Sztárai, Mihály (Michael) (Drávasztára ?, ? - Tolna ?, 1575) – Reformer, Lutheran pastor, poet and playwright. He probably studied at the Sárospatak College; then became a Franciscan monk. During his ministry at Sárospatak, he reorganized with others the famed College. He took part in the disastrous Battle of Mohács against the Ottoman Turkish army (1526). Later on, his Order sent him to Padua to study at the University, where he also received musical training. It was here that he became acquainted with the doctrines of Martin Luther and he decided to join the Reformation Movement. Returning to Hungary, he lived under the protection of the Transylvanian voivode Péter Perényi (Transylvania or Erdély, now part of Romania) and acted as the tutor of his son, Ferenc. In Sztárai’s opinion King Lajos (Louis) II’s autocratic rule was the direct cause of the Mohács disaster. From 1544, Sztárai was already active in Laskó (now Lug, Croatia) in County Baranya, and also in Slovenia; in these areas he reformed 120 churches. He worked as preacher in such diverse parts of Hungary as Laskó, Tolna, Gyula, Sárospatak and Pápa. Together with Gergely Szegedi, he was the originator of the practice of psalm singing by the congregation. His Hungarian-language psalm-paraphrases, Biblical and church-historical tales are all outstanding works, even poetically. He wrote: Story of the Escape of Ferenc Perényi (Historia Perényi Ferenc kiszabadulásáról) (1543). He completed paraphrases in verse of 16 Psalms, and he composed 6 songs with lyrics. His polemic plays, the first in the Hungarian language, are pioneering, such as the On the Marriage of Priests (Papok házasságáról), and the Mirror of the True Ministry (Az igaz papságnak tikere, 1550). He did a great deal in spreading culture and rendered a great service in cultivating Hungarian-language literature. A High School at Tolna is named after him, and a statue of him was erected at Nagyharsány (south of the Villány Range). – B: 0930, 1031, 1068, 1105, 1257, T: 7456.→Reformed College at Sárospatak; Szegedi Kis, István.
Sztehló, Gábor (Gabriel) (Budapest, 25 November 1909 - Ementhal, Switzerland, 28 May 1974) – Lutheran (Evangelical) pastor. He completed his theological studies in Sopron, afterwards he spent a year in Finland on a scholarship. From 1932, he was an assistant pastor in Budapest, Hatvan and Nagytarcsa, where he established the first Hungarian People’s College. From 1942 until 1944, he was the mission minister of the Bánya Church District. In the summer of 1944, he became a hospital pastor in Budapest, then, later that year he became employed by the Good Pastor Council of the General Convent. Supported partly by the latter, as well as other initiatives, he organized children's asylums, where many orphaned and Jewish children were offered refuge up to Christmas 1944. Altogether, 1540 of them found refuge in these homes. After the War he founded a home for orphans, called Gaudiopolis (Örömváros), the first children's city. In 1950, the asylums were taken over by the state, and he became an assistant pastor in Kőbánya. For a decade, starting in 1951, he was Director of the Institute for Disabled Children in Pestihidegkút. In 1961, he traveled to Switzerland to his family, where he fell ill. Following his recovery, until his death, he was a pastor in Hofluh-Hasliberg, then in the Interlaken der Oberhasli region. In 1972, Israel conferred a distinction upon him. A tree preserves his memory in the Memorial Park Yad Vashem in Jerusalem, established in honor of Christians who provided aid for Jews under persecution. – B: 0883, T: 7667.
Sztevanovity, Zorán (Zoran Stevanović) (Belgrade, Yugoslavia, 4 March 1942 - ) – Musician, guitarist, singer and composer of Serbian origin. His parents were on a diplomatic mission in Prague, and they moved to Hungary in 1948. In 1960, he founded in Budapest an amateur ensemble called Zenith, later called Metro, which gradually became successful. Zoran left his studies at the Budapest Polytechnic, where he read Electrical Engineering, and became a professional musician. At this time, Metro was one of the three most popular Beat Ensembles in Hungary, along with Illés and Omega. Metro published two albums and about 40 singles. After Metro's break-up in 1972, Zorán began a solo carrier. He played bass in the band Taurus XT, and spent some years abroad. He has been working with Gábor Presser, pianist-composer of the Locomotiv GT since 1976. He has several LP albums; the first one from 1977 became one of the most successful albums published in Hungary ever. It contained his best-known song, My Father Believed (Apám hitte). In the late 1980s and early1990s, he presented a program on Radio Calypso. He was the first in Hungary to make an unplugged concert in 1993 in the Budapest Sports Hall. Emotion, poetry, and often a dry sense of humor feature his songs, which are almost all composed by Gábor Presser, and written by his brother Dusán. His recordings include Metro (1969); Zorán i,ii,iii (1977, 1978, 1978); Sweet Years (Édes évek) (1985); You Belong To Me (Hozzám tartozol) (1989), and In the Circle (A körben) (2004). He is a recipient of several distinctions, including the Silver Flute (1967), LP of the Year (1977); Singer of the Year (1977, 1978), the Franz Liszt Prize (1982, 1992), Excellent Performer of the Year (1987), the Golden Giraffe Prize (1994), the Cross of Honor of the Order of the Republic of Hungary (1994), the Golden Europe Prize (1994), and the Lyra Prize (1998). – B: 1031, T: 7103.→Presser, Gábor; Metro Ensemble, Omega Rock Band; Illés Ensemble.
Sztójay, Döme (Dominic) (Dimitrije Sztojakovich) (Versec, now Vrsac, Voivodina, Serbia 5 January 1883 - Budapest, 22 August 1946) – Politician, military officer. In 1919, he worked in Miklós (Nicholas) Horthy's counter-intelligence corps. As a Colonel, then General, he was the Military Attaché to Berlin from 1927 (still under the name Sztojakovich). From 1933, he was in charge of the Prime Minister's National Defense Office. From 1935 until 1944, he was a Lieutenant-General, Ambassador Extraordinary and at the same time Minister Plenipotentiary in Berlin. During the German occupation of Hungary, on 19 March 1944, he soon became Prime Minister and, from March until July of 1944, Minister of Foreign Affairs. He committed a significant numbers of troops in support of the War, signed an economically disadvantageous treaty with Germany, and issued anti-Jewish legislation that called for the isolation of the Jews of Hungary, putting them in ghettos, pillaging their property and, except for Budapest, deporting them to Polish extermination camps. In July 1944, he fell ill and was forced to resign. Later he fled to Germany. After the War he was returned to Hungary. The People's Court sentenced him to death for war crimes and he was executed by firing squad. – B: 0883, T: 7667.→Horthy, Miklós.
Szűcs, Jenő (Eugene) (Ócsa, 31 May 1926 - Budapest, 13 October 1978) – Physician. He obtained his Medical Degree from the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Budapest in 1951. From 1952, he was a medical officer in the army; from 1952 to 1955 a company physician; from 1955, a surgeon of the Central Military Hospital and, from 1970, its Head Physician, with the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. From 1956, in the National Community Public Health Institute (OTKI), he gave lectures on the organization of public health. He was engaged in the prevention of catastrophes and organizing medical service in the army. His works include Surgical Service for Soldiers Injured in the War (Háborús sérültek sebészi ellátása) (1972), and Service for the Injured in War and in Peace (Sérültek ellátása háborúban és békében) (1977). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Szűcs, Lajos (Lewis) (Apatin, now in Serbia, earlier in Hungary, 10 December 1943 - ) – Soccer player. His wife was the actress Ildikó Pécsi. He began his career in the Dózsa Youth Team in Újpest; later, he became a first class player in Dorog. Between 1966 and 1969, he was a soccer player on the Ferencváros team, named after a suburb of Budapest, where he was twice Hungarian Champion. In 1971 he was registered with the Kispest team. He spent six seasons with the Honvéd team. In 1977, aged 34, he was contracted with the Section II Budapest Vasas Izzó team, appearing with them until 1980, when he ended his involvement in active sports. In the Section I, he scored 30 goals in 377 championship matches. In the Hungarian selected team, between 1967 and 1973 he played on 37 occasions, scoring two goals. He was champion at the 1968 Mexico Olympics, and he won a silver medal at the 1972 Munich Summer Olympic Games. Appearing 11 times in an Olympic selected team, he scored 4 goals. In 1972 he was placed fourth in the Belgian European Championships in football. In 1968 as a member of the world-selected team, he played with Dezső (Desider) Novák, Flórián Albert and János (John) Farkas against Brazil in Rio de Janeiro. In the same year, in the Golden Ball election, he received 17th place. In 1981 he earned a diploma in training in the Training College for Physical Instructors. Between 1980 and 1995 he acted as the replacement, reserve and youth-trainer for the Ferenváros team and, on occasions, the field trainer of the adult team. Szűcs was the footballer of the year in 1968 and also in 1971. – B: 1031, T: 7456.→Pécsi, Ildikó.
Szűcs, Mihály (Michael) (Debrecen, 22 October 1922 - Budapest, 20 June 1990) – Violinist. At first, he studied music in his birthplace and later, as a student of Ede (Edward) Zathureczky at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. During the years 1941 to 1943, he appeared as an assistant and, from 1943, as an ordinary member of the Metropolitan Orchestra of Budapest. Between 1944 and 1955, he was Conductor of the Opera House Orchestra, and from 1955 its Concert Master. In 1967, he was appointed Professor at the Academy of Music. From 1955, he played second violin in the Tátrai String Quartet, formed in 1946. With the Quartet, he appeared at concerts all over Europe, as guest of major festivals in Hungary and abroad. With the Tátrai String Quartet he made recordings of almost the entire string quartet repertoire. For his recording work, he received several international grand prix, and was awarded the Kossuth Prize in 1958. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.→Zathureczky, Ede; Tátrai, Vilmos.
Szűcs, Sándor (Alexander) (Biharnagybajom, east of Karcag, 23 October 1903 - Debrecen, 2 August 1982) – Ethnographer, writer and museologist. He completed his ethnographic and geography studies at the University of Debrecen; later from 1931 to 1935, he was a research fellow in the Geographic Institute there. He was responsible for organizing the People’s College of County Bihar, later becoming its Director at Bihartorda (1946-1949). After its closure he continued farming on his property at his birthplace. From 1952 to 1963, he was Director of the István Győrffy Nagykun-Museum of Karcag, from where he retired in 1963. Until his death, he lived in Biharnagybajom. He was the ethnographic immortalizer and chronicler of the “three regions” – Sárrét, Kunság and Hajdúság – with their old-time life forms on the Great Plain (particularly the life of the shepherds and the primitive fisherman, pákász, living a predatory life in marshes from hunting and fishing); he also wrote about their superstitious beliefs. Early in his career, he published his scientifically processed collections in studies and essays; these works about his collections he transformed later on into simple stories, suited for the simple reader. His works include The World of the old Sárrét (A régi Sárrét világa) (1942); Freelancers of the Puszta (Pusztai szabadok) (1957); Outlaws, Gendarmeries and Other Old Notables (Betyárok, pandúrok és egyéb régi hírességek) (1969); Old Hungarian Life on the Water (Régi magyar vízivilág) (1977), and Scientific Debate (Tudományos disputa) (1980). The house where he was born is a Museum. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Szűgyi, Zoltán (Ada, Yugoslavia, 9 September 1953 -) – Poet. His tertiary education commenced at the Medical School of the University of Újvidék, (now Novi-Sad, Serbia) (1972-1973), and continued at the Faculty of Arts, at the same University, where he studied Hungarian Literature (1973-1977). He worked for the journal Hungarian Word (Magyar Szó), Újvidék from 1977 to 1985, and from 1989 to 1991. From 1981 to 1983, he was a contributor to the periodical, New Symposium (Új Szimpózion). From 1991 to 1994, he was Caretaker of the Social Missionary Center of the Reformed Church Synod. Between 1993 and 1998, he was Office Manager of the Hungarian Rainbow Journal Book Publishing Co. (Magyar Szivárvány Folyóirat Könyvkiadó). Since 1998, he has been Editor of the New Mandate Publishers (Új Mandátum Könyvkiadó). His works include Loudly and Silently (Hangosan és csendesen) (1977); Heaven and Earth (Ég és föld) (1980); Between Two Shores are Two Rivers (Két part között két folyó) (1982); Forest and Other Poems (Erdő és más versek) (1985); Evil-gate (Ördögkapu), infant-poems (1989); Life and Soul (Élet és lélek) (1993), and There is no Way Back. In the State of Poem-Scent (Nincs visszaút. Versillat állapotában) (1998). – B: 0874, T: 7103.
Szuhány, Márton (Martin) (Rochfalva, now Rohovec, near Rozsnyó, now Roznava, Slovakia, 2 August 1792 - Pest, 24 September 1841) – Physician, publicist, translator of literary works. After completing his studies at Rozsnyó and Eperjes (now Preşov, Slovakia), he worked as a teacher in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia). From 1815 he studied Medicine at the University of Vienna, where he obtained his Medical Degree in 1821, and began his medical career in Bercel, northeast of Budapest; meanwhile, he was elected County Court Judge of Nógrád County. In 1824, he settled in Pest and pursued private practice. He became one of the leaders and organizers of the awakening Slovakian language movement, inspector of the Slovakian-German Lutheran community of Pest, and founder of the Association of the “Lovers of the Slovak Language and Literature” of Pest, whose almanac Zora he edited until his death. He translated into Czech the best of the contemporary Hungarian literature. In 1834, he became the custodian of the First Provident Society of Pest. He regularly published articles in the Scientific Collection (Tudományos Gyüjtemény), and the Medical Cabinet (Orvosi Tár), and published a book on his observations about the cholera epidemic of 1831. In 1835 he expressed his views on women’s education and school hygiene in a published work. In 1837 he initiated the foundation of the Royal Medical Association of Budapest, whose first president he became, though he had to resign this post in 1839 due to illness. His works include Dissertatio inauguralis medicina de odontologia (1821), and Ideen der Bildung der maennlichen Schuljugend (Ideas on the education of male schoolchildren) (1845). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Szuhay, Balázs (Blaise) Budapest, 20 October 1935 - Budapest, 11 May 1991) – Actor, parodist, cabaret-writer, politician. He studied acting at the school of Kálmán (Coloman) Rózsahegyi, graduating in 1955. Until 1960, he was a member of the Jókai Theater (Jókai Színház), Békéscsaba, then at the József Katona Theater (Katona József Színház), Kecskemét. From 1960, he was a member of the Gaiety Stage (Vídám Színpad), Budapest. He was a talented parodist who wrote many of his own play-scripts and took his profession seriously. For a while he was Editor-in-Chief of a popular humorous weekly, Crafty Matt, the Goose-herd (Ludas Matyi). He also wrote two books: I Open Up (Kiadom magam), and My System-changes (Az én rendszerválásom). His feature film roles include Lope de Vega’s The Gardener’s Dog (El Perro del
Hortelano; A kertész kutyája); F. Lehár’s The Land of Smiles (A mosoly országa); J. Huszka’s Prince Bob (Bob Herceg); P. Ábrahám’s Ball in the Savoy (Bál a Savoyban), and Praxy’s Ladies, That Was Enough (Hölgyeim, elég volt). He participated in synchronizing foreign cartoons, such as The Simpson Family (A Simpson család), and Next Please (Kérem a következőt). He also participated in the political life around the change of political system in Hungary. – B: 1031, 1439, 1445, T: 7103.→ Rózsahegyi, Kálmán.
Szűr mantle – A characteristic outer garment of Hungarian herdsmen and peasants; it belongs to the ancient nomadic traditions of Eurasia. In antiquity, a full-length, heavy coat with long sleeves, worn over the shoulders, first appears in Persia, as a characteristic garment of the Medes. It was called kandÿs – most probably the origin of the Hungarian word köntös (garment). The Avars wore a similar garment, called gunia – gúnya (another word for garment) in Hungarian. The Khazars had a similar mantle, called qaba – hence the Hungarian word kabát, or coat.
The typical Hungarian szűr mantle or szűr kabát is a long, coat-like outer garment made of heavy, fulled woollen twill, usually white in colour – although in some regions black were also worn. The front is slit down in the centre, and has turned-
back, in most cases embroidered or appliquéd panels. Although the szűr has sleeves, they were seldom used; were often sewn together at the wrist, forming a pocket in which small objects, at times money, were carried.
While the garment was generally worn with a hood, the immediate prototype of the szűr very likely evolved somewhere north of the Black Sea, on the Eurasian steppes, in the middle of the first millennium A.D. It was almost certainly in this area that the Hungarians adopted the garment and from there, in the late 9th century, they introduced it to the Carpathian Basin.
The geographic distribution of the szűr corresponds in general to the territory of the Carpathian Basin, the area, which from AD 896 to 1920, represented Historic Hungary. There were several versions of the garment, especially that of the so-called cifraszűr: a szűr-mantle richly decorated with either monochrome or polychrome embroidery or appliqué work. The cifraszűr came into fashion only in the late 18th or early 19th century, although earlier versions were also decorated, as evidenced in a letter by Gábor Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania, dated 1627, in which he acknowledges the receipt of “…a great coat made of felt, decorated with an embroidered collar”.
Some of the most famous and richly decorated cifraszűrs were worn in the city of Debrecen. Other areas with cifraszűrs were: the general region of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföldi and Hajdúsági), Trans-Danubia (Dunántúli), Upper Hungary (Upland, Felföldi), and Transylvania (Erdélyi). The embroidery was an admixture of ancient Oriental motifs, such as the tulip that already appeared as decoration in Hungary in the 12th and 13th centuries; and that of the Baroque and Biedermeier styles, such as the carnation and the rose.
With the defeat of the 1848-1849 Hungarian War of Independence, the cifraszűr was worn in defiance of authority as an expression of Hungarian patriotism. As a result, the police in Transdanubia often forcibly removed the wide applied edgings of the cifraszűrs, leaving only the outline of the trimming. The szűr remained a popular garment among the herdsmen and the peasants until the early 20th century. – B: 1031, T: 7617.→Racka sheep.
Szűrös, Mátyás (Matthew) (Püspökladány, 11 September 1933 - ) – Politician and diplomat. He completed his tertiary studies at the Institute of International Relations, Moscow (1953-1959), at the University of Economics, Budapest (1964), and at the Miklós Zrinyi Military Academy, Budapest (1973). He worked at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as a lecturer (1962-1965), and during the same years he was Third Secretary of the Hungarian Embassy at East Berlin. From 1965 to 1974, he was a political correspondent of the Central Committee of the Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party (Magyar Szocialist Munkáspárt – MSZMP), later her Acting Head (1974-1975); Ambassador to Berlin (1975-1978), and Ambassador to Moscow (1978-1982). From 1982 to 1983, he was Head of the External Affairs Section of the Central Committee in the MSZMP; between 1983 and 1989 he was Secretary of the Central Committee. From 1985 to 2002, he was a Member of Parliament, also a member and president of a number of committees, and Vice-President of the Parliament. In 1989 and 1990, he was temporary President of the Republic, who from the window of the Parliament building, proclaimed the Hungarian Republic (no longer “Hungarian People’s Republic”) on 23 October 1989. From 1989 he was President of several civil committees. His works include Our Country and the World (Hazánk és a nagyvilág) (1985); A Republic Was Born “With Bells Tolling at Noon” (Köztársaság született,„harangszóval délben”) (1999), and National Politics and Joining (Nemzetpolitika és csatlakozás) (2001). He is a recipient of the Bocskai Prize (1995), and Honorary Freeman of the towns of Püspükladány and Beregszász (now Berehove, Ukraine). – B: 0874, 1030, T: 7456.
Szűr-Szabó, József (Joseph) (Gorazda, Bosnia, 4 March 1902 - Budapest, 1993) – Graphic artist and caricaturist. He completed his course at the Academy of Applied Arts of Budapest in 1927. He appeared in a number of exhibitions in Hungary and abroad. He was the caricaturist of Pest News (Pesti Hírlap) and the Evening News (Esti Hírlap) prior to 1945, at the satirical weekly Crafty Matt, the Goose-herd (Ludas Matyi), and the paper Evening News, after 1945. Until 1958, he worked as the designer of the State Puppet Show (Állami Bábszínház). His designs appeared, e.g. in Sz. Darvas - B. Gádor’s Gods in Love (Szerelmes istenek); Sz. Darvas & B. Gádor’s Stories from Pest (Pesti mesék), and J. Babay’s Miraculous Mirror (Csodatükör). His caricatures, entitled Szűr, were published in 1964. In the 1970s he made a 8x3 m. caricature on the wall of the editorial office of the daily Evening News (Esti Hírlap) at the L. Blaha Square, Budapest. His paintings include Girl with Hat (Lány kalappal); Girl on a City Terrace (Lány belvárosi teraszon), and Model with Goldfish Aquarium (Modell aranyhalas akváriummal). He was a recipient of the Munkácsy Prize in 1954 and 1968. – B: 1445, T: 7456.→Darvas, Szilárd; Gádor, Béla.
Szusza, Ferenc (Francis) (Budapest, 1 December 1923 - Budapest, 1 August 2006) – Soccer player and coach. Between 1935 and 1961 he played soccer at the Újpest Gymnastic Club (Újpesti Torna Egyesület – UTE), which changed its name to Budapest Dózsa, and Újpest Dózsa. He participated 463 occasions in the National League’s top division matches, and he scored 393 goals. His team became National Champion in 1945, 1946, 1947 and 1960. He was on the Hungarian national team 24 times and scored 18. Szusza was a top division player of Újpest FC from 1941 to 1960. From 1959, after his soccerl career, Szusza became a manager. He coached Győri ETO, Újpesti Dózsa, Górnik Zabrze, Rel Betis and Atlético Madrid. At the time of his death, Szusza was the all-time top scorer in Hungary's top division, and the twelfth highest among all top division players in the world. Also, according to the statistics of IFFHS, Szusza scored the most league goals in football history while with one club. Szusza was one of Hungary's greatest soccer players. Újpest FC’s stadium was named after Szusza, and now it is the Szusza Ferenc Stadium. – B: 0874, 1031, T: 7103.
Szutrély, Gyula (Julius) (Budapest, 31 March 1915 - Budapest, 8 December 1960) – Physician. He obtained his Medical Degree from the University of Budapest in 1939, after which he worked at the Biological Institute of Vienna, and in the Herzstation Welfare Center (1940-1941). From 1942, he worked as a demonstrator, later as an assistant lecturer at No. 1 Pediatric Clinic, Budapest; and from 1957, as a senior physician of the National Cardiological Institute Budapest. Szutrély was the organizer of child cardiology in Hungary and he dealt with their congenital diseases. His works include Heart and Circulatory Illnesses (Szív- és vérkeringési betegségek), with P. Gegesi Kiss (1953), and Cardiac Sounds and Murmurs (Szívhangok és zörejek), with E. Tomory (1955). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Szvatopluk (Centapolk, Zentapolk, aka Sentepolug) ( ? – 894) – Moravian prince, ruler. He captured and delivered his Uncle Rostislav to the Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious, who blinded him and confined him to Szvatopluk. As a vassal to the Germans, he became known as The Ruler of the Moravians, and launched a surprise attack to defeat the Bavarian army and gained his independence. In 881, aligned with the Magyars (Hungarians) and the Khabars, he fought against the Franks. In 883 and 844, during two campaigns, he ravaged Pannonia, defeated the troops of Prince Arnulf of Carinthia, and returned home, where the German Emperor Charles forged a peace in 884. Reluctantly tolerating his presence at Nyitra (now Nitra, Slovakia) and surroundings, Prince Arnulf did likewise. After Arnulf, Duke of Carinthia, Holy Roman Emperor became King of Germany, Szvatopluk aligned with the Bohemians and the Hungarians in July 892, and again in 893, invaded Moravia and overthrew the reign of the ex-vassal. He then disappeared from his army and, according to sources, spent his life as a hermit on Mount Zobor near Nyitra. During the strife-filled rule of his sons, Mojmir and Zentapoluk II, between 902 and 906, the Magyars occupied the northwestern mountainous regions of the Carpathians. Szvatopluk’s name first appeared in the Hungarian chronicles in the 13th century. Since 1993, in the independent Slovakia, Szvatopluk’s importance and role increased in stature in their history. – B: 1078, 1230, 1138, T: 7103.