Phl 236, Test 2 with answers indicated by highlighting: Locke, Berkeley, Hume and Kant



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PHL 236, Test 2 with answers indicated by highlighting: Locke, Berkeley, Hume and Kant
1. For Locke, the idea of substance is


  1. a simple idea of reflection.

  2. an idea which is directly imprinted on the mind by experience.

  3. a rather unclear product of abstract reasoning.

  4. an a priori idea of necessary existence.

  5. not an idea that can be thought by people.

2. Locke thinks that our representations of primary qualities




  1. resemble the real features of the world.

  2. are figments of our imagination.

  3. ultimately represent the properties of the atoms in the world.

  4. only describe the ideal world of geometrical objects, and not physical reality.

  5. a) and c).

3. Regarding colors, Locke thinks that they are




  1. perceived directly by the senses.

  2. perceived indirectly; the color in our sensory idea resembles the color in the world.

  3. not perceived as they are, because the colors that exist in the world do not match our color-ideas.

  4. ideas that don’t resemble anything that exists in the world.

  5. sometimes b) and other times c).

4. Which of the following is a criticism that Berkeley leveled against Locke?




  1. So-called primary qualities are not directly observed in experience.

  2. Locke’s notion of causation cannot make sense of radical changes in the functioning of nature.

  3. Locke’s philosophy overemphasizes the role of God.

  4. b) and c)

  5. none of the above

5. According to Locke, our primary source of information about the world comes from where?




  1. The senses, but if divine revelation disagrees with sense data, then we must defer to revelation.

  2. The senses, and if divine revelation disagrees with sense data, then we must defer to senses.

  3. Divine revelation only, for the senses can only be a source of guesses (but not knowledge).

  4. The senses only, and alleged divine revelation contains only superstitions of barbaric people.

  5. Intuition and demonstration.

6. Locke thinks that our representations of primary qualities




  1. resemble the real features of the world.

  2. are figments of our imagination.

  3. ultimately represent the properties of the atoms in the world.

  4. only describe the ideal world of geometrical objects, and not physical reality.

  5. a) and c).

7. The following best describes Berkeley’s views on ontology:




  1. Physicalism

  2. Dualism

  3. Idealism

  4. Solipcism

  5. Corpuscularianism

8. In Berkeley’s “Three Dialogues”, the character who was supposed to represent Locke’s perspective is




  1. Hylas

  2. Philonous

  3. Cleanthes

  4. Simplicio

  5. Demea

9. Why does Berkeley think that God must exist?




  1. Because we have an innate idea of God, and only He could have caused it.

  2. Because the content of sensory experience is maximally detailed, lawful and coherent.

  3. Because the assumption of God’s non-existence leads to a logical contradiction.

  4. Because well-documented miracles put God’s existence beyond doubt.

  5. Because the human eye and many other material objects are obviously the products of design.

10. According to Berkeley, what is an apple?




  1. A roughly spherical cluster of atoms, which individually have no color, odor, flavor, etc.

  2. A physical substance in which colors, odors and flavors inhere.

  3. A bundle of sensory ideas that correspond to all the possible apple-appearances.

  4. A certain pattern of nerve-excitations caused by our sense-organs.

  5. Something that was invented by the imagination.

11. What is Berkeley’s solution to the problem of mind-body interaction?




  1. There are no material bodies for the mind to interact with.

  2. The pineal gland at the core of the brain mediates the interaction.

  3. The physical world follows the laws of physics, and it only seems to us that minds influence it.

  4. God made the universe so that mental and physical events perfectly coincide without events in the one substance actually causing events in the other.

  5. Mind and body are actually aspects of a single, larger substance that Berkeley called The Totality.

12. Hume believed that the future will be like the past. He also believed that our sense-impressions are caused by mind-independent physical objects. What did he say was his justification for these beliefs?




  1. Denying either of these would lead to a contradiction or a circular argument.

  2. Both follow from evidence available to the senses.

  3. Anyone who refused to believe these things “would quickly meet a calamitous end.”

  4. Hume believed these were only probable truths and always had a small chance of being wrong.

  5. Hume admitted having no reason for these beliefs, and thought they were forced on him by human nature.

13. Hume’s opinion of the Uniformity of Nature principle (“the future resembles the past”) is that




  1. its truth can be justified by both a priori and a posteriori reasoning.

  2. its truth can only be justified by a priori reasoning.

  3. its truth can only be justified by a posteriori reasoning.

  4. its truth can be justified neither by a priori nor a posteriori reasoning.

  5. Hume didn’t believe that the future will in any way be like the past.

14. Does Hume think that experience teaches us that the future will probably be like the past?


  1. Yes, although there is always a small chance that nature will go haywire.

  2. Yes, because even if nature changed drastically, human beings would not be equipped to notice this change, so the future would continue to appear like the past.

  3. Yes, because in every possible world, the future of any instant is probably like the previous instant, at least in fundamental ways.

  4. No, because we know that the future will probably be very different, even in fundamental ways.

  5. No, because any argument from experience to this conclusion must assume that the future will probably be like the past.

15. How does Hume think we learn about what causes what in our world?




  1. Causal laws hold necessarily, so we can work them out a priori.

  2. We use our senses to directly observe the causing that happens between something and its effect.

  3. From discovering in our experience that some sorts of events are constantly conjoined.

  4. From observing with the senses a necessary connection between the cause and the effect.

  5. By deriving causal laws from the more fundamental laws of nature, like Newton’s.

16. According to Kant, what is a synthetic a priori judgment?




  1. A statement which is necessarily true and yet based on experience.

  2. A statement which is necessarily true, and its subject is not contained in its predicate.

  3. A statement which is necessarily true and supported by innate information.

  4. A statement which is necessarily true because it is a mere analysis of concepts.

  5. A statement which is necessarily true because it is synthesized by abstraction from analytic judgments.

17. What is Kant’s “Copernican revolution” in philosophy?




  1. Sensory experience is the primary principle. If we didn’t learn something from experience, we simply didn’t learn it at all.

  2. God becomes the new “sun” around which all human knowledge revolves.

  3. We must deny the reality of our intuition, because the content of reality depends on our imagination.

  4. We realize that objects must conform to our cognition rather than our cognition conforming to the given objects.

  5. Rational, empirical science must form the core of all other inquiry.

18. According to Kant, how do we learn about space and time?




  1. From science.

  2. From our very first experiences.

  3. Space and time are the pure forms of intuition that we have prior to experience.

  4. There is in phenomenal reality no such thing as space and time.

  5. a) and b).

19. Why does Kant think that every event has a cause?




  1. Because it’s something we observe in nature.

  2. Because he thinks that God is the ultimate cause of everything.

  3. Because of a constant conjunction of causes and their effects.

  4. Because the only way we can conceive of events is as things that have causes.

  5. Trick question: Kant didn’t believe that everything has a cause.

20. "When we run over libraries, persuaded of these principles, what havoc must we make? If we take in our hand any volume of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance, let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number? No. Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? No. Commit it then to the flames, for it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion."


  1. This is a passage was written by John Locke.

  2. This is a passage was written by George Berkeley.

  3. This is a passage was written by David Hume.

  4. This is a passage was written by Immanuel Kant.

21. "The conditions a priori of any possible experience in general are at the same time conditions of the possibility of any objects of our experience."




  1. This is a passage was written by John Locke.

  2. This is a passage was written by George Berkeley.

  3. This is a passage was written by David Hume.

  4. This is a passage was written by Immanuel Kant.

22. "[W]e may conceive that the ideas of secondary qualities are also produced, viz. by the operation of insensible practices on our senses."




  1. This is a passage was written by John Locke.

  2. This is a passage was written by George Berkeley.

  3. This is a passage was written by David Hume.

  4. This is a passage was written by Immanuel Kant.

23. "For as to what is said of the absolute existence of unthinking things without any relation to their being perceived, that seems perfectly unintelligible. Their esse is percipi, nor is it possible that they should have any existence out of the minds of thinking things which perceive them."




  1. This is a passage was written by John Locke.

  2. This is a passage was written by George Berkeley.

  3. This is a passage was written by David Hume.

  4. This is a passage was written by Immanuel Kant.


Essay questions: Answer three of these four questions, starting on the back of this page and continuing on the remaining pages until you have given the fullest answers that you’re able to produce.


  1. Describe in your words Locke’s view of how we perceive objects, making sure to describe his view of colors, mass, etc., and the relationship of our representations to reality. Be thourough.




  1. Describe in your words the Berkeley’s “big picture” what the world is like and why it looks to us the way it does. Be thourough.




  1. Put into your own words Hume’s argument that we have no reason to believe in the Uniformity of Nature (that the future resembles the past). Be thourough.




  1. Put into your words Kant’s “Copernican Revolution” in philosophy. How it is supposed to be a revolution? Be thourough.


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