Schodelné, Klein, Rozália (Mrs. Schodel, Rosa) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 29 September 1811 - Nyáregyháza, 19 September 1854) – Singer (dramatic and coloratura soprano). She was born into a family of actors. In her childhood she was adopted by János (John) Schodel (1796-1863), who trained her voice from the time she was five years old, and married her in 1826. He then took her to Italy for further education both in voice and acting. She attended the Music School in Kolozsvár. She first appeared in 1829 in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) in the role of Agathe in Weber’s Der Freischütz (Bűvös vadász). She learned singing in Vienna and, between 1833 and 1836, she was a member of the Kärntnerthor Theater, and later the Josephstädter Theater in Vienna. In 1836 she appeared in Kolozsvár, and in 1837, in the German Theater (Német Színház) of Pest. Thereafter, she was contracted by the new National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) of Pest. She became the leading soprano despite intrigues against her. She parted with this Theatre in 1840. In 1842 she appeared on stage in Hannover, Mainz and Cologne in Germany, and at Covent Garden in London. Between 1843 and 1848, she was a member of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) of Pest; she retired in 1849 and, at the end of her life, she lived on the estate of Pál (Paul) Nyáry, former sub-prefect, in Nyáregyháza. She is the first Hungarian dramatic singer. Her even voice, clear pronunciation and outstanding interpretation secured European renown for her. The Normafa in Buda’s Hills is named after her interpretation of Bellini’s Norma. Her major roles included title role in Erkel’s Mária Báthori; Erzsébet Szilágyi in Erkel’s László Hunyadi; Abigail in Verdi’s Nabucco; tile role in Donizetti’s Lucia diLammermoor and Lucrecia Borgia; Lady Macbeth in Verdi’s Macbeth; Donna Anna in Mozart’s Don Giovanni, and Leonora in Beethoven’s Fidelio. She was the first professionally trained coloratura and dramatic soprano of European standard in Hungary. – B: 0883, 1445, 1031, 1703, T: 7684, 7103.→Nyáry, Pál.
Schoefft, Ágoston (Augustine) (Pest, 1809 - London, 1888) – Painter. He was the most outstanding member of an old artist family of Pest. He studied at the Academies of Vienna and Munich; returned to Pest in 1835; but from 1836 he was in Bucharest, then in Odessa and Constantinople, where he worked as a much sought after portrait painter. From there he went for a longer journey to the East, where he painted the picture Crossing the Tigris River(Átkelés a Tigris folyón). He worked in Persia for a while; thereafter he painted numerous portraits at the Court of the Maharaja of Lahore. In Calcutta he drew a picture of Sándor (Alexander) Kőrösi Csoma. He visited several cities in India. In the early 1840s, he sojourned for a short while in Pest. In 1845 he had been working in Venice for some time, and he created Venice in the Night with the Palazzo Grassi (Velence éjjel a Palazzo Grassival) (now in Salzburg). From the mid 1850s, he lived alternately in Vienna and Pest. From 1864 to 1866 he traveled in North America and Mexico. The majority of his paintings depict foreign themes. He spent the last years of his life in London and died in poverty with a deranged mind. – B: 0883, 1482, T: 7684.→Kőrösi Csoma, Sándor. Schola Hungarica – An Ensemble founded by the musicologists László (Ladislas) Dobszay and Janka (Jane) Szendrei in Budapest in 1969. The Ensemble concentrates its efforts on Gregorian chant, and has sung many works from late-medieval choral traditions and liturgies throughout Hungary, France, Italy, Sweden and Bohemia. In-depth musicological research on the repertoire and a lively interpretive performance are the hallmarks of the Ensemble. The characteristic sound of the Schola Hungarica is produced through a combination of children’s, men’s and women’s voices. Sources record that in the late Middle Ages only boys and male adults sang in cathedrals, collegiate and parish churches, or
women or men of religious orders in their chapels. The choir has made more than fifty records and compact discs, for which it received numerous international prizes. The Schola Hungarica has toured many European countries, and is one of the most recorded choral ensembles specializing in Early Music. – B: 1031, T: 7103.→Musica Historica Ensemble;Musica Antiqua Hungarica Ensemble; Camerata Hungarica; Muzsikás Hungarian Folkmusic Ensemble. Schönherr, Gyula (Julius) (Pen name Décsényi between 1885 and 1892) (Nagybánya, now Baia Mare, Romania, 26 September 1864 - Nagybánya, 24 March 1908) – Historian. He studied Law at the University of Budapest and History at the University of Vienna. From 1889 he worked at the archival section of the Hungarian National Museum, becoming a Curator, later Director-Curator, as well as an honorary lecturer (privatdozent) at the University of Budapest in 1900. Apart from writing on Hungarian political history, he was engaged in heraldry, family history, medieval Hungarian bibliography, and the review of archival sources. From 1906 his neurosis prevented him from continuing his work, and in 1907 he withdrew to his town of birth. He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1896). His works include John Hunyadi Corvin 1473-1505 (Hunyadi Corvin János 1473-1505) (1894); The House of Anjou and its Successors (Az Anjou-ház és örökösei) (1895, facsimile 1995), and Hungary in 1301 (Magyarország 1301-ben) (1902). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
School Dramas of the Jesuits – The Jesuit schools created and produced dramatic forms for the sole purpose of popularizing the Counter Reformation and Habsburg domination. While they played an important role in Hungary in the popularization of acting, advanced stage-technique, and the standardization of the Baroque theatrical style, their productions did not create any lasting works. They focused on showing the lives of the saints and martyrs through allegorical ballets. There are more than thousand items about the themes of the performances that were drawn from Hungarian history and the operas. The most successful shows were held in Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia). – B: 1150, T: 7685.
Schools, Struggle for Control of – In 1946, the Hungarian Communist Party, controlled by Soviet advisors, mounted an attack against the Churches in Hungary, and more specifically against the Roman Catholic Church. In the first phase they attempted to turn the youth against the churches through the so-called “school struggle”. To justify their impending drastic actions, the Communists invented student conspiracies directed against the State. This led to nationwide demonstration against the government and brought about an ecumenical unity among the Christian churches. Since the “student conspiracies” could not be proven, the first phase of the school struggle was a failure for the government. In 1948, during the second phase of the school-struggle, the government decreed the abolition of religious instruction in the schools and the takeover of religious schools by the State. Students who protested against these decrees were arrested and locked up. Many priests were also imprisoned and were not allowed to celebrate even private services. Those released from prison were often crippled for life. The parishioners sent tens of thousands of letters and cables appealing to the Minister of Culture – but in vain. At the height of the campaign for the nationalization of schools, police patrols kept watch at the time of religious services in the churches and schools. The atmosphere in the whole community of a village or town resembled that of a state of siege. In the village of Pócspetri a large group of people, who were waiting for the decision of the village council, were surrounded and attacked by the police using rifle butts. In the process, one rifle was accidentally discharged, killing a policeman. The police arrested 48 persons and, during the interrogations, Miklós (Nicholas) Királyfalvi, the village notary, “confessed” to killing the policeman. For this he was convicted and executed. János (John) Asztalos, the village priest, was accused of inciting a riot and sentenced to life imprisonment. Despite massive protests by the people, and Cardinal József (Joseph) Mindszenty’s objections, 4,612 religious schools were taken over by the State, including schools of other denominations. In addition, 2,976 other schools were nationalized on 16 June 1948, altogether 7,587 schools. In the end, the Roman Catholic Church was left with 8 High Schools, apart from their Seminaries. The Reformed Church kept 4 High Schools and 4 Theological Academies. However, in 1952 and 1953, an additional 3 High Schools and 2 Theological Academies were nationalized. The Lutheran Church was left without a High School, except one Theological Academy. After the collapse of the Communist system in 1989-1990, the Churches recovered not all, but many of their former schools even universities. – B: 1376, 1020, T: 7665.→Mindszenty, József; Asztalos, János. Schöpflin, Aladár (Maniga, 4 October 1872 - Budapest, 8 August 1950) – Writer, critic, literary historian, translator of literary works. He studied Lutheran Theology in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) and Philosophy at the University of Budapest. He started his career as a contributor for the paper Sunday News(Vasárnapi Újság) in 1898. As its critic he was among the first to recognize the significance of the poetry of Endre (Andrew) Ady. He was one of the contributors to the journal West (Nyugat) from its inception. He also worked for the radical intellectual journal Twentieth Century (Huszadik Század). From 1909 he was a literary secretary of the Franklin Society (Franklin Társulat). He was active in fiction writing and did significant work in the history of literature and esthetics. As a critic he was outstanding with his sound judgements, fine esthetic feeling, and high standard. He was not linked to any worldview, ideology, esthetics or school of thought and did not systematize any. He did a great deal of translating from English, French, and German. He edited the Encyclopedia of Hungarian Dramatic Art, vols. i-iv (1929-1931). His other works include Hungarian writers (Magyar Írók) (1917); Woman in Red Dress (Piros ruhás nő) novel (1921); The Resurrection of Professor Hatvani(Hatvani professzor feltámadása) stories (1923); Endre Ady (1934); Autumn Rainbow (Ősziszivárvány) play (1934); Kálmán Mikszáth (1941), and Meditations of an Apolitical(Egy apolitikus elmélkedései) (1994). He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1948 and ordinary 1949). He was awarded the Kossuth Prize in 1949. – B: 0877, 1031, 1257, 1445, T: 7456.→Ady, Endre. Schöpflin, György András (George Andrew) (George A.) (Budapest, 24 November 1939 - ) – Historian, political scientist, journalist. With his parents he settled in Great Britain in 1950. From 1957 to 1962, he studied at the University of Glasgow; then during 1962 to 1963, at the University of Bruges (College d’Europe) in Belgium. Between 1963 and 1967 he was a contributor for Chatham House of London. From 1967 to 1976 he was a reporter for the BBC. Since 1976 he has been lecturing on Eastern and Central European Political History at the London School of Economics. Since 1984 he has been Editor of the journal East European Reporter. Since 1994 he has been International Professor of Slavic- and East-European Studies, London University; since 1998 he has been its Jean Monnet professor. From 2004 to 2009, he was a European Union representative of the Fidesz MPSZ, and he was re-elected to this position in 2009. In his English and Hungarian publications, he deals with Eastern and Central European political issues, nationality problems, and Hungary. His works include Eastern Europe Since the War (1967); The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe: a Handbook, edited by him (1970, 1986); The Hungarians of Romania (1978); Hungary Between Prosperity and Crisis (1982); In Search of Central Europe, edited with Nancy Wood (1989); Politics in Eastern Europe 1945-1992 (1993), and Myths and Nationhood, co-editor (1997). He received the ForMinorities Awardin 1996. – B: 0874, 1672, T: 7684, 7456.→Fidesz; Political Parties in Hungary. Schöpflin, Gyula (Julius) (Budapest, 24 August 1910 - Sorrento, 18 June 2004) – Writer, translator of literary works. He studied at the Eötvös College of the University of Budapest, and in 1932 he obtained a B.A. Degree in Education, majoring in Hungarian and English. As a student, he took part in the Communist activity of the University, for which he was imprisoned for several months. From 1933 to 1935 he was a proofreader for the Révai Publisher, and between 1938 and 1944, was a clerk in a Company. Under the name of István Nagypál, he published articles in leftist papers and magazines. His writings also appeared in the papers West (Nyugat), Our Century (Századunk), and Thought (Gondolat). He wrote novels, short stories and essays. From 1945 until 1949 he was Director of the Hungarian Radio. In 1949 he became Ambassador in Stockholm, but he had a conflict with the Hungarian Government and in 1950 broke with Communism, and emigrated to Great Britain. From 1954 to 1962 he was a clerk in a machine works in Scotland. From 1964 till his retirement, he lectured at a Technical College in London. As a translator of literary works, he translated works of English and American writers into Hungarian; and from the early 1980s, he translated Hungarian Samizdat works (underground material to evade censorship) into English. His essays, articles and critiques appeared in Horizon (Látóhatár);New Horizon (Új Látóhatár); Literary News(Irodalmi Újság), and in Rainbow (Szivárvány). One of his works was WindExclaimer (Szélkiáltó) (1983, 1991). – B: 1672, T: 7456.
Schöpf-Mérei, Ágoston (Augustine) (Schoepf-Merei) (Győr, 24 September 1804 - Manchester, England, 12 March 1858) – Pediatrician. After obtaining his Medical Degree from the University of Padua, he practiced as a physician in Vienna. In 1836 he became Associate Professor in Medical History at the University of Pest and, from 1844, that of Pediatrics. It was in 1839 that he founded the Hospital for Poor Children in Pest. He did some pioneering work in the introduction of the diagnostic method of auscultation and percussion. He introduced the practice of keeping clinical history of patients. He was also engaged in restoration surgery and ophthalmology. He is well known for his textbook on pediatrics and medical history notes, the first to be published in Hungary. During the War of Independence (1848-1849) he was a Honvéd medical officer, later, physician of the Italian Legion. Toward the end of August 1849, he fled to Turkey. For a while he was a practicing physician in Istanbul, but in 1850 he moved to Paris, and then to London. In Manchester he established a Children’s Hospital. He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences from 1835. In his honor a commemorative medal was struck in 1945. His works include Dissertatio inauguralis de eschuria (1832); Textbook of Pediatrics (Agyermekgyógyászat tankönyve) (1847); On Spasm and Convulsion in Children (1850), andDisorders of infantile development and rickets (1855). – B: 0883, 1730, T: 7456.→Szentágothai, János. Schordann, Zsigmond (Sigismund) (Nagylévárd, now Vel’ké Leváre, 40 km north of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), 22 July 1794 - Pest, 11 April 1862) – Physician, “physiologist”. He obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Pest in 1817. From 1815 he was the assistant of Mihály (Michael) Lenhossék; from 1820 he was a deputy lecturer in theoretical medicine; from 1822 Professor of Biology until his retirement in 1858. He was first and foremost a teacher. He left his valuable library to the Medical Faculty’s Library. His works include Dissertatio inauguralis medica de medicina populari (1817), and Observations on the Cholera Epidemic in Hungary (Észrevételek a magyarországi cholerajárványról) (1831). – B: 1730, T: 7456.→Lenhossék, Mihály.
Schrantz, György (George) (Somorja, now Šamorín, Slovakia, 9 June 1942 - ) – Artist, graphic artist. In 1960 he completed high school at Somorja and, in 1962 he passed the final exams in the Architectural Technical College of Losonc (now Lučenec, Slovakia). From 1965 to 1971 he studied at the School of Arts of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), under Dezider Milly, Ján Mudroch, Orest Dubay and others.He settled in Pozsony. In 1973-1974 he taught in the School of Adult Education in Szenc (now Senec, Slovakia). He participated in group exhibitions in Besztercebánya (now Banská Bystrica, Slovakia) in 1983, 1985, 1987; Dunaszerdahely (now Dunajská Streda, Slovakia) (1986), and Eperjes (now Prešov, Slovakia) (1988). He had individual exhibitions in Dunaszerdahely (1980) and Somorja (1981). He composes his paintings with a peculiar philosophical and artistically surrealistic approach. His mural works include a tapestry in a conference hall in Nagylúcs (now Vel’ká Luč, Slovakia) (1971); a graffiti on the façade of the sports-hall of Fél (now Tomášov, Slovakia) (1973). Schrantz has tapestries in a number of other places including the Benedictine High Schools of Komárom (now Komárno, Slovakia), Pozsony, Érsekújvár (now Nové Zámky, Slovakia), and Dunaszerdahely (now Dunajská Streda, Slovakia). From 1943 to 1948 he studied Law at the University of Budapest. From 2 December 1940 until 8 May 1945, he served in the 16th. Infantry Regiment of Győr, and took part in the Battle of the Don Bend, and also in the fighting in Transylvania. He was discharged as a reserve second lieutenant. In 1948- 1949 he was a legal reporter for the Farming Cooperative of Somorja. From 1949 to 1952 he was an employee of the Public Road-building Company. From 1 October 1952 until his retirement on 1 July 1980 he was an actor in the Hungarian Regional Theatre (MATESZ) of Komárom and, between 1957 and 1975, an office secretary as well. His dramatic works, which have been staged, include The Miraculous Purse (A csodálatos erszény) a fairy play (1957), and a number of amateur stage plays and other fairy plays (1962-1977). He acted in close to a 100 roles on the stages of MATESZ, starting as the character Fuvaros Szél János in Ernő Urbán’s Baptism by Fire(Tűzkeresztség) (1953); Farmer Bálint in Ede Szigligeti’s The Herdsman (A csikós) (1953), and a number of other plays, including DoctorCaius in Shakespeare’s The Merry Wives of Windsor (A windsori víg nők) (1977). A number of smaller roles were presented by him in radio plays, broadcast by the Hungarian session of Radio Pozsony. His various writings appeared in such periodicals as the Week(Hét) and New Word (Új Szó).His translations include The Last Storm(Az utolsó vihar) by J. Solovič (1956). His own plays include Two Adams and one Eve(Két Ádám és egy Éva) comedy (1968). – B: 1083, T: 7456.→Don Bend, Battle of the. Schraud, Ferenc (Francis) (Pest, 14 May 1761 - Vasvár, 18 March 1806) – Physician. He obtained his Medical Degree at the University of Lemberg (now Lvov, Ukraine), after having studied medicine at the Universities of Pest and Vienna. Between 1786 and 1797 he was a physician in Vienna; from 1787 to 1789 Chief Medical Officer in County Csongrád, as well as in County Csanád from 1789 to 1793. From 1792 he was Professor of Practical Medicine at the University of Pest. In 1802 he was protomedicus hungaricus (national head physician), and he was the first to advocate to the counties the introduction of vaccination against smallpox. From 1803 he popularized the vaccination by regularly printing informative leaflets in Hungarian, German, Slovakian and Romanian for parish priests and teachers in the countryside. He had his book on vaccination published by Ferenc Bene. He played a significant part in stemming various epidemics, such as the Syrmian plague, the Bucovinian typhoid fever and the Styrian yellow fever. He became a victim of typhoid fever and died at Vasvár, at the age of 45. His works include Beobachtungen aus der Arzneikunde (1792); Elementa medicinae forensis (1802), and De eo quod est in morbis epidemium (1802). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Schreiber, Tamás (Thomas) (Budapest, 18 March 1929 - ) – Journalist, political scientist. After graduating from High School, he moved to France in 1948. In Paris he completed a course at the Institut d’Etudes Politiques, and at the tertiary college called École Supérieure de Préparat des Professeurs de France. He started his journalistic career as a member of the staff of Radio Free Europe, stationed in Paris; later, as correspondent of the Hungarian section of the French Radio. During the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight, he conducted interviews for the journal Le Monde with Cardinal József (Joseph) Mindszenty, and Pál (Paul) Maléter. He conducted interviews with many Eastern European leaders, including János (John) Kádár, Josip (Joseph) Broz Tito and Erich Honecker, as well as other leading world politicians, such as Khrushchev, Brezhnev, Gorbachev, Jelcin, Reagan, Bush, Carter and Clinton. Under the name of Tamás Aradi, he wrote articles for Horizon (Látóhatár), and for the Hungarian papers in Paris. Later in his career, he was writing more and more in French. After the cessation of Hungarian broadcasting on the French radio, he joined the French radio sessions, and also the Television. He is correspondent for Radio France Internationale, as well as a regular columnist of the daily paper Le Monde, dealing with Central and Eastern European, including Hungarian issues. He wrote 10 books, among them Hungary and the Second World War (1961), Hongrie, La transition pacifique (1991). He wrote his biography in Hungarian and in French (2009). A Hungarian documentry film was made with him in 2005. – B: 1672, T: 7456.→Mindszenty, József; Maléter, Pál; Kádár, János; Freedom Fight of 1956. Schubert, Éva (Budapest, 19 January 1931 - ) – Actress, manager, acting pedagogue. She obtained a Diploma in acting from the Academy of Music, Budapest in 1955; she was engaged by the Hungarian People’s Army Theater (Magyar Néphadsereg Színháza); in 1956 and 1957 by the Attila József Theater (Attila József Színház), andin 1957-1958 by the Merry Stage (Vídám Színpad). She was an actress in the Comedy Theater (Vígszínház) from 1958 to 1978, after which she was again a member of the Merry Stage. Her forte in drama and humor especially stands out in her characterizations. Her main roles are: Masa in Chekhov’s Seagull (Sirály); Carol in T. Williams’ Orpheus Descending (Orpheus alászáll); GloriainG.B. Shaw’s You Never Can Tell(Sohasem lehet tudni), and MamainG. Vaszary’s Bubus. There are some 60 feature and TV films to her credit, including The Wonder Forward (A csodacsatár) (1956); Sky Bird (Égi Madár) (1957); Kid (Kölyök) (1959); The Heir (Az örökös) (1968); Gypsy Princess (Csárdáskirálynő) (1971); Fireballs (Tűzgömbök) (1975); Open Window (Nyitott ablak) (1988); Escape(Egérút) (1988), and Moon and Stars (Hold és csillagok) (2005); she often plays in literary programs, and worked as director several times. She also taught acting at the Academy of Music and lectured at the Academy of Dramatic Art run by Mária Gór Nagy. She received the Merited Artist title in 1984. – B: 1445, 1504, 1742, T: 7456.