Poems, Anonymous Poiret



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101 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA Poems, Anonymous

Poiret

On 5 for editions consult: Fabricius, ut sup., pp. 286­294; Oehler, ut sup., pp. 776 781, Hertel, ut sup., pp. 308 325; and for discussions: BSlhr, ut sup., p. 23; Mani­tius, ut sup., 344 348; O. Bardenhewer, Patrdapie, Frei­burg, 1901, Eng. tranal., St. Louis, 1908.

On 6 for editions consult: Hartel, ut sup., pp. 302 305; Peiper, ut sup., 227 230; for discussions, Bithr, ut sup., p. 24; Ebert, ut sup., pp. 313 314; Manitius, ut sup., pp. 130 133.

For the rest the works already cited are available. Ad­ditional sources for one or more are: S. Brandt, Ueber das dem Lact. zugeschriebene Gedicht, Leipsic, 1891; W. Brandes, Ueber die frbhchrldtliche Gedicht Laudes Domini, Brunswick, 1887; (on 10) G. Ddisle, in BibliotU9ue de 1'fcole des chartes, ser. 6, vol. iii., pp. 297 eqq., Paris, 1867, and T. Mommsen, in llermea, iv (1869), 350 363; (on 13 14): A. Mai, Class" auctorm, v. 382 385, Rome, 1833, and A. Oxe, Vietorini versus de lege Domini, Cre­feld, 1894. For editions of 18 that of Bladus, Rome, 1542, and that in MPG, xxxviii. 131 338 may be named; and the later ones of F. Diibner, Paris, 1846; J. G. Brambs, Leipsic, 1885; A. Ellison, ib. 1885 (Greek and German; useful for the list of literature and the introduction); Germ. transl. by E. A. Pullig, Bonn, 1893. Consult Krumbacher, Geschichte, pp. 746 748 (also with lists of literature).
POESCHL, pfi'ahl, THOMAS: Austrian chiliast;

b. at H6ritz (20 m. s.w. of Budweis), Bohemia, Mar.

2, 1769; d. at Vienna Nov. 15, 1837. He was edu­

cated for the Roman Catholic priesthood at Linz

and Vienna, and after ordination became, in 1804,

cooperator, catechist, and director of the school at

Braunau on the Inn. In 1806 he attended the

Protestant Johann Philipp Palm at his execution,

and became filled with wild hatred of Napoleon,

while his impassioned, sermons caused some to regard

him as a saint and others as a maniac. At this crisis

he came into contact with the mystic and chiliastic

Roman Catholic " Brothers and Sisters in Zion,"

and was accordingly removed to Ampfelwang,

whither the " Brothers and Sisters " also trans­

ferred their headquarters. The great battle of Leip­

sic, however, caused his insanity to become unmis­

takable. Supported by the revelations of a certain

Magdalena Sickinger, he now proclaimed himself

called to convert the Jews and to found the true

Judeo Catholic Church. In spite of all efforts to

suppress him, he continued to promulgate his doc­

trines at Vocklabruck and Salzburg. Finally, in

1817, he was committed to the hospital for the

clergy at Vienna, where he remained until his death.

Under the leadership of a peasant named Johann

Haas, the followers of PSschl went on to still wilder

vagaries than their leader, though without falling

into sensuality or giving a single addition to Prot­

estantism. Even when deserted by Haas and Mag­

dalena Sickinger, they remained true to Poschl,

who had adherents a generation later, not only in

Bohemia, but also in Baden, Franconia, Hesse, and

Frankfort, while in 1831 some fifty emigrated to

Louisiana, where they made an unsuccessful at­

tempt at communism. His three great tenets were

the indwelling of Christ in the heart through faith,

the conversion of the Jews, and the repentance of

the Christians; and he likewise advocated the use

of the vernacular in the liturgy, the administration

of the Eucharist under both kinds, and the rejection

of images. (GEORG LOESCHE.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: L. W6rth, Die proteatantisehe Pforreu Vtik­labruck (1818 18,136). Bin Beitrap zur Kenntniss . . der Poschlianer, Marktbreit, 1825; M. Hiptmair, Thomas

Pbachl im Lichte seiner Selbatbiographie, Vienna, 1893;

T. Wiedemann, Die religiose Bewegung in Oberoateneich



. beim Beginne des 18. Jahrhunderta, Innsbruck, 1890;

ADB, xxvi. 454!55; KL, x. 118 121.

POETRY, HEBREW. See HEBREW LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, III.
P08LE, pb'le, JOSEPH: German Roman Catholic; b. at Niederapay (7 m. s. of Coblenz) Mar. 19, 1852. He was educated at the Gregorian Uni­versity, Rome (1871 79; Ph.D., 1874; D.D., 1879), and the University of Wiirzburg (1879 81); was teacher in the intermediate school at Baar, Switzerland (1881 83), professor of dogmatic the­ology in St. Joseph's College, Leeds, England, (1883 86), professor of philosophy at Fulda, Prussia (1886 89), professor of apologetics at the Catholic University of America (1889 94), and professor of dogmatic theology at the University of Munster (1894 97). Since 1897 he has been professor of the same subject at the University of Breslau. He has been one of the editors of the Philosophi8ches Jahrbuch der GorTesgesellschaft since its establish­ment in 1888, and has written P. Angelo Secchi, S. J., Bin Lebens  and Kulturbild aus dem neunzehnten Jahrhundert (Cologne, 1883); Die Sternenwelten and ihre Bewohner, zugleich als erste EinfiArung in die moderne Astronomie (2 vols., 1883 84); and Lehr­buch der Dogmatik fur akademische Vorlesungen and sum Selbstunterricht (3 vols., Paderborn, 1902 05, new ed., 1908).

POINTS OF AGREEMENT, HESSIAN. See VERBESSERUNGSPUNKTE, HESSISCHE.
POIRET, pwdl"r6', PIERRE: Prominent French mystic; b. at Metz Apr. 15, 1646; d. at Rijnsburg (3 m. n. of Leyden) May 21, 1719. After the early death of his parents, he supported himself by the engraver's trade and the teaching of French, at the same time studying theology, in Basel, Hanau, and, after 1668, Heidelberg. At Basel he was captivated by Descartes' philosophy, which never quite lost its hold on him. He read also Thomas 6 Kempis and Tauler, but was especially influenced by the wri­tings of the Dutch Mennonite mystic Hendrik Jansz van Barneveldt, published about that time under the pseudonym of Emmanuel Hiel. In 1672 he be­came pastor of the French church at Annweiler in the duchy of Deux Ponts. Here he became ac­quainted with Elisabeth, abbess of Hereford, the granddaughter of James I. of England and a noted mystic, with the Theologia Germanica (q.v.), and with the writings of Antoinette Bourignon (q.v.), which last supplied exactly what he wanted. The desire to make the acquaintance of this gifted woman took him to Holland in 1676. He settled in Am­sterdam, and published there in the following year his Cogitationzs rationales de Deo, anima, et Malo, which gained him an immediate reputation for scholarship and philosophic insight. It is Cartesian in form; the Trinity is conceived in mathematical terms; all knowledge is to rest on evidence but the end of this knowledge of God is practical, to lead distracted Christendom back to unity. The in­fluence of Thomas h, Kempis and Tauler is plainly visible.

From Holland Poiret went on to Hamburg, still






Polret

Poisey

THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG

in quest of Antoinette Bourignon, was completely won by her at the first meeting, and until her death in 1680, he was her faithful disciple. He accom­panied her in her wanderings, traveled several times as far as Holstein in connection with her exceed­ingly confused affairs, and returned to Amsterdam to see to the publication of her complete works, to which he prefixed a thoroughgoing defense of her and added a translation of the G6ttliche Gesicht of Hans Engelbrecht (q.v.), the Brunswick enthusi­ast. He defended her character and divine mission in a Mdmoire touchant la vie de Mlle. A. Bourignon (1679), and championed her cause against Bayle and ~eckendorf. He was also a warm admirer of Jane Lead (q.v.). In 1688 he settled at Rijnsburg, where he busied himself on his own works and in multifarious labors for the Dutch booksellers, such as in the Dutch edition of Ruinart. Among his original productions may be mentioned Llconomie divine, otc syatbme universel et dtmonw des vuvres et lea desseins de Dieu enver8 lee hommes (Amsterdam, 1687; Eng. transl., The Divine (Economy, 6 vole., London, 1713), which purports to reproduce the visionary notions of Antoinette Bourignon, but at least gives them in intelligible and consistent form. Another work, La Paix des dynes duns toua lee par& du Chriatianisme (1687), disregards the formal creeds of the various churches, and appeals to the minority of really sincere Christians, urging them to an inner union without the abandonment of their external affiliations. In De erudition, solids, su­perfciaria et fal8a (1692), he distinguishes between superficial knowledge of the names of things and real or solid knowledge of the things themselves, which latter is to be attained by humble renuncia­tion of one's own wisdom and will. He continued to make contributions to the philosophical and re­ligious controversies of the time, as, for example,

against Bayle and his " hypocritical " opposition

to Spinoza. The work which probably ran throug

the most editions was the little treatise on the ed­ucation of children which first appeared in 1690 '

a collection of his shorter writings: was frequentl translated, and influenced the Pietistic controve

at Hamburg. His most permanently valuable con­tribution was Bibliotheca myaticorum seleeta (1708), which displays an astonishing acquaintance with ancient and modern mystics, and contains valuable information on some of the less known writers. He also published a large number of mystical writings both from the Middle Ages and from the French Pietists of the seventeenth century. In 1704 he brought out a new edition of Mme. Guyon's wri­tings, with the addition of a treatise printed for the first time and an introduction. In spite of his de­votion to her, he was not a Quietist in the ordinary sense of the word. He would not have man's rela­tion to God one of pure passivity but of receptiv­ity. He repudiated predestination, and condemned Pelagianism because it suppressed the feeling of in­herent sinfulness in man just as he opposed So­cinianism because it did not ascribe the whole of salvation to the operation of God's grace. Mystic as he was, he knew how to combine with his own peculiar attitude a firm insistence on certain dog­matic definitions, such as that of the Trinity. He

102

continually appealed to the authority of Scripture. Though after 1680 he led a quiet and retired life, he was recognized widely by the scholars of his time, such as Thomasius and Bayle, Le Clerc and Walch, as a man of great learning; and his zealous partici­pation in the cause of Antoinette .Bourignon did not injure his good name as a devout mystic and an honorable man. His influence persisted after his death, not merely through the work of his spir­itual son Tersteegen, but through the respect which his writings won for mysticism, forcing the regu­lar theology, as represented by Le Clerc, Lange, Buddeus, Walch, and Stapfer, to take account of it. S. CRAMER.

BIELI0aHAFHY: The one source, contemporary, exact, and detailed, sent by Poiret himelf to Ancillon and after Poiret's death printed in Latin in the Bsbliotheca Bremenaia, iii. 1, Bremen, 1720, is printed as gore Verhae2 van lea



8chryvem Petrus Poireta leven en &hriften in De poddelyke Huiahoudinp, ii 3188 1723. Next to this the best refer­ences are to A. lipeii, Gewhiedenia van de %riddyke %erk in de achttiende Eeuw, x. 510 531 Utrecht, 1809; idem, Geachiedenia der awtematiwhe Godgelwdheid iii. 48 81; and M. Gdbel, GewhicW des chriaaichen Lebena in der rheiniwh westphbliachen evangeliachen Kirche, Vol. iii., Coblenz, 1880. The more general works on blramecrsat (see the bibliography there) have practically nothing ad­ditional to what is contained in the preceding cf. R. A.

Vaughan, Hours with she Mystics, ii. 290, 8th ed., London, n.d.

POISSY, pwd"sfr, RELIGIOUS CONFERENCE

OF: A conference held in Sept., 1561, between

Protestants and Roman Catholics at Poissy (10 m.

n.w. of Paris). The wide diffusion of Protestantism

in France led the queen regent, Catherine de Medici,

to seek to establish some peaceable understanding

between the two confessions. After

Purposes the assembly of notables at Fontaine­

and Pre  bleau in Aug., 1560, and the general

liminaries. assembly of the estates at Orlda,ns

(Dec. 13, 1560 Jan. 31, 1561), the no 



n bility and the third estate gathered at Pontoise,

h while the court and the clergy met at the abbey of

Poissy. The assembly, which was partly to pre­

pare for the expected reopening of the Council of



y Trent, partly as a sort of national council to pro­

mote the reformation of the French Church, and



partly to diminish the debt of the State out of the

treasury of the Church, was convened July 28, 1651.

The assurance, in the king's name, of the Chan­

cellor Michel de L'HBpital (q.v.) to the'bishops and

archbishops that there was to be a reformation not

only of abuses but also of doctrine, received a very

limited approval, and still more so that the Ro­

formed also were to be heard. A review of the pre 

liminaries is necessary properly to understand the

call of colloquy. Theodore Beza (q.v.) and col­

leagues came to Worms in 1557 in behalf of the

Evangelicals imprisoned by Henry If. at Paris, and


when the Germans requested a confession of faith,

the French returned a statement of entire agree­

ment with the Augsburg Confession with the ex­

ception of the article on the Eucharist, holding out


the prospect, however, of future agreement. The

result was that Elector Otto Heinrich interceded

with the French king. Meanwhile relations became

more strained: Frederick went over to Calvinism,

and strict Lutheranism was emphasized in Wart_

temberg. When King Antoine of Navarre, for the




103 RELIGIOUS ENCYCLOPEDIA p°iret

Poissy



French kingdom, demanded intercessory delegs,

tions to the court in behalf of the Protestants, he

was advised to accept the Augsburg Confession,

especially on the Eucharist. Duke Christopher of

W orttemberg, on June 12, sent to Antoine and to

the duke of Guise an envoy with copies of the Augs­

burg Confession, the new Wurttemberg Confession,

and various books of the Lutheran theologians.

Christopher's envoy found the convention of prel­

ates already in prospect, and the duke's suggestion

that Protestant theologians take part in the pro­

ceedings obtained royal approval. The Roman

Catholics, in their turn, expected to refute the Prot­

estants by the Bible and the Church Fathers and

drive the Reformed to the wall. Beza and Peter

Martyr Vermigh (q.v.) were the Reformed theo­

logians invited to attend the colloquy. The Ger­

man princes were also asked to send theologians,

but they were unable to agree on any uniform in­

structions to their delegates and the plan was con­

sequently abandoned. Beza enjoyed a cordial wel­

come both at Paris and the court at St. Germain,

and on the Sunday evening after his arrival was in­

vited by Antoine to an assembly which included

Catherine, Cond6, and the cardinals of Bourbon

and Lorraine. Here a conversation was carried

on between Beza and the cardinal of Lorraine,

in which the latter minimized the differences of

Eucharistic doctrine between himself and Beza,

concluding by inviting the Reformed theologian to

visit him that they might cooperate for some agree­

ment between Roman Catholics and Protestants.

Shortly afterward it was invidiously rumored at

St. Germain and abroad that Beza had been worsted

in argument by the cardinal. Some days before

Beza's arrival the Reformed preachers had pre­

sented a memorial thanking the king for their safe

conduct and requesting him to submit to the con­

sideration of the prelates the French Reformed con­

fession (see GALLICAN CONFEssION). This petition

was graciously received by the king on Aug. 17,

and on Aug. 26 the prelates, yielding to the wish of

Catherine, decided to hear the Reformed. Attempts

were made to keep the king himself from attending,

but in vain; and on Sept. 9 the conference began

in the refectory of the great Nunnery at Poissy.

There were present the king, his mother, the princes

and princesses royal, high dignitaries of the crown,

and many courtiers; while from among the lords

spiritual were present the cardinals of Tournon,

Lorraine, Chatillon, Armagnac, Bourbon, and

Guise; the archbishops of Bordeaux and Embrun,

thirty six bishops, representatives of absent prel­

ates, many deputies of abbeys and monasteries,

and theologians and professors of the Sorbonne.

The Reformed were represented by twenty dele­

gates and fourteen elders.

After preliminary addresses by the king and

chancellor, Beza delivered a long address in which

he sought to demonstrate the patriotism and peace­

fulness of his party and gave a brief

The summary of the Reformed doctrines

Sessions. to show that they differed in very

essential points from tenets previously

held, and that they did not reject each and every

fundamental principle of Christianity so as to be



on a plane of those of Jews and Mohammedans. This presentation contained many citations for authority from the Fathers. When, however, Beza spoke of the Eucharist, and declared that the body of Christ was as far from the bread as the highest heaven is from the earth, he was interrupted with vehement disapproval. He was followed by Car­dinal Tournon, who expressed his entire disapproval of Beza's attitude and concluded the session by demanding a written copy of the Reformed leader's address, which was apparently altered by Beza be­fore it was printed. For the second session the prelates entrusted the cardinal of Lorraine with the refutation of Beza. The Roman Catholic reply was to comprise the following four doctrines: the Church and her authority; the powers of councils to represent the entire Church, which includes not only the elect, but also the non elect; the author­ity of the Scriptures; and the real and substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist. This was to be followed by the presen­tation of a creed controverting the Reformed con­fession and by pronouncing condemnation on the preachers if they should refuse to accept it, after which the conference was to be closed. The Prot­estants, learning of this, protested to the king, who obliged the prelates to defer their proposed con­demnation and adjournment. The second session took place on Sept. 16, and was opened by the cardinal of Lorraine. Expressing the pleasure of the prelates to learn that the Reformed were in harmony with the Apostles' Creed, he yet called attention to other points in which they deviated from Roman Catholic teaching. In his discussion of the Eucharist, the cardinal carefully avoided all offensive phraseology, and even avoided references to transubstantiation and the mass, speaking of the real presence in a quasi Lutheran sense. .Dis­cussion and a copy of the address were denied, to Beza's disappointment. On the following evening Catherine summoned Beza and Peter Martyr, the latter of whom expressed his hope of reaching an understanding if the Eucharistic problem were omit­ted from discussion and each one were permitted to believe and preach according as he was convinced by the word of God. The queen expressed her in­tention of doing all in her power to bring about such an understanding. [It is a significant fact that at the conference while the Roman Catholic prelates were seated, the Protestants were required to re­main standing.]

The further course of events was determined by the intervention of the papal legate, the cardinal of Ferrara, uncle of the duchess of Guise. He ad­vised the queen to restrain the king, the cardinal of Tournon, and the majority of the prel 

Results. ates, from attending further confer­

ences, pleading that an agreement

might the more easily be reached if the irreconcil­

able spirits were absent. On Sept. 24, therefore, a

conference was summoned with twelve represen­

tatives of each party; and the debate, which  was

without result, concluded with the question of the

cardinal of Lorraine whether the Reformed were

ready to subscribe to the Augsburg Confession. On

the following day Montluc, bishop of Valence, and






P°i'°y

Poland, Christianity is THE NEW SCHAFF HERZOG 104



D'Espence conferred, at the queen's command, with Beza and Nicolas des Gallarda on a compromise formula. The result was as follows: " We believe that the true body and the true blood of Jesus Christ really and substantially, that is, in their proper substance, are, in a spiritual and ineffable manner, present and offered in the Holy Commu­nion and that they are thus received by the faith­ful who communicate." When, on Sept. 26, nego­tiations were continued publicly, Beza declared that the Reformed could not accept this formula. The ultimate failure of compromise is perhaps due to the Jesuit general Lainez, who hitherto played his part under cover but, admitted to the colloquy on Sept. 26, vehemently and scurrilously attacked the Protestants, to whom Beza replied. The debate continued until late at night; and for further dis­cussion a committee of five on each side was ap­pointed; among the Roman Catholics being Montluc and D'Espence, and among the Reformed Beza and Peter Martyr. After three conferences (Sept. 29, Oct. 1, and Oct. 3) a formula was reached teaching the real presence, of which the substance was given through the operation of the Holy Ghost, the body of Christ being received spiritually and through faith. All at court were satisfied, but when the formula was submitted to the assembled prelates on Oct. 9, the majority declared the formula heret­ical. A rigidly Roman Catholic formula was im­mediately drawn up, and it was resolved to give no further hearing to the Reformed after their re­fusal to subscribe, and to urge the king to banish the recalcitrants. Negotiations were broken off at Poissy on Oct. 9. Ten days later five German theo­logians arrived at Paris, Michael Diller, Peter Bouquin, Jakob Beurlin, Jakob Andrea (qq.v.) and Balthasar Bidembach, summoned to explain the Augsburg articles. Their leader Beurlin died on Oct. 28 and on Nov. 8 the rest were received in audience by the king of Navarre, who expressed a wish that they would bear witness to the harmony between the Augsburg Confession and the com­promise formula at the conclusion of negotiations at Poissy. After many futile conferences on the union of German and French Protestantism, and, after having explained to the king the meaning of the Augsburg Confession and urged him to accept it, the envoys were finally dismissed on Nov. 23. The conference at Poissy had shown that reconcilia­tion between Roman Catholics and Protestants on the basis of mutual concession was entirely impos­sible, and that the only alternatives were mutual toleration or a war for existence.

(EUGEN LACHENMANN.)

BIBLIOGRAPHY: H. M. Baird, Hid. of the Rise of the Hugue­nots, i. 505 546, London, 1880; Theodore Beza, Mist. eccl6aiostique des lglises r0formiea . . . de France, Geneva, 1580, new ed., ed. P. Vesson, 2 vols., Toulouse, 1882 83, and, in 3 vols., ed. J. W. Daum and A. E. Cunitz, Paris, 1883 .88• J. W. Baum, Theodor Beza, vol. u., Berlin, 1852; G. de F6Gee, Hilt. des Protestants de France, pp. 131 sqq., Toulouse, 1850, new ed., 1861, Eng. transl., 2 vols.; London, 1853; G. von Polenz, Geschichte des franzosischen Calviniamus ii. 47 sqq., Goths, 1859; N. A. F. Puaux Mist. de la r€formation francaiee, ii. 101 sqq., Pans, 1860; H. Klipffel, La Colloque de Poissy. Paris, 1868; A. de Ruble, Le Journal de Claude d'EepeRCe, in M6moiires de la soeiW d'histoire de Parts, xvi., 1889; H. Amphoux, Michel de fHBpidal, pp. 195 sqq., Paris, 1900.

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