu, Suresh Naidu, Pascual Restrepo, and James Robinson. 2015. “Democracy Does Cause Growth”

Further reading


Przeworski, Adam, et al. Democracy and development: political institutions and well-being in the world, 1950-1990. Vol. 3. Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Timothy Besley and Maitreesh Ghatak, “Property Rights and Economic Development.” In Dani Rodrik and Mark Rosenzweig, editors: Handbook of Development Economics, Vol. 5, The Netherlands: North-Holland, 2010, pp. 4525-4595.

López de Silanes, Florencio. "Economic consequences of legal origins." Journal of economic literature (2008).

Rohini Pande and Christopher Udry. Institutions and Development: A View from Below, in the Proceedings of the 9th World Congress of the Econometric Society, edited by R. Blundell, W. Newey, and T. Persson, Cambridge University Press, 2005.


Week 5.The geographic determinants of states, democracy, and growth (February 16)

Required readings


Diamond, Jared (1998). "The evolution of guns and germs." Chapter 3 of Evolution: Society, science, and the universe, edited by A. C. Fabian.

(Note: Page 87 of his 1997 book, Guns Germs and Steel, has a useful one-page diagram summarizing the whole argument. Full book is excellent and recommended.)

Mellinger, Andrew D., Jeffrey D. Sachs, and John L. Gallup (1999). “Climate, Water Navigability, and Economic Development”

Engerman, Stanley L, and Kenneth L Sokoloff. 2005. “Institutional and Non-Institutional Explanations of Economic Differences.” In Handbook of New Institutional Economics, edited by C Menard and M.M. Shirley, 639–65. Amsterdam: Springer.



Sections 1 and 3-5 of Nugent, Jeffrey B., and James A. Robinson. "Are factor endowments fate?." Revista de Historia Economica 28.1 (2010): 45.

Recommended readings


Jared Diamond (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.

Marcella Alsan (2012). “The Effect of the Tse Tse Fly on African Development,” unpublished working paper. 

Nunn, Nathan, and Diego Puga. 2010. “Ruggedness: The Blessing of Bad Geography in Africa.” Review of Economics and Statistics 94 (1): 20–36.

Chapters 1 and 2 of David Landes (1999). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor.

W. Easterly and R. Levine (2003). “Tropics, germs, and crops: the role of endowments in economic development” Journal of Monetary Economics, 50:1.

Further reading


Engerman, Stanley L., and Kenneth L. Sokoloff. Economic development in the Americas since 1500: endowments and institutions. Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Wright, Gavin. 1987. “The Economic Revolution in the American South.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 1 (1): 161–78.

David Landes (1999). The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Why Some Are So Rich and Some So Poor.

Paul Collier (2007). The Bottom Billion. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Frank McLynn. "Genghis Khan: His Conquests, His Empire, His Legacy." (2015).

Week 6.The social and economic determinants of dictatorship and democracy (February 23)

Required readings


Sections 5 to end of Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James Robinson. (2005). "Institutions as a fundamental cause of long-run growth." Handbook of Economic Growth 1: 385-472.

Douglass C. North, John J. Wallis & Barry R. Weingast (2009). Violence and the rise of open-access orders. Journal of Democracy, 20(1), 55-68.

Mahoney, James. 2001. “Path-Dependent Explanations of Regime Change: Central America in Comparative Perspective.” Studies in Comparative International Development 36 (1): 111–41.

Recommended readings


Chapter 6 of Clark, William Roberts, Matt Golder, and Sona Nadenichek Golder. Principles of comparative politics. CQ Press, 2012.

Rodrik, Dani. "When Ideas Trump Interests: Preferences, Worldviews, and Policy Innovations." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 28.1 (2014): 189-208.

Landes, D. S. (2006). "Why Europe and the West? Why Not China?" Journal of Economic Perspectives 20(2): 3-22.

Chapter 7 of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson (2012). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty.

Chapter 2 of John Ishiyama (2012). Comparative Politics: Principles of Democracy and Democratization. Wiley Blackwell (Available free online through Columbia Library)

Pierson, Paul. "Increasing returns, path dependence, and the study of politics." American Political Science Review (2000): 251-267.

Chapter 3 of Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. Economic origins of dictatorship and democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Further reading


Moore, Barrington. Social origins of dictatorship and democracy: Lord and peasant in the making of the modern world. Vol. 268. Beacon Press, 1993.

Acemoglu, Daron. "Politics and economics in weak and strong states." Journal of monetary Economics 52.7 (2005): 1199-1226.

Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. "A theory of political transitions." American Economic Review (2001): 938-963.

Fearon, James D. "Self-enforcing democracy." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 126.4 (2011): 1661-1708.

Paige, Jeffery M. 1998. Coffee and Power: Revolution and the Rise of Democracy in Central America. Harvard University Press.

Moore, Barrington. Social origins of dictatorship and democracy: Lord and peasant in the making of the modern world. Vol. 268. Beacon Press, 1993.

Acemoglu, D. and J. Robinson (2012). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty, Crown Publishing Group (NY).

Acemoglu, Daron, and James A. Robinson. Economic origins of dictatorship and democracy. Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Besley, T. J. and T. Persson (2011). Pillars of Prosperity: The Political Economics of Development Clusters. Princeton, Princeton University Press.

North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change, and economic performance. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Boix, Carles. "Democracy, development, and the international system." American Political Science Review 105.4 (2011): 809-28.

Michael Bratton and Eric C. C. Chang (2006). “State Building and Democratization in Sub-Saharan Africa: Forwards, Backwards, or Together?” Comparative Political Studies 39, p.1059

Bates Robert H., et al. The New Institutionalism and Africa. The Journal of African Economies. Forthcoming.

Michael Bratton and Nicolas Van de Walle (1997). Democratic Experiments in Africa, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ake, Claude. Democracy and development in Africa. Brookings Institution Press, 1996.

Claude Ake (2000). The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa.


Week 7.Strong societies (March 1)


Putnam, Robert D. "What makes democracy work?" National Civic Review 82.2 (1993): 101-107.

Chapter 1 of Scott, J. C. (2009). The art of not being governed: An anarchist history of upland Southeast Asia, Yale University Press.

Clark, William Roberts, Matt Golder, and Sona N. Golder. "Power and politics: insights from an exit, voice, and loyalty game." Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan and Pennsylvania State University (2013).

Linz, Juan J. "State building and nation building." European Review 1.04 (1993): 355-369.


Recommended readings


Posen, Barry R. "Nationalism, the mass army, and military power." International Security (1993): 80-124.

Herbst, Jeffrey. "Migration, the politics of protest, and state consolidation in Africa." African Affairs (1990): 183-203.

Fukuyama, Francis. "Social capital, civil society and development." Third world quarterly 22.1 (2001): 7-20.

Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson. 2015. “Paths to Inclusive Political Institutions”

Chapter 3 of Clark, William Roberts, Matt Golder, and Sona Nadenichek Golder. Principles of comparative politics. CQ Press, 2012.

Alesina, Alberto, and Paola Giuliano. 2013. "Culture and Institutions."

Inglehart, Ronald. “Culture and Democracy,” Harrison, Lawrence E., and Samuel P. Huntington. Culture matters: How values shape human progress. Basic books, 2000.

Djankov, Simeon, et al. "The new comparative economics." Journal of comparative economics 31.4 (2003): 595-619.

Ostrom, Elinor. "Collective Action and the Evolution of Social Norms." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 14.3 (2000): 137-158.

Roland, Gérard. "Understanding institutional change: fast-moving and slow-moving institutions." Studies in Comparative International Development 38.4 (2004): 109-131.

Friedland, Roger, and Robert R. Alford. "Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices and institutional contradictions." (1991): 232-263.

“Paul Robinson on Cooperation, Punishment and the Criminal Justice System,” EconTalk Episode with Russ Robert, August 31, 2015.

Hoff, Karla, and Arijit Sen (2011). "The Kin System as a Poverty Trap?" in Samuel Bowles, Steven N. Durlauf, Karla Hoff (eds.), Poverty Traps. Princeton: Princeton University Press, p.95.

Further reading


De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America.

Weber, Max. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism: and other writings. Penguin, 2002.

Robb, Graham. The discovery of France. Pan Macmillan, 2008.

Sahlins, Peter. Boundaries: the making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees. University of California Press, 1989.

Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen: the modernization of rural France, 1870-1914. Stanford University Press, 1976.

Putnam, Robert D., Robert Leonardi, and Raffaella Y. Nanetti. Making democracy work: Civic traditions in modern Italy. Princeton university press, 1994.

Fischer, David Hackett. Albion's seed: Four British folkways in America. Oxford University Press, 1989.

Ostrom, Elinor. Governing the commons: The evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge university press, 1990.

Elias, Norbert. The civilizing process. Vol. 2. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

Migdal, Joel S. 1988. Strong societies and weak states: State-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Harrison, Lawrence E., and Samuel P. Huntington. Culture matters: How values shape human progress. Basic books, 2000.

Welzel, Christian, and Ronald Inglehart. "The role of ordinary people in democratization." Journal of Democracy 19.1 (2008): 126-140.

Leeson, Peter T. "Pirates, prisoners, and preliterates: anarchic context and the private enforcement of law." European Journal of Law and Economics 37.3 (2014): 365-379.

John Merriman’s lecture on radicals (#14) on YouTube or iTunes University


Week 8.In-class midterm (March 8)


See the beginning of the syllabus for my anal retentive midterm description and comments.

Note: I understand that many EPD students will have workshop-related fieldwork over spring break. The core EPD courses and workshop instructors have coordinated with the EPD office to put most midterms before the break, and workshop instructors are attempting to schedule excess travel days after the break. If there are exceptions, they need to be approved by both me and the EPD office. The alternate midterm date is the morning of March 4.


Week 9.Spring break (no class March 15)

Week 10.Legacies of Western mercantilism, slavery, colonialism, capitalism, socialism, and wars (March 22)

Required readings


Chapter 2 of Migdal, Joel S. Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988.

Chapter 2 of Mahmood Mamdani (1996). “Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism,” Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Leander Heldring and James A Robinson. 2013. “Colonialism and development in Africa” VoxEU. (or, if interested, see full article below)

TBD

Recommended readings


Chapter 5 in Jeffrey Herbst (2000). States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Read introduction to: Nathan Nunn. “The long-term effects of Africa's slave trades”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 123(1): 139-176, 2008.

Heldring, Leander, and James A. Robinson. Colonialism and Economic Development in Africa. No. w18566. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2012.

Alesina, Alberto, William Easterly, and Janina Matuszeski. 2011. “Artificial States.” Journal of the European Economic Association 9 (2): 246–77.

Huillery, Elise. "History matters: The long-term impact of colonial public investments in French West Africa." American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 1.2 (2009): 176-215.

Huillery, Elise. "The Impact of European Settlement within French West Africa: Did pre-colonial prosperous areas fall behind?." Journal of African Economies 20.2 (2011): 263-311.

Nunn, Nathan, and Nancy Qian. 2010. “The Columbian Exchange: A History of Disease, Food, and Ideas.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 24 (2): 163–88.

Hariri, Jacob G. "The Autocratic Legacy of Early Statehood." American Political Science Review 106.3 (2012).

Michalopoulos, Stelios, and Elias Papaioannou. 2013. “Pre‐Colonial Ethnic Institutions and Contemporary African Development.” Econometrica 81 (1): 113–52.

Further reading


Beckert, Sven. Empire of cotton: A global history. Knopf, 2014.

Mahmood Mamdani (1996). “Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism,” Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Franz Fanon (2004). The Wretched of the Earth, Grove Press.

Nathan Nunn and Leonard Wantchekon, “The Slave Trade and the Origins of Mistrust in Africa” American Economic Review 101 (December 2011): 3221–3252


Week 11.Late states, weak states, and the politics of survival (March 29)

Required readings


Chapter 8 of Migdal, Joel S. Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988.

Bates, Robert H., John H. Coatsworth, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. 2007. "Lost Decades: Post-independence Performance in Latin America and Africa." The Journal of Economic History.

Van de Walle, Nicolas. "Economic Reform: Patterns and Constraints." Democratic Reform in Africa. The Quality of Progress (2004): 29-63.

TBD

Recommended readings


Pritchett, Lant, Michael Woolcock, and Matt Andrews. "Looking like a state: techniques of persistent failure in state capability for implementation." The Journal of Development Studies 49.1 (2013): 1-18.

Chapter 2 of Samuels, David J. 2012. Comparative Politics. Pearson Higher Education. (especially second half of chapter on late state development)

Chapters 3 to 7 in Migdal, Joel S. Strong societies and weak states: state-society relations and state capabilities in the Third World. Princeton University Press, 1988.

Valerie Bockstette, Areendam Chanda, and Louis Putterman (2002). States and Markets: the Advantage of an Early Start, Journal of Economic Growth, 7, 347-369.

Robert Klitgaard. 2013. “Tropical Gangsters II: Adventures in Development in the World's Poorest Places” Amazon Digital Services.

Robinson, James A. “Colombia: Another 100 years of solitude.” Current history 112.751 (2013): 43-48.

Olken, Benjamin A., and Rohini Pande. 2012. “Corruption in Developing Countries.” Annual Review of Economics 4 (1): 479–509.

Alesina, A. and D. Dollar (2000). “Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why?Journal of Economic Growth, 5, 33-64.


Further reading


Steven Radelet. 2016. The Great Surge: The Ascent of the Developing World. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Ravi Kanbur (2008). “The Co-Evolution of the Washington Consensus and the Economic Development Discourse”.

Crawford Young (2004). "The end of the post-colonial state in Africa? Reflections on changing African political dynamics." African Affairs 103(410).

Goldstone, Jack A., Robert H. Bates, David L. Epstein, Ted Robert Gurr, Michael Lustik, Monty G. Marshall, Jay Ulfelder, and Mark Woodward. “A Global Forecasting Model of Political Instability.” American Journal of Political Science 54, no. 1 (2010): 190–208.

Robert H. Jackson and Carl G. Rosberg (1982). “Personal Rule in Black Africa: Prince, Autocrat, Prophet, Tyrant”. University of California Press.

Tripp, Aili Mari. 2010. “Museveni's Uganda: paradoxes of power in a hybrid regime”

Magaloni, Beatriz. Voting for autocracy: Hegemonic party survival and its demise in Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Week 12.Foreign aid in political perspective (April 5)

Required readings


Nancy Qian (2014). “Making Progress on Foreign Aid.” Annual Review of Economics 3

Moss, Todd, Gunilla Pettersson, and Nicolas Van de Walle (2006). "An aid-institutions paradox? A review essay on aid dependency and state building in sub-Saharan Africa." Center for Global Development working paper 74.

Besley, Timothy, and Torsten Persson. "Taxation and Development." Handbook of Public Economics 5 (2013): 51.

Pritchett, Lant, Michael Woolcock, and Matt Andrews. "Looking like a state: techniques of persistent failure in state capability for implementation." The Journal of Development Studies 49.1 (2013): 1-18.


Recommended readings


William Easterly (2009) "Can the West Save Africa?" Journal of Economic Literature 47(2).

Roger Gordon and Wei Li (2005). “Tax Structures in Developing Countries: Many Puzzles and a Possible Explanation”

UN Millennium Project, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, January 2005 (Chapters 1 and 2)

Chapter 5 of Van de Walle, Nicolas. 2001. African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis, 1979-1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Berman, Eli, Joseph H. Felter, Jacob N. Shapiro, and Erin Troland. “Effective Aid in Conflict Zones.” VoxEU.org, May 26, 2013.

Eric Werker and Faisal Z. Ahmed (2008). “What Do Nongovernmental Organizations Do?” Journal of Economic Perspectives 22:2.

Nunn, Nathan, and Nancy Qian. “U.S. Food Aid and Civil Conflict.” American Economic Review.

William Easterly and Tobias Pfutze, Where Does the Money Go? Best and Worst Practices in Foreign Aid" Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 22, No.2, Spring 2008.

Michael Faye and Paul Niehaus, “Political Aid Cycles”, American Economic Review 2012, 102(7): 3516–3530.

Ahmed, Faisal Z. "The Perils of Unearned Foreign Income: Aid, Remittances, and Government Survival." American Political Science Review 106.1 (2012): 146-165.


Further reading


Michael Clemens and Todd Moss (2005). What's Wrong with the Millennium Development Goals? CGD Brief.

Nancy Birdsall (2004). Seven Deadly Sins: Reflections on Donor Failings, CGD Working Paper 50.

Andrew Mwenda, Africa and the Curse of Foreign Aid (Video)

Podcast with Binyavanga Wainaina: “The Ethics of Aid: One Kenyan’s Perspective” (or see transcript)

Aidleap, January 11, 2016, “Why you’re disillusioned with aid work” (blog post)

Chris Blattman, August 6, 2010, “Is aid depressing?” (blog post)

Sachs, Jeffrey. The end of poverty: economic possibilities for our time. Penguin Group USA, 2006.

William Easterly. The Big Push Déjà Vu: A Review of Jeffrey Sachs’s The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time, Journal of Economic Literature, 44, no. 1 (March 2006): Further reading

Ostrom, Elinor, Clark Gibson, Sujai Shivakumar, and Krister Andersson. 2002. "Aid, Incentives, and Sustainability: An Institutional Analysis of Development Cooperation (Summary Report)." Sida Studies in Evaluation 02/01:1.

William Easterly (2001). The Elusive Quest for Economic Growth: Economists’ Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics. Cambridge, MIT Press.

William Easterly (2006). “The White Man’s Burden: Why the West’s Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill, and So Little Good.” New York, Penguin Press.

Dambisa Moyo (2009). Dead Aid.

Levi, Margaret. Of rule and revenue. Univ of California Press, 1989.

Week 13.Warmaking and statemaking in the 20th and 21st century (April 12)

Required readings


Weinstein, Jeremy M. 2005. "Autonomous Recovery and International Intervention in Comparative Perspective." Center for Global Development Working Paper 57.

Walter, Barbara F. "Why Bad Governance Leads to Repeat Civil War.” Journal of Conflict Resolution. 58.2 (2014). (Read up to “Data and Empirical Analysis” then skim rest)

Fortna, Virginia Page, and Lise Morjé Howard. "Pitfalls and Prospects in the Peacekeeping Literature." Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 11 (2008): 283-301.

Easterly, William. “Foreign Aid Goes Military!” New York Review of Books, 2008.


Recommended readings


Posen, Barry R. "Nationalism, the mass army, and military power." International Security (1993): 80-124.

Dube, Oeindrila, and Suresh Naidu (2014) “Bases, bullets and ballots: The effect of US military aid on political conflict in Colombia.” National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 20213.

Myerson, Roger B. "The autocrat's credibility problem and foundations of the constitutional state." American Political Science Review 102.01 (2008): 125-139.

Herbst, J. (1996). "Responding to State Failure in Africa." International Security 21(3).

Weingast “In the Shadow of Violence: A New Perspective on Development.” Working Paper, Hoover Institution, Stanford University, July 2015.

Fearon, James D, and David D Laitin. 2004. “Neotrusteeship and the Problem of Weak States.” International Security 28 (4): 5–43.

Fortna, Virginia Page. “Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace After Civil War.” International Studies Quarterly 48 (2004): 269–292.

Shringarpure, Bhakti. “In Conversation with Mahmood Mamdani.” Warscapes, July 15, 2013.

John Merriman’s lecture on the European enlightenment (#5), Robespierre (#6) and nationalism (#13) on YouTube or iTunes University

Further reading


Sambanis, Nicholas. “Short- and Long-Term Effects of United Nations Peace Operations.” The World Bank Economic Review 22, no. 1 (January 1, 2008): 9–32.

Thelen, Kathleen. "Historical institutionalism in comparative politics." Annual review of political science 2.1 (1999): 369-404.

Levitsky, Steven, and María Victoria Murillo. "Variation in Institutional Strength." Annual Review of Political Science 12 (2009): 115-133.

DFID. 2010. Societies, States and Citizens. A policymaker's guide to the research.

Weber, Eugen. Peasants into Frenchmen: the modernization of rural France, 1870-1914. Stanford University Press, 1976.

Besley, Tim and Persson, Torsten. The Origins of State Capacity: Property Rights, Taxation and Politics, American Economic Review, 99(4), 1218-44, 2009. 


Week 14.Democratization and democracy promotion (April 19)

Required readings


Chapter 5 of Samuels, David J. 2012. Comparative Politics. Pearson Higher Education.

TBD


Gandhi, Jennifer. Political Institutions under Dictatorship. Cambridge University Press New York, 2008. (Introduction)

William Easterly (2011). “Benevolent Autocrats.” unpublished working paper.


Recommended readings


Chapter 6 of Van de Walle, Nicolas. African economies and the politics of permanent crisis, 1979-1999. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Blaydes, Lisa, and Mark Andreas Kayser. "Counting Calories: Democracy and Distribution in the Developing World." International Studies Quarterly 55.4 (2011): 887-908.

p. 75-92 of Claude Ake (2000). The Feasibility of Democracy in Africa. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa.

Besley, Timothy and Masayuki Kudamatsu (2007). "Making Autocracy Work." Unpublished working paper.

Haber, Stephen (2008). "Authoritarian government." The Oxford Handbook of Political Economy: 693-707.

Diamond, Larry. "Promoting democracy in post-conflict and failed states." Taiwan Journal of Democracy 2.2 (2006): 93-116.

Gandhi, Jennifer, and Ellen Lust-Okar. "Elections under authoritarianism." Annual Review of Political Science 12 (2009): 403-422.

Gilardi, Fabrizio. "Transnational diffusion: Norms, ideas, and policies." Handbook of international relations 2 (2012).

Geddes, Barbara. "What do we know about democratization after twenty years?" Annual review of political science 2.1 (1999): 115-144.

Monica Martinez-Bravo, Gerard Padró-i-Miquel, Nancy Qian and Yang Yao (2013) “Political Reform in China: Elections, Public Goods and Income Distribution” Working paper.

Monica Martinez-Bravo, Gerard Padró-i-Miquel, Nancy Qian and Yang Yao (2011) "Do Local Elections in Non-Democracies Increase Accountability? Evidence from Rural China," NBER Working Paper # 16948

Jones, Benjamin F., and Benjamin A. Olken. “Do Leaders Matter? National Leadership and Growth Since World War II.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 120 (2005): 835–864.

Herbst, Jeffrey. "Political liberalization in Africa after ten years." Comparative Politics (2001): 357-375.

Further reading


Geddes, Barbara, Erica Frantz, and Joseph G. Wright. "Military Rule." Annual Review of Political Science 17 (2014): 147-162.

Blaydes, Lisa. Elections and distributive politics in Mubarak’s Egypt. Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Tripp, Aili Mari. Museveni's Uganda: paradoxes of power in a hybrid regime. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2010.

Magaloni, Beatriz. Voting for autocracy: Hegemonic party survival and its demise in Mexico. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.


Week 15.Organizations, institutions, and approached for development (April 26)

Required readings


Chapter 1 of Tendler, Judith. Good government in the Tropics. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Jurgen Blum, Fotini Christia, and Daniel Rogger (2016). “Civil Service Reform in Post-Conflict Societies” World Bank working paper.

Rodrik, Dani. "When Ideas Trump Interests: Preferences, Worldviews, and Policy Innovations." The Journal of Economic Perspectives 28.1 (2014): 189-208.

Introduction (p.1-8) and Chapter 10 (Conclusions) in James C. Scott. (1998). Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed.


Recommended readings


If you didn’t read it in Week 1, see: Ferguson, J. with L. Lohmann (1994). “The anti-politics machine: 'development' and bureaucratic power in Lesotho.” The Ecologist 24(5).

Video: Lant Pritchett (2010) The best of aid.

Rauch, James E., and Peter B. Evans. 2000. “Bureaucratic Structure and Bureaucratic Performance in Less Developed Countries.” Journal of Public Economics 75 (1): 49–71.

William Easterly. Planners vs. Searchers in Foreign Aid, Asian Development Review, 23, no. 2, (2006): 1-35.

Evans, Peter B. "Predatory, developmental, and other apparatuses: a comparative political economy perspective on the third world state." Sociological Forum. Vol. 4. No. 4. Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers, 1989.

Pritchett, Lant, Michael Woolcock, and Matt Andrews. "Looking like a state: techniques of persistent failure in state capability for implementation." The Journal of Development Studies 49.1 (2013): 1-18.

Chong-En Bai, Chang-Tai Hsieh, Zheng (Michael) Song. 2014. “Crony Capitalism with Chinese Characteristics” Working paper. (And Youtube presentation)

Paul Seabright. 1999. “The Aestheticising Vice,” London Review of Books 21(11), p.26-27

J. Bradford DeLong. 1999. “Forests, Trees, and Intellectual Roots...: A review of James Scott’s Seeing Like a State.”

Fernandez, Raquel, and Dani Rodrik. "Resistance to reform: Status quo bias in the presence of individual-specific uncertainty." The American economic review (1991): 1146-1155.

UN Millennium Project, Jeffrey D. Sachs, Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals, January 2005 (Chapters 1 and 2)

Dani Rodrik (2006). “Goodbye Washington Consensus, Hello Washington Confusion? A Review of the World Bank's Economic Growth in the 1990s: Learning from a Decade of Reform”. Journal of Economic Literature.

Andrews, Matt, Lant Pritchett, and Michael Woolcock. "Escaping capability traps through problem driven iterative adaptation (PDIA)." World Development 51 (2013): 234-244.

Further readings


Macgregor, Richard. The party: the secret world of China's communist rulers. Harper Perennial, 2010.

Evans, Peter B. Embedded autonomy: states and industrial transformation. Vol. 25. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.

Ferguson, J. (1990). The anti-politics machine:" development," depoliticization, and bureaucratic power in Lesotho, Cambridge Univ Press.

Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed, Yale University Press.

Easterly, W. (2006). The white man's burden: why the West's efforts to aid the rest have done so much ill and so little good, Penguin Group USA.

Easterly, William. The tyranny of experts: Economists, dictators, and the forgotten rights of the poor. New York: Basic Books, 2014.

Rodrik, Dani. One economics, many recipes: globalization, institutions, and economic growth. Princeton University Press, 2008.

Popper, Karl Raimund. The poverty of historicism. Psychology Press, 2002.

Andrews, Matt. The limits of institutional reform in development: Changing rules for realistic solutions. Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich. Small is beautiful. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, 1985.


Final Exam: To be announced by registrar during regular exam period (most likely February 10 at 2:10p)




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