Savar Hungarians – As a consequence of the Kangar offensive, part of the Sabirs joined forces with the ancestors of the Magyars in Lebedia, while the remainder returned to their ancestral territory, the Caucasian Mountains. Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII wrote in the 10th century that the Kangar offensive forced the settlement in the Caucasus region by part of the Magyar tribes well before their settlement in the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century AD. – B: 1153, 1020, T: 3240.→Sabirs; Lebedia. Savars→Sabirs.
Sávoly, Ferenc (Francis) (Alsóelemér, 29 April 1870 - Budapest, 16 May 1938) – Meteorologist, the founder of agro-meteorology in Hungary. In 1906, after obtaining his Ph.D., he entered the Meteorological Institute. On his initiative, in 1919 the Institute’s Agro-meteorological Department was established; he was appointed its head. From 1925 he lectured on economical climate studies at the Budapest Polytechnic. From 1927he was Deputy Director of the Museum of Agricultural Sciences (Mezőgazdasági Múzeum); he later became its director. He first gained acknowledgement with his research into plant diseases and their relationship to the climate, studying the affects of one or another meteorological element on the results of plant growth, and the biological needs of plants for certain climate. He also dealt with the problems of forestation and the relationship of the winds of the Nagyalföld (Great Plain). He was a permanent contributor to the periodical The Weather(Az Időjárás). From 1910 to 1927 he prepared the Monthly Report about Hungary’s weather. His main works include Hygienic Importance of Humidity(Levegőnedvesség higienikus jelentősége) (1906), and From the Great Plain’sForestation and Irrigation to the Value of Bioclimatic Improvement in the Area of Agriculture (Az Alföld fásitásától és öntözésétől a mezőgazdaság terén várhato bioklimatikus értéknövelésről) (1920). – B: 0883, 1406, T: 7684. Sávoly, Pál (Paul) (Budapest, 30 January 1893 - Budapest, 20 December 1968) – Structural engineer. He obtained his Degree from the Budapest Polytechnic; first he worked at a Dutch planning office in 1920, where he soon became an independent designer. Noteworthy among the bridges built under his direction are: the cable bridge on the River Naft; 52 bridges for Thailand, and the opening bridge over the Hwang-Ho River near its mouth at Tien-tsin (Tianjin). He also had successes in several international bridge-building competitions (e.g. Casablanca, Mechra and Abbei). Returning to Hungary in 1925, he opened an engineering office. In 1929 he was a consultant for the construction of a bus garage in Budapest. In 1930 he took part in the building of the Talbot power station at Bánhida; in 1932 he participated in the planning of the Árpád Bridge over the Danube at Óbuda (northern part of Budapest). In 1936 he planned the bridgeheads of the Petőfi Bridge at Boráros Square, Budapest, as well as the subways and overpasses. He also planned the sewage-transfer plant of Angyalföld (northern suburb of Budapest). Between 1937 and 1939, apart from a number of works, he was responsible for the construction of the Danube banks fast-traffic road, subways under the Chain Bridge and Margaret Bridge, as well as the bridgehead of the latter, in Budapest. After World War II, he participated in the rebuilding of the destroyed Danube bridges of Budapest, blown up by the Germans in late 1944, during the siege of Budapest (24 December 1944 - 13 February, 1945), e.g. the Francis Joseph (Freedom) Bridge and the Chain Bridge; also the bridge at Szob over the Ipoly River (northwest of Budapest). Apart from rebuilding blown-up bridges, he also planned a large number of new bridges, directing their construction, as in case of the Friendship Bridge at Komárom, the Danube bridges at Újpest, Baja, Dunaföldvár, and also the ones over the Tisza River at Tokaj and Szolnok. Sávoly planned the 800 m long vehicular and railway-bridge over the Nile River at Heluan in Egypt. His engineering magnum opus was the planning and designing of the re-construction of the Elizabeth Bridge of Budapest (1960-1964) in its new form, a 6-lane suspension (cable) bridge, fully spanning the Danube from bank to bank, standing on its original piers on the banks, which was opened to the public on 21 November 1964. His last work was a plan for a bridge in the south of Budapest between Csepel and Budafok. His published works include The Nile Bridge at Heluan (A heluani Nílus-híd) (1958) and The New Elizabeth Bridge as an Engineering Achievement (Az új Erzsébet-híd mint műszaki alkotás) (1966). He was among the best of Hungarian bridge builders. He was awarded the Kossuth Prize (1954) and the State Prize (1965). – B: 0883, 1850, T: 7456.
Savoyai, Jenő→Savoyenor, Eugen von. Savoyenor, Eugen von(Savoyai Jenő, Prinz Eugen, originally Eugène de Savoie-Carignan) (Paris, 18 October 1663 - Vienna, 21 April 1736) – Aristocrat and military commander. He was descended from the House of Savoy. He led the forces to liberate Buda from the 150-year Ottoman Turkish captivity. From early boyhood he wanted to be a soldier, but his parents intended him for the priesthood. He left France and joined the service of Leopold I Habsburg Emperor and King of Hungary (1654-1705). Already in 1683 (aged 20) he participated in the fighting around Vienna, surrounded by the Turkish forces; in the unsuccessful siege of Buda in 1684, and also in the victory at Esztergom in 1685. It was here that his exceptional talent as a military leader was first noticed. He fought in the united European army organized by Pope Innocent XI, which had retaken Buda from the Ottoman Turks in 1686; he was wounded in action at Buda. He also took part in other victorious battles against the Turks and cleared almost all of Hungary from Turkish occupation, leading to the Peace of Karlóca (Karlowitz, 26 January 1699), confirming the new situation. In recognition of his military achievements he was granted landed property in Hungary. His country mansion still stands at Ráckeve on Csepel Island, south of Budapest, and his equestrian statue may be seen in Buda Castle. – B: 1031, T: 7456.→Lothringen, Prinz Karl Leopold von; Buda, reconquest of, in 1686; Turks, expulsion of, from Hungary. Scepter – A symbol of imperial authority. Formerly the staff was an important symbol of might for kings and emperors. In general, the staff was a sign of office. The ancient Greek and Roman rulers already used a short rod with a sphere. The Hungarian royal scepter is also an ancient symbol of authority, and is part of the coronation insignia. – B: 1138, 1336, T: 7662.→ Coronation, Insignia of. Schaár, Erzsébet (Elizabeth) (Budafok, 27 July 1908 - Budapest, 29 August 1975) – Sculptor. She completed her university studies in Budapest; her teacher was the famous sculptor, Zsigmond (Sigismund) Kisfaludi Strobl. She showed her work in exhibitions from 1926 on. She arranged her first one-man show in Budapest in 1932. In the beginning of her career she became known for her character portraits. Her small-size wooden reliefs of the 1940s were followed in the 1960s by wedge-like sculptures and figures. At the same time, she created another group: female figures lying in bed, lovers and dead soldiers lying on the ground. From about the middle of 1960s, she attempted, with more and more consistency, to depict building elements – walls, doors, windows – thereby bringing alive the living space in which human activity takes place. From that time on, she used in her work the light synthetic material, the hungarocell,which made it possible for her to realize her ideas in a larger size, in life-like measurements. In spaces bordered by building elements, she created the connection between architecture and figures that were closed in and final. In 1974 she showed her new composition, the Street, in Székesfehérvár; that work theoretically and in reality is the summation of her artistic carreer. In 1970 she had a large exhibition arranged in the Műcsarnok (Art Gallery), in Budapest. In 1972 she had a show in Antwerp and Geneva. During her lifetime, many of her sculptures decorated public squares in Budapest, Kecskemét, Miskolc, Pécs, Tihany and other places. Her major works include Child’s Head(Gyermekfej) lead (1926); Inside and Outside (Kint és bent) wood (1949); Marcell Benedek, bronze portrait (1963); Iren Psota, lead portrait (1964); Dead Soldiers (Halott Katonák) bronze (1965); Lovers (Szerelmesek) terracotta (1965); Bartók, portrait (1965); Boy Bust, bronze (1965);Lead Wall (Ólomfal) (1967); Doors (Ajtók) aluminum (1967); Story of a Relationship – Chairs (Egy kapcsolat története – Székek) bronze (1967-1972); Scientists (Tudósok), artificial stone (1968-1970); Miklós Radnóti, bronze portrait (1969); Bluebeard’sCastle (A kékszakállú herceg vára) glass and bronze (1970); Monument of Sachsenhausen (Sachsenhauseni emlékmű) synthetic stone (1971), and Lőrinc Szabó, gypsum portrait (1973). Most of her estate is preserved in the King Stephen Museum (István Király Múzeum) in Székesfehérvár. A number of her works can be seen in the Hungarian National Gallery in Budapest, at the Janus Pannonius Museum in Pécs, and several other national and foreign public and private collections. In 1964 it was Gábor Kovács who made a film about her work, entitled Psota-Portré, and in 1967 he made a film about the artist’s works for television. In 1973, Boris Zsigmondi prepared a TV portrait film about her; Peter Fitz’ small film immortalized her composition The Street (Az Utca) in 1974. She won the Szinyei Award (1932), the Munkácsy Award (1965), and the Merited Artist title (1972). – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7684, 7456.→Kisfaludi Strobl, Zsigmond; Ferenczy, Béni; Vilt, Tibor. Schafarzik, Ferenc (Francis) (Debrecen, 20 March 1854 - Budapest, 5 September 1927) – Geologist. He studied at the University of Budapest (1876-1882), and was a demonstrator in its mineralogical-geological department, under József (Joseph) Szabó. From 1882 he was on the staff of the Geological Institute. Between 1884 and 1888 he was Editor of the Geological Bulletin with Gyula (Julius) Pethő. From 1891 he was an honorary lecturer in Engineering Geology at the Budapest Polytechnic; from 1904 a professor in the department of mineralogy and geology. Between 1910 and 1916 he was President of the Geological Society; also President of its hydrological section until the end of his life. Earlier on, he worked in the field of petrology. From 1877 to 1885 he researched the volcanic rocks of the Cserhát Mountain. In 1886 Schafarzik participated in Mór (Maurice) Déchy’s expedition to the Caucasus Mountains, where he made a study of descriptive petrology and investigated the volcanism and morphology. In 1881 he instituted the seismological committee of the Geological Society. During the 1910s, he studied the geological structure of the Eastern and Southern Carpathians and the Krassó-Szörény Ore Mountains (in Transylvania, Erdély, now in Romania) and made a detailed geological study of the environs of Budapest, specializing in the hydrology of the Danube banks on the Buda side, and the thermal waters of Buda. He founded the Schafarzik Medal of the Hungarian Hydrological Society in 1943. He was one of the pioneers of engineering geology, seismology and hydrology in Hungary. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1902; ordinary 1916). His works include The Pyroxene Andesites of the Cserhát Mountain (A Cserhátpiroxénandezitjei) (1892) and Geology of the Environs of Ruszkabánya (now Rusca Montană, Romania) (Ruszkabánya környékének geológiai viszonyai) (1906). – B: 0883, 1160, T: 7456.
Schaffer, Károly (Charles) (Vienna, 7 September 1864 - Budapest, 16 October 1939) – Physician, psychiatrist. In 1889 he obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Budapest. From 1893 he was an honorary lecturer (privatdozent)in neuropathology; in 1901 became a titular associate professor. Concurrently, from 1889 he worked at the Neurological and Psychiatric Clinic of the University of Budapest, where he became a demonstrator in 1890; Senior Physician of the Elizabeth Hospital for the Poor, and of the Outpatient Department from 1895. In 1912 he became an Associate Professor and also Director of the Institute for studying brain tissue. From 1925 he was a full Professor of Psychiatry and Neuropathology. He was one of the founders of the Neuropathological Histology School in Hungary, and one of the founders of the study of neurons. He also carried out research in the fields of morphology and histology. He clarified the pathology of Tay-Sachs illness and investigated the material bases for talent and genius. Schaffer was the first to show the short-axis cells of the cerebral crust and the fasciculus arcuatus bulbi, found on the myelencephalon. For the explanation of the morphological bases of inheritable mental and neurological illnesses he set up the Schaffer trials named after him. He was editor of the journal Hirnpatologische Beiträge published in Berlin. He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1914, ordinary 1926, honorary 1938). His works include Suggestion und Reflex (1895); The Nervous System of Count István Széchenyi from a Medical Specialist’s Point of View (Gróf Széchenyi István idegrendszere szakorvosi megvilágításban) (1923), and The Genius (A lángész) (1938). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Schandl, József (Joseph) (Bakonybél, 27 April 1885 - Budapest, 10 July 1973) – Veterinarian. In 1909 he obtained his Veterinary Degree and, in 1914, his Medical Degree from the University of Budapest. In 1911 he was a demonstrator at the Veterinary Academy of Mosonmagyaróvár; from 1912 a senior lecturer and, in 1918 and 1919, a full professor. From 1919 to 1922 he was a lecturer at the College of Veterinary Science at Budapest; from 1919 a professor and, from 1923 to1933 Dean. From 1927 to 1960 he was Director of the National Wool and Silk Institute. In 1953 he obtained his Ph.D. in Agronomics. From 1945 to 1948 he was Dean of the Faculty, and from 1948 to 1960 Director of the Livestock-raising Research Institute. He was an outstanding representative of Hungarian agronomics, and an eminent specialist of sheep farming and animal husbandry. He organized the registering of sheep herds and introduced the supervision of milk yield. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1953, ordinary 1960). His works include Encyclopedia of Animal Husbandry (Az állattenyésztés enciklopédiája) (1924); Sheep Breeding (Juhtenyésztés) (1951), and Stock-raising (Szarvasmarha-tenyésztés) (1952). He was awarded the Kossuth Prize in 1954. – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Schedius, Lajos (Lewis) (Győr, 20 December 1768 - Pest, 12 November 1847) – Writer, linguist and esthetician. His tertiary studies were in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia), Sopron and Göttingen, Germany. From 1792 he was Professor of Esthetics at the University of Pest, where he lectured on Greek Language and Literature, as well as on Pedagogy. In 1835 he was Vice Chancellor of the University. In 1841 he became a member of the Kisfaludy Society and also its Vice President. The syllabus he worked out for the Lutheran schools (1816) reflects the more recent aspirations of neo-humanism. He became the drama critic of the first Hungarian theater company formed in 1790 and, with József (Joseph) Kármán; he took part in the launching of the journal Uránia (1794). He was editor of the journals Literarischer Anzeiger für Ungarn (1797-1799) and Zeitschrift vonund für Ungarn(Newspaper from and for Hungary) (1802-1804), in which he (Literary Gazette for Hungary) endeavored to acquaint foreign countries with the conditions of Hungary. He was in close friendly relations with Ferenc (Francis) Kazinczy and Károly (Charles) Kisfaludy. He wrote poems and works in Hungarian, German and Latin on bibliography, philosophy, esthetics, history, society, geography and economics. In 1836 he published a large wall map of Hungary: The land outlay (geography) of Hungary and Transylvania (Magyarország és Erdély földabrosza) (Pest, 1833-36),edited by the surveyor of Pest, Benjámin Sámuel. His main work was Principia philocaliae seu doctrinae pulchri…(Principle of Love of Beauty or the Doctrine of Beauty) (Pest, 1828). His othe works include Commentatio de sacris operis veterum Christianorum (History ofthe sacred word of ancient Christianity) (Göttinga, 1790); Der dankbare Jüngling(The Tankful Youth) (Pozsony 1792); Compendiaria graecae grammaticae institutio (A comprehensive Greek grammar instruction) (Buda, 1818). More of his treaties appeared in the paper Urania, such as The amiable nature of religion (A vallásnak szeretetreméltó volta) (1794), later in the Aurora, such as TheScience of Beauty(A szépség tudománya) (1822). He also published agricultural work: Vollständiger Unterricht über die vortheilhafteste und leichteste Art des Seidenbaues(Full instruction on the most advantages and easiest way of making silk) (Pest 1810). Schedius was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (honorary 1831, director 1845). – B: 0883, 1257; T: 7456.→Kármán, József;Kazinczy, Ferenc; Kisfaludy, Károly.
Scheiber, Sándor (Alexander) (Budapest, 9 July 1913 - Budapest, 3 March 1985) – Rabbi, linguist, literary historian. From both parents he was the descendant of rabbi ancestors. He was a student of Bernát Heller, and was made a rabbi in 1938. Between 1938 and 1940 he searched through the libraries of Oxford, Cambridge and London to study Medieval Hebrew manuscripts. From 1941 to 1944 he was a senior rabbi at Dunaföldvár. Somehow he survived the German occupation of Hungary, but he lost his mother. The Rabbinical Training Institute was destroyed, but he had it rebuilt (1945-1950); from 1950 he became its director and, although he received a number of invitations from abroad, he remained in this position until his death. He published some 1600 works. His magnum opus is his Geniza Studies (Hildesheim, 1981), dealing with universal Jewish cultural history; for this work he was awarded a Doctorate in Linguistics in 1983. He published the Fauna und Mineralien by Immanuel Löw in 1969; the Diary of Ignác (Ignatius) Goldzieher (1978), and the Majmun Codex (1980). He edited the memorial volumes of Heller (1941), Low (1947), and Goldzieher (1958), the volumes of the Hungarian-Jewish archives (from 1965), and the monographs of the Jewish parishes of Hungary. From 1970 he restarted the Annuals. Scheiber’s literary research and decoding is considered significant. He created a new school with the method of using comparative tradition and subject matter. He published previously unpublished letters, poems. His research on the works of J. Arany and K. Mikszáth is important. His sermons represent the finest traditions of the oeuvre. The Jewish material of his library is held in the Eastern Library of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. His works include Hungarian JewishInscriptions, monograph (1960, 1983), and Folklore and Subject-history (I-II, 1974, 1977, III in 1984). In Budapest a High School, an Elementary School, and a prize bear his name. – B: 0883, T: 7456.→Goldzieher, Ignác; Jews in Hungary. Scheitz, László (Ladislas) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1897 - Katanga, 24 April 1963) – Physician, Minister of Health in Katanga, Africa. His medical studies were completed at the University of Kolozsvár (1919). From 1920 to 1925 he was a surgical student at the University of Budapest, later a surgeon there. Between 1925 and 1934 he was a surgical assistant physician and later an assistant lecturer at the Rókus Hospital, Budapest. From 1934 to 1936 he was the senior physician at the National Social Insurance Fund (Országos Társadalom Biztositási Alap – OTBA). From 1938 to 1939 he worked as a surgeon in the Belgian Congo. In 1940, on the outbreak of World War II, he returned to Hungary. Between 1940 and 1945 he was an assistant lecturer at the St. István Hospital, Budapest, and in 1946 a senior physician in the hospital on Maglód Street, Budapest. In 1948 he went back to the Belgian Congo as a senior physician and after the announcement of the independence of Katanga on 11 July 1960, he became Minister of Health of Katanga. – B: 0883, 1730, T: 7456.
Schenek, István (Stephen) (Esztergom, 3 July 1830 - Budapest, 26 July 1909) – Chemist, inventor He received his Doctorate from the University of Vienna in 1856; became a chemistry teacher in a special, modern high school in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia) in 1859, as well as in an agricultural college in Keszthely in 1867. Schenek was invited to assume the chair of professorship in the Mining and Forestry Academy of Selmecbánya (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia) in 1870, where he lectured in chemistry and natural sciences until 1872; and thereafter, until his retirement in 1892 he lectured in general and introductory chemistry. In 1885, he and his professor colleague, István (Stephen) Farbaky invented a much-improved lead battery, which was named after them. Several of his scientific papers were published in contemporary journals, and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences invited him to become a member. – B: 0883, 1138, T: 7456.→Farbaky, István. Schenker,Zoltán,Ozoray (Váradszentmárton, 13 October 1880 – 25 August 1966) – Saber and foilfencer. He participated in three Olympiads, winning 3 medals. He first competed at the 1912 Stockholm Games, and took the Gold Medal in the team saber event. He was also fencing in the individual foil competition, and won both his 1st and 2nd round pools, but was eliminated in the semifinals. Schenker returned to the Olympics at the 1924 Paris Games, and fenced in 4 events. He won 2 medals in team competitions. In team foil, the Hungarian team easily captured the Bronze Medal. In the team saber, Schenker and Hungary won the silver medal. In the individual saber, Schenker advanced to the finals and finished 4th overall. His final Olympiad was the Amsterdam Games in 1928. Competing only in individual foil, he advanced to the semifinals, where he was eliminated. In the 1910s and 1920s, Schenker was one of Hungary's top fencers when the country was known as the best fencing nation in the world. He was also a well-known author on fencing. – B: 1031, T: 7103.
Scheuthauer, Gusztáv (Gustavus) (Tőketerebes, now Trebišov, Slovakia, 25 km north of Sátoraljaújhely, 11 March 1832 - Budapest, 28 January 1894) – Physician and pathologist. He obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Vienna in 1861. Between 1860 and 1870 he was a demonstrator under Professor Rokitansky in No.1 Institute of Pathological Anatomy in Vienna. In 1870 he became an honorary lecturer (privatdozent)and a pathological anatomist of the National General Hospital of Brünn (now Brno, Czech Republic). From 1870 he was an associate professor of pathological histology at the University of Pest; from 1871 a pathological anatomist and a senior physician of the Rókus Hospital; then, between 1874 and 1894, a full Professor of Pathological Histology at the University of Budapest. He was engaged in the research of brain histology, nerve fibers and the pathology of illnesses caused by intestinal parasites. He also worked as forensic physician for the defense of the Tiszaeszlár trial. He carried out research in medical history as well. His works include Theoretical Pathological Anatomy (Elméleti kórbonctan) (1878). – B: 1730, T: 7456.→Tiszaeszlár Affair.