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Schulek, Elemér (Elmer) (Késmárk, now Kežmarok, Slovakia, 3 September 1893 - Budapest, 14 October 1964) – Pharmacist, chemist. In 1913 he began his studies in Pharmacology at the University of Budapest, but in 1914 he had to interrupt them because of active service in World War I. After obtaining his Degree in Pharmacology in 1918, he worked under Lajos (Louis) Winkler and earned his Ph.D. in Pharmacology in 1920. With a Rockefeller scholarship, he went to the USA on a study trip, which also included some European countries with a more developed pharmaceutical industry. In 1927 he became Head of the Chemical Section of the newly established National Institute of Public Health, and became one of its directors from 1941 to 1944. In 1932 he also became an honorary lecturer at the University of Budapest. From the summer of 1944, he was Head of the Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry. He treated in some detail the chemistry and analytical application of halogen cyanides and interhalogen compounds, and studied sulphur and selenium compounds and peroxides. He established the basis of modern pharmaceutical investigation. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1941, ordinary 1945). His published works appeared in Hungarian, German and English; he was editor of the journal Acta Pharmaceutica Hungarica. He wrote the work: Hungarian Pharmacopoeia (Magyar gyógyszerkönyv) (1954). He was awarded the Kossuth Prize twice (1949, 1951). – B: 0883, 1730, 1406, T: 7456.→Winkler, Lajos.
Schulek, Frigyes (Frederick) (Pest, 19 November 1841 - Balatonlelle, 5 September 1919) – Architect. He studied in Vienna with Van der Hülle, and with the great Dombaumeister Frederick Schmidt. In 1870 he settled in Pest as a designer in Imre (Emeric) Steidl’s architectural firm, and taught at the Drawing School (Mintarajz Iskola) (1872). From 1872 he was Architect for the Council for National Monuments (Műemlékek Országos Bizottsága). He was Professor of Medieval Architecture at the Budapest Polytechnic (1903-1911). In 1895 he became a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He restored many buildings dating from the Middle Ages: rebuilt the Mátyás (Matthias) Church of Buda, restored the Royal Palace of Visegrád, the Cathedral of Ják, the Chapel of Csütörtökhely, the Town Hall of Lőcse (now Levoča, Slovakia), the Franciscan Church of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), the Castle of Vajdahunyad, and the Church of Kisszeben. He designed the Presbyterian Church of Szeged (1880-1883), the Fisherman’s Bastion (Halászbástya), Buda Castle in 1903, and the Erzsébet Watchtower (Erzsébet Kilátó) on the top of János Mountain (Jánoshegy) in Buda in 1910. – B: 1078, 0883, T: 7663.→Schulek, János; Mátyás Church.

Schulek, János (John) (Budapest, 26 December 1872 - Budapest, 7 July 1948) – Architect. He graduated from the Budapest Polytechnic in 1884, where he was an assistant professor from 1894. He worked with his father, Frigyes, on the construction of the Fisherman’s Bastion (Halászbástya) of Buda Castle. From the 1920s he designed many private and public buildings, including the Lutheran High School (Gymnasium) in Aszód, the Reformed Church in Szada, and the Lutheran Church in Kelenföld-Budapest. He directed the renovation of the Mátyás Church at Buda Castle (1933-1944). He found the remnants of King Mátyás’ Renaissance palace in Visegrád, buried under rubble, and he dedicated the rest of his life to its excavation. In 1947-1948 he directed the restoration of the Fisherman’s Bastion in Buda, damaged under the siege of Budapest at the end of World War II. His major works are Ancient Monuments of Kassa and the Mining Towns (Kassa és a bányavárosok műemlékei, (1928); Problems and Tasks of Visegrád (Visegrád problémái és feladatai) (1936); Excavations at Visegrád (Visegrádi ásatások) in Építészet (1941), and The Palace of King Mátyás at Visegrád (Visegrád Mátyás király palotája) published in Építészet (Architecture) Magazine (1941, No. 2). – B: 0883, T: 7667.→Schulek, Frigyes.
Schulek, Tibor (Budapest, 3 February 1904 - Budapest, 14 May 1989) – Lutheran pastor, dean, literary historian. He is the grandson of Frigyes (Frederick) Schulek. From 1913 he pursued his secondary studies first at the pedagogic school of the Herrnhut brothers of Niesky (northwest of Görlitz in Germany, near the Polish border) and, from the spring of 1918, at Rimaszombat (now Rimaská Sobota, Slovakia); as a result of the Peace Treaty of Trianon (1920), this town suddenly became Czechoslovak territory, so he and his family had to flee; he finished his secondary education in Budapest, graduating in 1922. He studied Theology at the Universities of Budapest (1922-1924), Sopron (1924-1925), and Leipzig, Germany (1925-1926). Concurrently he also studied at the Arts Faculty of the University of Budapest (Hungarian, German, English), and received a Dip.Ed. In 1928 he obtained his Lutheran pastoral qualification and, in 1926 and 1927, he was a resident educator at Niesky. In 1927 he went on a 5-month study trip to England and Wales. From 1927 to 1930 he was secretary of the Hungarian Evangelical Christian Student Association (Magyar Evangéliumi Keresztyén Diákszövetség – MEKDSZ). In 1938 he received his Th.D. in Pécs. From 1930 to 1948 he was an army chaplain, while from 1948 to 1963 a pastor in Komárom and, from 1951 to 1953, Dean of the Fejér-Komárom Lutheran Deanery; however, he was forced to resign from this last post. In 1963, based on false accusations, the Church Court stripped him of his right to serve as minister. This was declared null and void only in December 1988, when he was officially rehabilitated. While he could not attend to his pastoral duties during his suspension, he was a contributor to the Humanism and Reformation Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. From 1934 he was one of the editors of the journal Christian Truth (Keresztyén Igazság). He was buried in Visegrád. His works include Old Hungarian Prayers (Régi magyar imádságok) (1941); Old Hungarian Songs of God (Régi Magyar Istenes énekek), (1945); Cantate! Sing!… (Cantate! Énekeljetek!…) (1950), and Hungarian Lutherans in Romania (Magyar evangélikusok Romániában) (1989). – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7456, 7667.
Schulek, Vilmos (William) (Pest, 21 April 1843 - Budapest, 12 March 1905) – Physician and eye specialist. He obtained his Medical Degree at the University of Vienna in 1868. From 1867 he was a research student at the Ophthalmic Clinic there; from 1872 a professor at the Medical Faculty of the University of Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania); from 1874 to 1905 Professor of Ophthalmology at the Medical Faculty of the University of Budapest, where he was Vice-Chancellor in 1890-1891. He created the Hungarian Ophthalmological School. He worked out unique procedures and perfected cataract instruments; he also prepared protective glasses against ultraviolet radiation. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1889; ordinary 1902). His works include On a New Method of Removing Cataracts (A szürkehályog eltávolításának egy új módjáról) (1892), and Ungarishe Beiträge zur Augenheilkunde, vol. iii, edited with others (1895-1903). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Schulhof, Ödön (Edmund) (Budapest, 20 March 1896 - Budapest, 2 February 1978) – Physician, rheumatologist. He received his Medical Degree from the University of Budapest in 1918. From 1918 to 1920 he was an internist in the No. I. Internal Medical Clinic there. Between 1922 and 1932 he worked as rheumatologist and spa physician of the Hévíz Hospital in Budapest. In 1949 he became Chief of Physiotherapy of Park Sanatorium, and Director of the National Rheumatism and Physiotherapy Institute. In 1946 he became an honorary lecturer. He was a member of numerous professional societies in Hungary and abroad. He received his M.Sc. in 1953. His works include Rheumatic Pains (Reumás fájdalmak) (1952); How Can We Guard against Rheumatism (Hogyan védekezzünk a reuma ellen) (1952), and Studies on Peripheral Vascular Reactions (1956). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Schütz, Antal (Anthony) (Kistószeg, 26 October 1880 - Budapest, 20 April 1953) – Piarist theologian and philosopher. He studied at the Universities of Budapest and Würzburg, Germany. In addition to Theology, he also studied Philosophy, Mathematics and Physics. He received a Ph.D. in Philosophy in Budapest, and in Psychology in Würzburg, He taught in the Piarist Schools of Szeged, and later, was a lecturer of Dogmatics at the University of Budapest. He published the works of Ottokár Prohászka (1928-1929). His main works are The Logic of Proving God’s Existence (Az istenbizonyítás logikája) (1913); Dogmatics vols. i,ii (Dogmatika I-II), 1923; Summarium theologiae dogmaticae, (1923); Characterology and Aristotelian Methaphysics (Karakterológia és aristotelesi metafizika) (1927); Elements of Philosophy (A bölcselet elemei) (1927); Ideas and Ideals (Eszmék és Eszmények) (1933); God in History (Isten a történelemben) (1934); Hungarian Vitality (Magyar életerő) (1939); Logics and Logic (Logikák and logika) (1941), and My Life (Életem) (1942). He was one of the most prominent theologians and dogmatists of the Catholic Church in Hungary. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. – B: 0883,T: 7667.
Schütz, Ilona (Ila, Helen) (Budapest, 5 January 1944 - Budapest, 11 December 2002) – Actress. She obtained her diploma from the Academy of Dramatic Art in 1969. Earlier on she was a member of an amateur theatrical group and also played on the University’s Stage. After obtaining her diploma, she played for one season on the Microscope Stage (Mikroszkóp Színpad). From 1970 she was a member of the Madách Theater (Madách Színház), Budapest. She was true to life in comic and tragic roles equally, but the public became fond of her comic interpretations. In Slade’s stage-play, Same Time Next Year (Jövőre, veled, ugyanitt!), she played the role of Doris as István (Stephen) Sztankay’s partner more than 300 times. She also appeared in a number of films and TV-plays. Her roles include Dolly in G.B. Shaw’s You Never Can Tell (Sohasem lehet tudni); Örzse in L. Németh’s Mrs. Bodnár (Bodnárné); Fruzsina in Molière’s The Miser (A fösvény); Dorine in Molière’s Tartuffe; Sonia in Chekhov’s Uncle Vania (Ványa bácsi), and Natasha in Chekhov’s Three Sisters (Három nővér). She appeared in more than 30 feature films and an endless number of TV productions. Her feature films include Silence and Cry (Csend és kiáltás); Krebs, the God (Krebs, az isten); Nice Girls, Don’t Cry (Szép lányok, ne sírjatok); Little Birds (Madárkák); Rabbits in the Cloakroom (Nyulak a ruhatárban), and The Pendragon Legend (Pendragon-legenda). Her TV works include The Bootlicker (A talpsimogató); Re-election of Officials (Tisztújítás); The Devil’s Disciple (Az ördög cimborája), and The Medical Student (A medikus). She received the Mari Jászai Prize in 1974, the Merited Artist title in 1981, the Mrs. Déri Prize in 1997, and the Outstanding Artist title in 1999. – B: 1427, 1445, T: 7456.→Sztankay, István.
Schwartzer, Baron Otto (Buda, 22 December 1853 - Budapest, 21 October 1913) – Psychiatrist, the son of Ferenc (Francis) Schwartzer. Otto earned his Medical Degree at the University of Budapest in 1877. In 1878 he took over the Mental Hospital that his father founded and he directed it until 1910. He became an honorary lecturer (privatdozent) in Forensic Psychiatry at the Faculty of Law at the University of Budapest in 1885 and, at the same time, he was active in the Hungarian Red Cross Society. The establishment of the Red Cross Nursing Institute is linked with his name, as is the modern development of the Elizabeth (Erzsébet) Hospital of the Red Cross. In 1905 he became a member of the Upper House of Parliament, and in 1910 he was made a Baron. His works include Die Bewusstlosigkeitszustände als Strafausschliessungsgründe (1878); Psychiatric Notes (Psychiátriai jegyzetek) (1894), and Administrative Mental Pathology (Közigazgatási elmekórtan) (1987). – B: 0883, 1730, T: 7456.→Schwartzer, Ferenc.
Schwartzer, Ferenc (Francis) (Babarc, west of Mohács, 24 November 1818 - Budapest, 2 March 1889) – Physician. Father of Otto Schwartzer. He obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Vienna in 1844, after which he worked at the mental ward of the hospital there under the Senior Physician Mihály (Michael) Viszánik. In order to set up a mental hospital in Hungary at state expense, he was sent abroad in 1848 to study the mental hospitals in Germany, Belgium, England and France. In the autumn of 1848, based on his experiences, he submitted a plan to organize and set up a Hungarian Mental Hospital. In October, he joined the Honvéd army as a medical officer, under the name of Ferenc Fekete, and served under General Guyon in the War of Independence against Habsburg oppression. After the fall of the War of Independence, he established a Mental Hospital at Vác in 1850, which he transferred to Buda in 1852. In his Institute he put occupational therapy into practice and abolished the use of physical (coercive) pressure on patients. From 1855 he was a member of the Committee of Public Health, later a member of the Council of Public Health; from 1861 he was an honorary lecturer (privatdozent) at the University of Budapest, giving lectures in Psychiatry. As a member of the Buda City Council, he participated in the supervision of the construction of the Mental Hospital of Lipótmező, which was built following his advice. He initiated the policy of reforesting Mount Gellért. He wrote the first psychiatric study in Hungarian: General Pathology and Therapy of Mental Illnesses, with Forensic Psychology (A lelkibetegségek általános kór- és gyógytana, törvényszéki lélektannal) (1858) – B: 0883, 1730, T: 7456.→ Schwartzer, Ottó.
Schwarz, David (Keszthely, 7 December 1850 - Vienna, 13 January 1897) – Inventor. He was born into a Jewish family and educated in Zágráb (now Zagreb, Croatia). In the 1880s, he started to think about an airship that can be steered. In Vienna he did not receive support for his plan, so he went to St. Petersburg and spent two years there, then moved to Berlin, where Carl Berg, owner of an aluminum factory, supported Schwarz’ idea. From 1895 on, they worked together building an airship constructed with aluminum, on Tempelhofer Feld. It was 32 m long, 12 m in diameter, covered with 0.2 mm aluminum sheets, driven by a 4-cylinder, 16 hp Daimler motor with 2 propellers. Its maximum speed was around 25 km/hour and was able to reach a 460 m altitude, and could carry a person with 130 kg cargo. The actual flight took place on 3 November 1897 without the inventor, who passed away earlier that year. Unfortunately, the airship crashed as it was landing. However, it proved the superiority of rigid airships. Schwarz’ widow, with the help of Carl Berg, sold the plans of the airship to Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who, taking note of the ideas of David Schwarz, created the type of airship named after him. Nonetheless, the rigid type, light metal and steereable airship was invented by David Schwarz. In 1967, at the Traffic Museum of Budapest a memorial exhibition was held, showing a model of his airship and all the documents regarding his invention. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456, 7103.
Schweidel, József (Joseph) (Zombor, now Sombor in Serbia, 18 May 1796 - Arad, now in Romania, 6 October 1849) – Honvéd general, one of the 13 martyrs of Arad. He was an imperial officer, a major of the Sándor-Hussars. After the outbreak of the War of Independence from Habsburg oppression (1848-1849), he led his regiment from Vienna back to Hungary. Already, on 5 October 1848, he was a general and, after the recapture of Buda, he became the Commander of Pest. After the collapse of the War, he was arrested and sentenced to death to be hanged on the gallows but, on his wife’s entreaty, out of clemency, together with another three officers, he was shot by a firing squad in front of the trenches outside the fortress of Arad. – B: 0883, T; 7456.→Arad, Martyrs of; Freedom Fight of 1848-1849.
Schwimmer, Ernő (Ernest) (Pest, 21 November 1837 - Budapest, 25 February 1898) – Physician, dermatologist. He earned his Medical Degree at the University of Vienna in 1861; thereafter, until 1871, he worked as a physician in the Allgemeine Krankenhaus of Vienna in the Department of Dermatology. In 1871 he became an honorary lecturer of Dermatology at the University of Pest; in 1879 titular associate professor; from 1870 head physician of the outpatients’ department and, from 1885, he was a senior dermatologist at the St. István (Stephen) Hospital, Budapest. From 1892 he was Professor of Dermatology and, in the same year, he organized the Dermatological Clinic, where at the same time he set up outpatient consultation. He established regular instruction of Dermatology at the University. He was a member of a number of dermatological societies abroad. He is regarded as the apostle of the spa-bathing movements. His works include Dermatological Pathology (Bőrkórtan) (1874), and Hautkrankheiten (1884). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Scientific Life – During the early centuries of the Middle Ages, when Hungarian scientific life was evolving, literacy and the sciences were the privileges of the Church. Chronicling started in Hungary with Anonymus’ Latin historical work the Gesta Hungarorum (The Deeds of the Hungarians) (1196-1203). This was thought to be the beginning of Hungarian history writing and was followed by other Hungarian chronicles.

1276 was the first time that the secular foundations of scientific life, i.e. Hungarian universities of the Middle Ages, were mentioned in connection with the College of Veszprém, not yet a fully fledged university. The University of Pécs, founded by King Lajos I in 1367, was patterned after other universities: Prague (1348), Vienna (1363), Krakow (1364). However, the Pope did not authorize the teaching of theology. Then King Zsigmond (Sigismund) established a short-lived College (1389) at Óbuda, followed by a new University with papal permission on the same site in 1410, which had all the privileges of other foreign universities. At that time the majority of Hungarian students still attended universities abroad: in Paris, Padua, Bologna, and Vienna, since the operation of Hungarian universities was not secure due to constant armed disturbances.

Before 1848, Hungary lacked a sufficient foundation for educational institutions by European standards, that is, the necessary scientific research work needed to sustain higher learning was insufficient. After 1867, the governments budgeted large amounts for education in order to ensure the upgrading of the economy. These expenditures were recovered because, by the turn of 19/20th centuries, Hungary met the European standards by developing professionals, specialists, and scientists in sufficient numbers.

The make-up of universities underwent a change. Independent natural science faculties were established and, within the Department of Law, separate faculties were set up for the associated legal sciences. The need for professionals by the industries and commerce was now being satisfied. Training of doctors to European levels ensured higher standards in public health care.

Because the learning standards, even at the elementary schools, were made more demanding, the higher educational institutions received students with a solid knowledge base at the university entry level. Hungary has played a leading role in scientific research for some time now and her contribution to the general knowledge and its development for the benefit of mankind has been significant. Unfortunately, in the Communist period (1948-1990) Hungary was unable to secure the best possible conditions for scientific research, since even scientific life was over-politicized. Scientists were subjected to political pressure and quite a few fled to the free world to continue their work under more favorable conditions and better opportunities.

An article in the 17 December 1957 issue of the Washington Star, entitled “There are many scientists among the Hungarian refugees that came to America” stated that many of those scientists had Degrees granted by Hungarian Universities that are traditionally considered to be among the top universities of the world. Wallace W. Atwood, executive of the Department of Foreign Relations of the American National Academy of Sciences discovered more than 500 Hungarian scientists with outstanding qualifications among the refugees.

After the system change in 1990, the restructuring of the economic life of Hungary was not favorable to scientific education, development and research. Consequently, many young scientists emigrated to the more developed western states, where they found suitable conditions for the realization of their ideas and plans. – B: 1020, T: 7675.→Anonymus; Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Universities; Famous Hungarians and Hungarian Origin.
Scitovsky, Tibor (Hungary, 1909 - USA, 1 June 2002) – Hungarian-born economist. He was born into an untitled noble family. His father held the post of Foreign Minister. He studied Law in Budapest, then Economics at Trinity College, Cambridge. He returned to Hungary in 1931 and earned a doctorate in law in Budapest. Then he spent a year in Paris, France. After returning home he was a bank clerk in Budapest. In 1935 he studied economics at the London School of Economics. In 1939 he moved to the USA on a traveling fellowship at the universities of Columbia, Harvard and Chicago. During World War II, he enlisted in counter-intelligence in the US Army, under the name of Thomas Dennis, and measured the effects of the aerial bombardment of Germany. From 1945 on, he was Professor of Economics at the universities of Stanford, Berkeley and Yale. He introduced to the economy the Scitovsky Reversal Criterion (Scitovsky-féle visszatérési kritérium); the Scitovsky Paradox (Scitovsky-paradoxon), and the Community Indifference Curve – CIC (Közösségi közömbösségi görbe). He wrote many important studies in Economics, among them: Welfare and Competition: the Economics of a Fully Employed Economy, (1951); The Joyless Economy: An Inquiry into Human Satisfaction and Consumer Dissatisfaction (1976); The Joyless Economy (Az örömtelen gazdaság) (1990); A Theory of Second Hand Markets (A használt piacok elmélete) (1995), and Memories of a Proud Hungarian (Egy büszke magyar emlékiratai) (2000). Some of his books appeared in Hungarian translations as well. He was elected Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association, Fellow of the Royal Economic Society, member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy, and honorary member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. He was one of the leading economists of his age. – B: 1844, T: 7103.
Scourge of God (Flagellum Dei, Isten ostora) – A name attributed to Attila the Hun in western legend that gradually became his title and finally his personification: Attila, the Scourge of God. It first occurs in the legend of Lupus, the Bishop of Troyes, written in the 8th to 9th century, in which, to the question of the bishop, Attila answered: “Ego sum Attila, rex Hunnorum, flagellum Dei” (I am Attila, the king of the Huns, the scourge of God. In an earlier, Gallic legend a hermit referred to him as such, after he was captured before the indecisive Battle on the Catalaunian Fields in Gaul (Chalons in present-day France) in 451. Italian tradition ascribes the invention of this appellation to St. Benedict. The Legend of St. Geminius relates that the Bishop of Modena introduced himself to Attila as the servant of God, whereupon Attila countered thus: “Si tu es servus Dei, ego sum flagellum Dei” (You are the servant of God, I am the scourge of God). According to the Hungarian chronicles, Attila himself had his subjects address him as the King of the Huns, the dread of the whole world and the scourge of God. All these versions of the appellation seem to suggest that it is rooted in the mentality of the Uralic and Altaic “Turanian” peoples: it must have been the traditional name for all the Uralic and Altaic conquerors, who believed that they acted as conquerors because they were divinely endowed with the right to conquer, and whoever resisted them sinned against God. – B: 0942, T: 7456.→Attila; Catalaunum, Battle of.
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