Schiff, András (Andrew) (Budapest, 21 December, 1953 - ) – Piano-virtuoso. He began taking piano lessons at the age of five with Elisabeth Vadász, and studied music at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, with Pál (Paul) Kadosa, György Kurtág and Ferenc Rados (1968-1975); he also studied harpsichord with George Malcolm in London. He was a member of the National Philharmonic Society, Budapest (1976-1979). He taught at the Academy of Music, Budapest (1975-1983). Between 1983 and 1985 he was a soloist of the Decca Studio, London, and recorded all of Mozart’s piano-sonatas and piano-concertos, the piano works of J. S. Bach, piano sonatas of Robert Schumann, etc. He performed recitals in all of the international music capitals, playing the major keyboard works of Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Schubert, Mendelssohn and Bartók. He has a multi-faceted career as both soloist and conductor. He performs in this dual role with the Chamber Orchestra of Europe on its North American tour, with appearances at both New York’s Lincoln Center and Carnegie Hall, Chicago’s Orchestra Hall, San Francisco’s Davies Symphony Hall and Princeton, New Jersey’s McCarter Theater. He performed Bach’s Goldberg Variations at Los Angeles’s Walt Disney Hall, in San Francisco and Santa Barbara, and in a live recording released it on the ECM label. For the Bach celebrations in 2000, commemorating the 250th anniversary of the composer’s death, he gave a series of recitals and conducted the St. Matthew Passion and other compositions. In 2001 he directed concert performances of Mozart's Così fan tutte in Vicenza, and at the Edinburgh Festival. From 1989 to 1998 he was the founder and artistic director of Musiktage Mondsee, a music festival near Salzburg. He is also the artistic director of the Hommage to Palladio series in Vicenza. He has established a prolific discography, including recordings for ECM New Series, Teldec and London/Decca. He is the recipient of several international awards and prizes, including two Grammy Awards, the Bartók Prize (1991), the Claudio Arrau Memorial Medal, Düsseldorf (1994), the Kossuth Prize (1996), the Leonie Sonnings Music Prize, Copenhagen (1997), the Palladio d’Oro Award by the city of Vicenza (2003), and the title of Ambassador of Hungarian Culture (2008). – B: 0874, 1868, T: 7103.→Kadosa, Pál; Kurtág, György.
Schlachta, Margit (Margaret) (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 18 September, 1884 - Buffalo, USA 6 January, 1974) – Founding leader of the Social Sisterhood Association (Szociális Testvérek Társasága), legitimist politician. She joined the ‘Social Mission Society’ (Szociális Missziói Társulat) in 1908, and organized the Christian Women’s Camp (Kersztény Női Tábor). She founded the Social Sisterhood Association (Szociális Testvérek Társasága), wich was active between 1923 and 1949. In 1934 she also founded the Catholic Women’s Social Center (Katolikus Női Szociális Köpzont). During World War II, she turned against Nazism, and in 1944 she rescued and protected persecuted persons in the Mission Society’s houses. From 1945 until 1949 she was a Member of Parliament. In 1946 she took a legitimist position in support of the Monarchy, and voted against a republican form of government. For a speech in 1947, she was banned from the Parliament for 60 days. She emigrated overseas and settled in the USA in 1949. From 1915 to 1944 she was Founding Editor of the periodical Christian Woman (Keresztény Nő), and between 1918 and 1922 she was Editor of Hungarian Woman (Magyar Nő). Her articles were also published in periodicals, such as the Word of the Spirit (Lélek szava) and Catholic Review (Katolikus szemle) – B: 0883, 0945, T: 7667.
Schlägl Glossary (Schlägli Szójegyzék) – The most extensive antique Hungarian handwritten word list, it was prepared by an unknown copier between 1400 and 1410. The librarian of the Premonstrian Monastery in Schlägl, Upper Austria found it when reorganizing the library in 1890. Originally a Latin dictionary, titled Hortularium, containing 130 Hungarian language glosses, was attached to it. While its arrangement and vocabulary show a close relationship with the Beszterce Glossary of the early 15th century (Besztercei szójegyzék), its text is more reliable and contains word groups not appearing in the other. It contains 2140 itemized words (mainly nouns) grouped in 32 conceptual areas. One part of its word treasure belongs to the conceptual sphere of literary erudition. – B: 1150, 1230, T: 7669.→Beszterce Glossary.
Schleicher, László (Ladislas) (Pozsony, now Bratislava, Slovakia, 30 March 1903 - Pozsony, 17 January 1999) – Teacher, choirmaster and composer. From 1926 to 1935 he studied Hungarian- and Latin- music in the Faculty of Arts of Pozsony University and received a diploma in 1935. From 1946 to 1950 he completed violin, composition and conducting classes at the Pozsony Conservatory of Music under Gustáv Náhlovský, Eugen Suchoň, Ján Cikker and Kornel Schimpl. From 1935 to 1938 he was a teacher at the Hungarian High School of Érsekújvár (now Nové Zámky, Slovakia). Between 1938 and 1945 he taught at the Hungarian High School of Pozsony. From 1950 to 1959 he was a teacher at the Pozsony School of Music and at the Conservatory of Music; on 1 September 1959 he was discharged because of his church activities. From 1960 until his retirement in 1968, he lived in Somorja (now Šamorín, Slovakia). Between 1968 and 1978 he taught violin, music theory and chamber music at the School of Music in Pozsonyhidegkút (now Dúbravka, Slovakia). From 1959 to 1975 he ran a conducting course. Between 1955 and 1978 Schleicher played viola in a String Quartet, engaged in music-composition, choir-direction and artistic photography, as well as giving lectures. During the years 1926 to 1971 he was choirmaster of the Salvator Mixed Choir; from 1964 to 1972 he was choirmaster of the Central Hungarian Teachers’ Choir in Czechoslovakia; between 1972 and 1982 he was choirmaster of the Hungarian Christian Church Choir. He was the founder and general secretary of the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Society (1980-1999). He conducted orchestras on more than 820 occasions; in his concert programs 80 instrumental masses were performed. He initiated the Singing Youth Movement (Éneklő Ifjúság Mozgalom). He participated in the activities of the Toldy Circle (Toldy Kör), Ottokár Prohászka Circle and the Béla Bartók Choral Ensemble. He composed songs, church music (psalms, masses), military songs, edited folksongs, songs of the highwaymen; also composed accompaniments, and arrangements of piano works for instrumental ensembles. His books include Playing and Analyzing Choir Scores (Énekkari partitúra játszása és elemzése) (Pozsony, 1972) and Methodology of Teaching Choir-singing (Karénektanítás módszertana), by Zbynĕk Mrkoš, translation (1973). Commemorative medals were presented to him in numerous cities and country towns (1979-1989). – B: 1083, 1890, T: 7456.
Schlick, Ignác (Ignatius) (Pest, 13 April 1821 - Pest, 23 December 1869) – Iron manufacturer and owner of one of the first Hungarian ironworks. After completing his public and high school studies, he learned his profession in the great ironworks of France and Switzerland. After seven years, he returned home and established an ironworks in Buda that was in operation for only a short while. For several years, he was the manager of the foundry of the ship building factory in Óbuda; thereafter he, together with his son-in-law, Frederick Langenfeld, he opened a foundry in Buda. Later on, they moved to Pest and established the Schlick Factory. Noteworthy creations of the factory are: the stage of the Hungarian Opera Theater, Budapest; the former Main Customs Building; the roof structure of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia) and that of the Opera Theater, the metal structure of the Industrial Hall (Iparcsarnok), Budapest; and the great Drava-River Bridge at Varasd (now Varaždin, Croatia). Later on he set up a sculpture foundry. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7684.
Schlosser, Imre (Emeric) (Budapest, 11 October 1889 - Budapest, 19 July 1959) – Soccer player. He played for the Gymnastics Club of Ferencváros (Ferencvárosi Torna Club – FTC) and contributed to all its successes. He was selected for the national team 68 times, for the first time in 1906. In 1915 he transferred to the “Hungarian Gymnastics Circle” (Magyar Testgyakorlók Köre – MTK). Later, he coached in Budapest, at Norrköping in Sweeden, and in Krakow for Wislal. In 1925 he signed up with the WAC of Vienna as a player and coached the Brigittenauer AC at the same time. Following his return from abroad he joined the FTC again, where he was champion in the 1926-1927 season. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7667.
Schmidt, Eligius Robert (Karánsebes, now Caransebeş, Romania, 23 March 1902 - Budapest, 23 July 1973) – Mining engineer, geologist, hydro-geologist, and holder of a Candidate’s Degree in soil and mineralogy (1953). He obtained his Degree from the University of Mining and Forestry Engineering of Sopron (1928). With his dissertation on the first thousand-meter boring at Szeged, he obtained a Doctorate from the University of Szeged in 1929. In 1930 he was a geology specialist in the Ministry of Finance; thereafter, having obtained a state scholarship, he spent 2 years at the Polytechnic of Vienna and also at the Mining Institute of Loeven (1930-1932). In 1939 he obtained an honorary lecturer qualification at the Polytechnic of Budapest. He was a geologist at the Institute of Earth Sciences (Földtani Intézet) (1932-1942). From 1942 to 1944 he was Manager of the Hungarian Italian Petroleum Co. (Magyar-Olasz Ásványolaj Rt.). Between 1945 and 1951 he worked in various ministries; then he returned to the Institute of Soil Sciences where he was Head of the Water-Soil Sciences Department until 1966, and worked there until his death. In 1947 Schmidt was appointed Professor at the Budapest Polytechnic. He also dealt with the research of native hydrocarbons and salt; then, after 1945, with the questions of native energy bases. The numerous borings and wells of the Great Hungarian Plain (Nagyalföld) occupied an important place in his life’s work. In the explanatory booklets issued along with the soil science maps, he gave detailed information regarding deep borings of wells to obtain water, on the basis of his inspection tours and survey measurements. He participated in researches for the Crown; he had an important role in the establishment of thermal water wells at Hajdúszoboszló and Debrecen. He spent decades in his studies with the geothermal gradient of the Hungary (1932, 1936, 1938, 1941, 1943, 1964). He was the first to provide a scientific water-land classification of the country. In his geo-mechanical researches he conducted, first of all, tectonic investigations. He dealt with the geological structure of Thuringia, and even that of with Iceland. From the beginning of the 1960s, he dealt with the research, exploration and composition of native thermal, mineral and medicinal waters. For years he had been the head of the department that provided an official professional opinion of all efforts to obtain water from below the surface before it could be tapped. These proved to be especially successful in the establishment of industrial and drinking water wells at Paskál-malom, Budapest-Zugló, around the Balaton, and the thermal wells on the Hungarian Lowlands. He publicized the results of his water-land sciences research and observations in his work, the Hydrological Atlas of Hungary; and his tectonic ideas and explanations in his book entitled Geo-mechanics. These works are of trailblazer quality in Hungary; and are significant works in the international professional literature. In total, he published 170 scientific essays and books. Schmidt’s major works are: Geo-mechanics (Geomechanika) (1957) and Hydrological Atlas of Hungary (Magyarország vízföldtani atlasza) (1961, 1962). He was an outstanding Hungarian professional of the techniques and evaluation of deep boring. He achieved outstanding results in evaluating the water-soil sciences from the geotechnical and geo-mechanical point of view of great (land) recesses. He was one of the outstanding hydrologists in the 20th century. The Hungarian Hydrological Institute awarded him the Ferenc Schafarzik medal (1961), the Silver Class of the Pál Vásárhelyi Award (1972), and the Samu Zorkóczy Commemorative Medal (1969). The Soil Science Society of the German Democratic Republic elected him an honorary member in 1967. He was awarded the Kossuth Prize (1956). – B: 0883, 1405, T: 7684.
Schmidt, Éva (Budapest, 28 June 1948 - Khanty-Manshiysk, 4 August 2002) – Linguist, Ostyak-Vogul researcher. From the University of Budapest she acquired a Degree in English, Finno-Ugric Languages and Ethnography. From 1969 to 1971 she was on a scholarship in Leningrad, USSR (now St. Petrograd), where she met Ostyak and Vogul students and secretly visited their land. She obtained a Doctoral Degree from the University of Leningrad in 1973. In the same year she worked at the Ethnographic Research Institute, Budapest. Her plan was to develop a folklore archive of the North Ostyak people, which she realized in the early 1990s. Among her collections are a complete record of a Bear Festival and a collection of fables. She published some 70 studies, e.g. Trend in the 20th Century Ob-Ugric Oral Tradition (1980); Connection Between Metrics, Style and Music in Northern Khanti Folk Poetry (1985); Khanti and Manshi Religion (1987); Bear Cult and Mythology of Northern Ugrians (1989), and History of the North Ostyak Folklore Archive in Beloiarski (1997), in Hungarian. Some of her works remained in manuscript. – B: 1012, 1031, T: 7103.
Schmidt, Ferenc (Francis) (Zalagereszeg, 21 January 1881 - San Diego, 29 July 1958) – Physician. He studied Medicine at the Universities of Budapest and Graz. He worked as a medical officer in World War I until 1915, and later as a surgeon-major. He worked in the army until his retirement. In the meantime, the Arch-Abbot of Tihany Abbey (on the peninsula in Lake Balaton) appointed him Head Physician of the Sanatorium at Balatonfüred, where he worked until 1952. In 1922 he became a lecturer at the Medical School of the University of Budapest and, from 1952 to 1954, had a private practice in Balatonfüred. He published a number of articles in the journal Medical Weekly (Orvosi Hetilap) between 1929 and 1940. After the death of Ernő (Ernest) Cséplő in 1938, he became Co-President of the Balaton Council. To join his children, he emigrated to the USA, and died in San Diego. He was the physician and a good friend of the great poet Endre Ady (1917). In 1926 he restored the health of Rabindranath Tagore, the Indian Nobel-Prize Laureate poet, with whom he remained in contact until his death. He was one of the founders of the renowned Cardiac Sanatorium of Balatonfüred. He was the author of a great number of specialist medical studies. His works include The New Balatonfüred (Az új Balatonfüred) (1913); Chronic Cardiac Insufficiency (Idült szívelégtelenségek) (1936), and Transdanubia and Transylvania (Dunántúl és Erdély) (1940). – B: 0932, 1477, T: 7456.→Ady, Endre.
Schmidt, Mária (1953 - ) – Historian. She studied German Literature and History at the University of Budapest, obtaining a Ph.D. in 1999. She worked as a researcher in modern history. She dealt with, among other topics, the Hungarian Jews after World War I. She went on a scholarship to Austria, England, America, Germany and Israel. Formerly, she taught at the University of Innsbruck, the Péter Pázmány Catholic University (1996); she was the Head of the 20th and 21st Century Institutes (1999-2000). Her fields of research include the history of Hungarian Jews from 1918, the history of Hungary under dictatorships in the 20th century and the dictatorships in the 20th century. She was chief advisor to Prime Minister Viktor Orbán (1998-2002). She is the Head of the House of Terror Museum (2002). Her major works include Collaboration or Co-operation? (Kollaboráció vagy kooperáció?) (1990); On the Devil-coach of Dictatorships (Diktaturák ördögszekerén) (1998); The Role of Anti-Semitism in the Years of System-change (Az antiszemitizmus szerepe a rendszerváltás éveiben) (1999); Transition and Contradiction. The Case of Hungary (co-editor) (1999), With the Same Measure (Egyazon mércével) (2003), and Politically Incorrect (Politikailag inkorrekt), selected writings between 2002 and 2010, (2011). Among his distinctions are: Commander of the Order of Merit of the French Republic (2001), Great Cross of the Order of Merit of the Loyalty of the Patria (2004), and the Commander Cross of the Merit of the Republic of Poland (2011).
– B: 0874, 1891, T: 7103.→Orbán, Viktor.
Schmidthauer, Lajos (Louis) (Révkomárom, now Komarnó, Slovakia, 1 March 1882 - Budapest, 4 November 1956) – Organist and composer. He studied with János (John) Koesler, Árpád Szendy, István Thomán, K. Straube, F. A. Guilmant, and E. Bossi. First he worked as a pharmacist; but eventually dedicated the rest of his life to music. He was owner of the Igmánd Bitter-Water Well (Igmándi Keserűvíz) that he made popular in the country. In the hall of his villa on Orlay Street, Budapest, he had his own pipe organ. He also taught at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music from 1934 to 1944, and at the National Music School between 1940 and 1944. He visited most of the major European cities on concert tours. In his performances he introduced, often for the first time, the works of a number of contemporary composers (e.g. Paul Hindemith). He was particularly talented in improvisation. He was also famous as a designer of great Hungarian organs, and he inaugurated many of them. Known as a patron of artists, he supported young painters and writers. His works include scherzos, pastorals, e.g. Storm on Lake Balaton, Fantasy for Organ (Vihar a Balatonon, orgonafantázia) (1933). His writings include Unified Organ Design (Egységes orgonatervezet) in Music Pages (Zenelap) (1918); Tasks and Problems of the Concert Organ (Aufgabe and Probleme der Konzertorgel) (1934), and Insights, Innovations, Exaggerations and Mistakes of the New Hungarian Baroque-movement in Organ Design (Az Új magyar barokk-mozgalom jó meglátásai újításai, túlzásai, és tévedesei az orgonaépítészetben) (1937). When the Soviet Army laid siege to Budapest on 4 November 1956 he committed suicide. A plaque was placed on his bithplace in Komarnó. – B: 0883, 7103, T: 7667.→Koesler, János; Szendy, Árpád; Thomán, István; Igmánd, bitter water of.
Schmitt, Jenő Henrik (Eugene), (Znaim, Moravia, 5 November 1851 - Schmargendorf, near Berlin, 14 September 1916) – Philosopher. He studied at the Universities of Budapest and Berlin; on a Trefort scholarship, he furthered his studies, and in 1888, received a Ph.D. from the University of Budapest. From 1890 he worked as a librarian for the Library of the Ministry of Justice; however he relinquished his position in 1896 so that he could ensure his writer’s freedom. He spent the last years of his life near Berlin. At first he was a follower of Hegel, but later he developed his own thought system, which he called the New Gnosticism, mixing oriental theosophical doctrines and the anarchist ideas of Tolstoy and Nietzsche. His work entitled Das Geheimnis der Hegelischen Dialektik (The Secret of Hegelian Dialectic) (1880), attracted attention and was honored by the Philosophical Society of Berlin. He propagated his anarchist doctrines in his books and in his journals until 1900 (Without State, Without Violence, and Ohne Staat) and they were also spread by word of mouth, especially among the peasantry of the Great Hungarian Plain, exercising influence on the workers. He corresponded with Leo Tolstoy, who was also an associate of his journals. Because of his anarchism, lawsuits were brought against him several times, which was a sensation of the times, but he was acquitted. He designated the early Christian gnosis as the historical preliminary of his philosophical thought; his students organized themselves in sects, also calling themselves Gnostics. With his philosophical tendency he influenced some of the writers of the early 20th century, e.g. Gyula (Julius) Juhász. In Leipzig he edited three annual volumes of Die Religion des Geistes (The Religion of Spirit). Among his further works were: Friedrich Nietzsche an der Grenze zweier Weltalter (Friedrich Nietzsche on the Border of Two Ages) (1900); Graf Leo Tolstoy und seine Bedeutung für unsere Kultur, I, II (Count Leo Tolstoy and his Meaning for our Culture, vols. i, ii) (1901); Die Gnosis (The Gnosis, vols. i, ii) (1903 - 1907); Der Idealstaat (The Ideal State) (1904), and Kritik der Philosophie von Standpunkte der Erkenntnis (The Critique of Philosophy from the Viewpoints of Cognition) (1907). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Juhász, Gyula.
Schmitt, Pál (Paul) (Budapest, 13 May 1942 - ) – Fencer, diplomat, politician. He studied at the University of Economics, Budapest and obtained a Degree in 1965; he received a Ph.D. from the University of Physical Training in 1992; since 1994 he has been a titular professor. First, he worked for the tourist business and became Deputy-Manager of the Hotel Astoria, Budapest. In 1981 he was in charge of the People’s Stadium (Népstadion) in Budapest. In 1983 he was Vice-President of the National Physical Education and Sports Office (Országos Testnevelési és Sporthivatal). He began his sports-career in 1955; he was twice foil fencing Olympic Champion (Fencing Team, Mexico City, 1968; Fencing Team, Munich, 1972), twice World-Champion (1970, 1971), and World-Cup Winner in 1971. He has been a member of the International Olympics Committee since 1983, President of the Hungarian Olympics Committee since 1989, and was elected to the International Olympics Executive Committee in 1991. He was voted Vice President of the International Olympics Committee in 1995. He became Hungary's Ambassador in Madrid from 1993 to 1997, and in Bern from 1998 to 2002. In 2003 he was elected Vice-President of the FIDESZ political party. From 2004 to 2010, he was a member of the European Parliament and leader of the EP delegation of FIDESZ, and finally Vice-Presidet of the European Parliament. In 2010, he was elected President of the Republic of Hungary. However, amidst controversy over his doctoral qualification 20 years ago, he resigned from office on 2 April, 2012. He is a recipient of the Miksa Esterházy Prize (2001). – B: 0874, 1031, T: 7103.→Fidesz; Political Parties in Hungary; Áder, János.
Schneider, Antal (Anthony) (Bey Hussein) (Transylvania, 1816 - Budapest, 1 September 1897) – Physician, officer of the Honvéd (soldier of the national defense force), later senior Turkish medical officer. He obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Vienna in 1840. From 1840 to 1848 he was a practicing physician in County Temes. In the spring of 1848 he became a captain in the National Guard; and from the summer of 1848 he was a Hussar Captain in General Damjanich’s army. On several occasions, he saved himself with his bravery; in February 1849 he obtained important information as a reconnaissance patrol. He served also in Bem’s troops, became the Polish General’s friend and doctor, and followed him to Turkey. As Bey Hussein, working as a regimental medical officer, he was a member of General Bem’s retinue in Damascus and Aleppo; at the General’s deathbed he was his attending physician (Schneider donated the general’s shroud to the Hungarian National Museum, and in 1929, Hungary presented it to Poland). In the Crimean War, Schneider was Head Physician of the Arab Army and, as a cavalry commander, he took several strategic points. After the war he practiced medicine in Istanbul. He was arrested for forgery, sentenced to 15 years imprisonment in a fortress; the English Ambassador freed him. In 1860 he lived in Korfu; joined Garibaldi’s army and fought in Italy. After the 1867 Compromise between Hungary and Austria, he returned to Hungary. For some time he was under police supervision and was not allowed to practice medicine. With the help of the famous Honvéd General György Klapka, he worked as an official at the Financial Administration of Buda. – B: 1730, 1031, T: 7456.→Damjanich, János; Klapka, György; Compromise of 1867; Bem, József.