Political, economic & social causes



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Revolutions 1750 -1914





Political, economic & social CAUSES

Political or social groups and their goals (what did they want?)

Important leaders & their influences/accomplishments

Important events/turning points in the revolution

How much did the country TRULY change after the revolution?

American Revolution

1775 to 1781
war for independence

Political: military protection from Britain; no representation in Britain
Economic: more & higher taxes due to the military expenses of Britain (taxation w/o representation). Cargo had to travel on British ships.
Social: Britain trying to hinder western settlement; quartering of British soldiers

Patriots: colonists who wanted independence

Loyalists: colonists loyal to the king
Sons of Liberty: radical group of patriots (Boston Tea Party)

Washington: General of the Revolutionary Army & 1st president
Jefferson: wrote the Declaration of Independence
King George III: English king during the Revolution
Madison: wrote the Constitution

1775: Lexington/Concord – Revolution begins
July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence
1781: British surrender
1783: Peace of Paris recognizes American independence
1789: Constitution signed

Political: Articles of Confederation 1st attempt at government; Constitution with Bill of Rights establishes a federal republic with limited popular sovereignty;
Economic: power to wealthy landowners only
Social: did not give full rights to everyone – no rights for women, slaves, landless men or indigenous people







Political, economic & social CAUSES

Political or social groups and their goals (what did they want?)

Important leaders & their influences/accomplishments

Important events/turning points in the revolution

How much did the country TRULY change after the revolution?

French Revolution

1789 to 1815
Civil war or war for independence?

Political: 1st & 2nd estate held all the privilege; 3rd estate had no power or rights
Economic:

Government in debt b/c Versailles & American Revolution; wealthiest (1st & 2nd estate) tax exempt; inflation; drought had brought famine—many riots


Social: 1st & 2nd estate had all privilege; majority of population had no rights—one vote per estate, even though 97% of population is in the 3rd Estate—Enlightenment ideals and Am. Rev. inspires
Immediate: Government was bankrupt and asked the poorest for money, not the wealthiest

1st & 2nd Estate: clergy & nobility; had the most power; tax exempt
3rd Estate: commoners working for political & economic reform (peasants made little money but paid very high taxes)—but also lawyers who had studied the Enlightenment
Jacobins: radicals who wanted control the government & destroy enemies of the revolution
Moderates: wanted a limited monarchy

Louis XVI: absolute monarch who ruled during the Revolution; beheaded
M. Robespierre: Jacobin leader, who ruled France during the Reign of Terror
Napoleon Bonaparte: military dictator of France
Olympia de Gouges: wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Women

1789: French Revolution begins
July 14, 1789: Bastille Day; symbol of Louis’ power and taking it symbolized the end of his power
1793-1794: Reign of Terror & Robespierre
1799-1815: Napoleon’s rule
1814-1815: Congress of Vienna – 1st international diplomatic resolution to a war—goal was to create stability and order in Europe—much was done by Metternich of Austria; divided Napoleon’s territory into Europe (redraw Europe & tried to keep the peace & create a balance of power—promoted idea of legitimacy

Did create peace of 100 years



Political:

1st government: limited constitutional monarchy under moderates

2nd government: Napoleon as a military dictator

3rd government: after the Congress of Vienna; constitutional monarchy

Church under gov. control



Economic: eventually better
Social: some rights for women until Napoleon; extended education for men & formed civil code (Napoleonic Code—state with constitution, limited suffrage); after Congress of Vienna – no voting rights for middle or lower class w/o property, still nothing for women









Political, economic & social CAUSES

Political or social groups and their goals (what did they want?)

Important leaders & their influences/accomplishments

Important events/turning points in the revolution

How much did the country TRULY change after the revolution?

Haitian Revolution

1791 – 1803

Civil war AND war for independence
ONLY successful slave revolt in history


Political: French part of the island called Saint Dominique; Spanish part called Hispaniola. Revolt in French part. French troops fighting with Napoleon, could not assist
Economic: Richest European colony in Americas; 1/3 of all French foreign trade – sugar, coffee & cotton; exhausted soil
Social: oppressive & unequal conditions for slaves; high disease & mortality rate—slaves outnumber planters 10 to 1


Grand blancs: white, French plantation owners wanted power, status & money. 40,000
Gens de couleur: free blacks who owned slaves and wanted civil rights. About 30,000
Maroons: Escaped slaves that wanted freedoms and rights
Slaves:500,000 or ¾ of the population who wanted freedom & rights

Toussaint L’Ouverture: was a former slave that turned general during the slave revolt. His forces gained control of most of Haiti He was betrayed while negotiating with France and died in a French prison.
J. Dessaline: Revolution leader who defeated the French, and appointed himself leader of Haiti.

1776: 800 gens de couleur to colonies by French to help the Americans. Learned democracy.
1789: Fr. Rev. inspires grand blancs to revolt for own rights – no one else’s.
1791: Civil war btwn grand blancs & gens de couleur
1792-1793: French troops vs. British & Spanish troops
1794: French outlaws slavery
1804: Haitian independence

Political: Name changed to Haiti; 2nd independent state in the Americas/W. hemisphere; 1st African American state; unstable government – 22 leaders killed in 1800s; more civil wars
Economic: wrecked economy – problems for the next 200 years; US assistance sporadic
Social: tens of thousands died; all Europeans killed or exiled







Political, economic & social CAUSES

Political or social groups and their goals (what did they want?)

Important leaders & their influences/accomplishments

Important events/turning points in the revolution

How much did the country TRULY change after the revolution?

Latin America

1810 – 1825


  • Brazil

  • Mexico

  • South America



Wars for independence


Political:

Peninsulares ruled – had money, land and power (top jobs in gov. and church); Creoles wanted the power and resented Spanish rule


Economic:

Creoles had large plantations or ranches and participated in trade – gaining wealth, wanted power—mercantilist policies tied merchants to Spain


Social:

Sociedad de Castas


Long term:

European domination

Spread of Enlightenment ideals

American and French Revolutions—read Declaration of Ind. and Const.

Growth of nationalism

Immediate:

Social injustices

Revolutionary leaders emerge

Napoleon invades Spain


Peninsulares: wanted status quo – 80,000
Creoles: wanted political power – 3.5 million—owned haciendas, ranches, and mines
Mestizos & mulattos: wanted equality & rights

Slaves: wanted freedom



Caudillos: Creole military leaders

M. Hidalgo: a priest who led a peasant revolt in Mexico in 1810 - executed
S. Bolivar: Creole who was influenced by the American & French Revs., and enlightenment writers. Led revolts in Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru & Columbia. Tried to form a United South America, but was defeated by regional interests.
Jose de San Martin: led the Argentinean revolt
Pedro I: King of Brazil who declared Brazil’s independence from Portugal.

1821: Mexican independence


1807: Napoleon invades & controls Spain, which cannot control the colonies – atmosphere right for revolutions
1816: Argentinean independence
1822: Brazilian independence

Political:

Little change for middle or lower classes– no rights for mestizos, mulattos, slaves, women; creoles replaced peninsulares (caudillos)


Economic:

Slavery still allowed in some areas; mestizos, mulattos & some women could own property in some countries


Social:

Little change for middle or lower classes – no rights for mestizos, mulattos, slaves, women; slavery still allowed in some countries


Effects

Colonial rule ends

Numerous nations emerge in Latin America

Continuing efforts to achieve stable democratic governments and to gain economic independence






















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