Pestvidéki Ásványbánya Vállalat

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Saroldu (Sarolt, Sarolta) (around 954 - after 997) – She was a daughter of Kalota, the first Transylvanian gyula, granddaughter of the leader Tétény (Tuhutum), and wife of Reigning Prince Géza-István. In Turkish her name means white weasel, a more appropriate version may be “white lady” (princess). Her striking beauty caught the attention of Reigning Prince Géza, and she became his wife. She was educated in the Byzantine Christian rite, supported the spread of Christianity, and with her husband converted to the Roman Catholic rite in 972. She was noted for being strong willed, appreciative of fine drinks, and was a good horse-woman. She took a life-long vow to acquaint the whole nation with the new faith and is credited with the spread of Christianity in Hungary. Her first child, Vajk, born in 975, was crowned the first Christian king of Hungary, as István I (later St. Stephen). She also had four daughters: Judit married Polish Prince, Boleszlo I; the second daughter married Radomir, Crown Prince of Bulgaria; the third married Otto Orseolo, Doge of Venice; and her namesake, Sarolt, married the Hungarian Palatine Aba. Their son, Sámuel Aba, later became the king. Upon the death of her husband, Saroldu continued to manage his wealth until Koppány, ruler of Somogy, proposed to her in order to assume total control according to the ancient levirate practice. The remainder of her life was not chronicled. – B: 0942, 1666, 1020, T: 7658.→Géza-István, Reigning Prince.
Sárosi, György (George) (Budapest, 16 September 1912 - Genoa, 20 July 1993) – Soccer-player. As a 19-year old, he moved from the Polytechnic Team to the Ferencváros FC (Budapest district) team. Shortly thereafter, he became the determining and legendary player of the green-whites: in 383 matches he gained 340 goals; with his team, he received seven official and one non-official championship titles; he was also a member of the winning Hungarian Cup team four times. He was very successful in the selected team: in 61 matches, he kicked 42 goals into the opponent’s net. He took part in two world championships (1934, 1938); in the 1938 match he reached the finals and, in the finale of the match against the Italians, he also scored a goal. Hungary lost the finals 4 - 2 and the contemporary Press described it as an enormous tragedy and disgrace. During those years, he finally obtained a Doctorate in Law. World War II ended his career. Afterwards, he worked as a trainer in Italy. Among others he was with the Juventus team for three years, during which time he received one championship title and one silver medal. Later, he led the Bari and the Select Roma teams; moreover, he became the professional leader of the Italian selected team. He was one of the most successful Hungarian soccer-players of all time. – B: 1884, 1895, T: 7456.
Sárosi, Gyula (Julius) (Sárosy) (Borossebes, now Sebiş, Romania, 12 February 1816 - Pest, 16 November 1861) – Poet. He completed his legal studies at the College of Eperjes, (now Prešov, Slovakia), while he taught Hungarian language and literature at the local High School. In 1838 he was a Deputy Clerk of County Sáros and, in 1840, Clerk of the Court of Bills of Exchange at Arad (now in Romania). Already in his student years, he joined the writers’ circle of the College at Eperjes. His poems appeared in journals from 1838. He was a member of the Kisfaludy Society from 1846 and, during the summer of 1848, he was a Judge of the Court of Bills of Exchange. Early in 1849 he was operating as a government commissioner in Debrecen; in April 1849 he was elected Member of Parliament. Urged by Regent Lajos (Louis) Kossuth, he composed and published the poem Gold Trumpet (Arany Trombita) (1849), a rhymed chronicle, dealing with the War of Independence, composed of 12 “breaths”, at first in epic form, later in a spasmodic, ragged presentation to present the condition of the riotous country. Finally, it became a rhymed political pamphlet justifying the right for the War of Independence, at the same time ridiculing the enemy. Following the fall of the War of Independence, every possible copy of the pamphlet was destroyed and Sárosi was forced to flee. In his absence, he was sentenced to death in 1851. First, he was in hiding in various parts of the country; later, from 1850 to 1852, he lived incognito, under the pseudonym Albert Sorsich, as a language teacher and was in hiding in Gyöngyös. In 1852 he was caught, again sentenced to death; then the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment in a fortress. Until 1855 his captivity was spent in Königgrätz. After he was freed, he continued his work as a writer. In 1859, on hearing about the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Solferino, he composed the improvised poem Krinolin-verse. He was charged again and, from March to November 1860 he was interned in the Czech Palace of Budweis. He spent the last months of his life in Pest (later to become Budapest). His works include Poems (Költemények) (1858) and All the Works of Gyula Sárosi, vols. i-iii (Sárosi Gyula összes művei, I-III (1881-1883). – B: 0883, 1257 T: 7456.→Kossuth, Lajos.
Sárospatak – Town in County Zemplén, north of Tokaj, on both banks of the Bodrog River at the southeast-foot of the Eperjes – Tokaj Range, on its southeastern-slopes, the so-called Tokaj-Hegyalja; it is 119 m. above sea-level; with a population of 7911 (in 1901); 11,413 (in 1930, mostly Roman Catholic, some Reformed Protestant), and 15,000 in 1983. It is a lively cultural and commercial center, called the Athens upon Bodrog. Famous for its old Reformed Academy, known as Kollégium (founded by Péter Perényi in 1531), with three faculties: Theology, Philosophy and Jurisprudence (until 1925), and a Library of over 75,000 volumes. At present, the Academy also includes a Teachers’ College and a High School. The Calvinist Reformer István (Stephen) Kopácsi developed the Institution into a College in 1548. Its full flowering was reached in the time of Prince György (George) Rákóczi I (1630-1648), and his wife Zsuzsanna (Susanna) Lorántffy (1600-1660): both of them provided it with rich endowments. Ámos Janus Comenius taught there at the time (1650-1654). The Academy experienced some vicissitudes over the centuries, especially during the Counter-Reformation era: many of the students and some of the teachers left the Academy to live in exile in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). Mihály (Michael) Apafi settled them in the old town of Gyulafehérvár (now Alba Iulia, Romania). Only in the years from 1682 to 1687 did the Academy start functioning again in Sárospatak. But in 1687, the Jesuits drove the Academy away and they had to ride out the crisis in Gönc and later in Kassa (now Košice, Slovakia). From 1703 it could again function in Sárospatak. Its Faculty of Law, with a Chair of Jurisprudence, opened in 1793; Lajos (Louis) Kossuth studied law there, his professor was Sándor (Alexander) Kövy. The faculty did not function between 1853 and 1861, and it finally closed down in 1925. In the town there are Reformed and Catholic High Schools, an Art Gallery, a castle with four towers that belonged to the Rákóczi family, and an adjoining Mansion with a large park, owned by Prince Windischgrätz. The town has some industry: cloth-manufacturing, important winegrowing, brandy distillery, fishery, brickyard, mill-stone and tobacco factories and flour-mills. In the outskirts of the town there are stone quarries. The Fortress (now in ruins) was well known during the Árpád Dynasty (1000-1301); it is possible that St. Elizabeth, daughter of King Andrew II, was born here. The oldest section of the town has the so-called “living-tower” from the age of King András I (Andrew) (1046-1060) and King András II (1205-1235); the finest part is the Renaissance-wing built around 1530. The 17th century wing was built by Zsuzsanna (Susanna) Lorántffy; it was in this wing that Prince Ferenc (Francis) Rákóczi I, and Ilona (Helen) Zrinyi (mother of Prince Ferenc Rákóczi II) held their wedding feast in 1666. Emperor Leopold I (Lipót) (1654-1705) had part of the castle pulled down in 1702. – B: 1068, 1582, 1816, 7456, T: 7456.→Perényi, Péter; Rákóczi I, Prince György; Lorántffy, Zsuzsanna; Comenius, Ámos János; Kövy, Sándor; Kossuth, Lajos; Reformed College of Sárospatak.
Sárospatak Cheerful Songs – Eleven handwritten volumes of many 18th and 19th century folk songs make up this collection. Károly (Charles) Nánásy Oláh gathered them from earlier sources in the County of Hajdú between 1842 and 1830; more songs were added until 1848. Today, it is part of the Protestant Scientific Collection. – B: 1134, T: 3240.
Sárospatak Reformed CollegeReformed College of Sárospatak.
Sárospatak Refomed College Books in Russia – During World War II, part of the most valuable manuscripts and printed books of the Library of the Sárospatak Reformed College, about 1400 printed and 47 MS library units, including many 16th century books and the MS Polish Bible (Old Testament from about 1390 to 1455) were deposited for safekeeping in the safe rooms of two Budapest banks. Immediately after the occupation of Budapest in 1944, special units of the Soviet Army opened the rooms and the individual safes and moved everything (gold, paintings, books, money etc.) to Russia. The transport of books to Russia was denied until the appearance of an article in the Moscow daily Izvestiia in 1992, admitting it. In 1997, even a catalogue in Russian of the “Trophy-books of the Sárospatak Reformed College” was published in Russia. Now, 79 per cent of the missing books are in the State Library of Nizhnii Novgorod. The whereabouts of the Polish Bible is unknown, but it is believed to be in Moscow. All attempts, even high-level discussions aimed at returning the books taken in violation of several international agreements, have so far failed. Even Russian laws rule that properties belonging to churches should be returned; but this too has been disregarded in this case. However, some of the books were returned to Hungary in 2006. – B&T: 7683.
Sárvári, Éva (Budapest, 9 March 1931 - ) – Writer. She fled from Hungary after the 1956 Revolution and Freedom Fight. She first went to Austria and Denmark, but in 1957 she emigrated to Australia. From there she moved to Canada in 1966, and settled in Toronto. She wrote novels and short stories based on her experiences in Australia and Canada, published serialized in the magazines Canadian Hungarian Life (Magyar Élet); Chronicle (Krónika), and Illustrated Hungarian World News (Képes Magyar Világhíradó), as well as in the We Exist (Vagyunk) of Munich. Her works include four novels: The Light is on (Kigyúlt a fény) (1972); Halfway (Félúton) (1975); Far in the South (Messze délen) (1976), and A Platter of Gold at the End of the Rainbow (Egy tál arany a szivárvány végén) (1994). – B: 0892, 1672, T: 4342, 7456.
Sas, József (Joseph) (Polacsek) (Békéscsaba, 3 January 1939 - ) – Humorist, actor, manager, writer. In 1957 he completed Kálmán (Coloman) Rózsahegyi’s School of Dramatic Art and was engaged by the Kisfaludy Theater (Kisfaludy Színház) in Győr. From 1958 he was a member of the Jókai Theater (Jókai Színház) in Gyula; from 1959 a member of the National Theater of Pécs (Pécsi Színház); from 1960 a member of the Hungarian People’s Army Ensemble (Néphadsereg Együttese) and, from 1966, a member of the József Katona Theater of Kecskemét (Kecskeméti Színház). Since 1973 he has been an artist on the Microscope Stage (Mikroszkóp Színpad) and, since 1985, its Manager and Director. He plays leading roles in operettas and prose works and is a permanent participant in Radio and TV-cabarets e.g. Joe, where are you? (Hol vagy Józsi?); Disco Joe (Discós Józsi); Buffoon Joe (Józsi bohóc), Dogs (Kutyák), musical, and Lala, several of them exist in recordings. He is author and presenter of numerous independent evenings. His main roles are: Tóni Slukk in Imre Kálmán’s Circus Princess (Cirkuszkirálynő); Count Bóni in I. Kálmán’s Gipsy Princess (Csárdáskirálynő); Spirit Youth in Ede Szigligeti’s Liliomfi, appeared in English translation as Youth Brings Life; and Miska in Albert Szirmai’s Miska the Grandee (Mágnás Miska). He is the author of the musical Dogs (Kutyák). His stage-management at Microscope Stage include The Good Party Learns for Life (A jó párt holtig tanul); Cut Out the Politics (Csak semmi politika); The Cloven Hoof is Showing (Kilóg a lóláb); The Flat Side of Life (Az élet lapos oldala), and Watch Out NATO, the Hungarians Are Coming (Vigyázz NATO jön a Magyar). He is a recording artist of Eagle Applause (Sas-taps); Eagle-Cabaret (Sas-kabaré), and This Was It (Ez volt). He is a recipient of the Mari Jászai Prize (1980), the Karinthy Ring (1985), the Merited Artist title (1985), Erzsébet Prize (1993), the Officer’s Cross of Order of Merit of Republic of Hungary (1995), the Pro Urbe Prize (1997), and the Outstanding Artist title (2002). – B: 1445, 1439, 1742, T: 7456.
Sáska László (Ladislas) (Nagyenyed, now Aiud, Romania, 26 September 1890 - Arusha, Tanzania, 8 November 1978) – Physician, scientific researcher. He completed his Medical studies in Budapest and Vienna; following that, he became district Medical Officer at Isaszeg. In 1933 he emigrated to Africa and settled down in the Italian Somaliland. Because of the unbearable climate, he moved to Abyssinia, where he became Court Physician to the Imperial Family; he also organized the Medical Service of the Abyssinian Army. From there, he moved to the Tanzanian Arusha in 1940 where, for decades, he was engaged in research on tropical diseases, mainly malaria and cancer. Because of his activities in the area of cancer research, he was elected a first member of The English Royal Cancer Research Institute. He was also member of the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences (1972). He had close contact with Albert Schweitzer. Ernest Hemingway visited him several times in Tanzania. He was a passionate hunter; his trophies are preserved at the Museum of Natural Sciences (Természettudományi Múzeum), Budapest, and at the College at Nagyenyed (now Aiud, Romania). His main works are: My life is Africa (Életem Afrika) (prepared for publication by János (John) Xantus, Bucharest, 1969), and From Malaria to Cancer (Malariától a rákig) (Arusha, 1939). – B: 0883, 1730, T: 7684, 7456.→Xantus, János.
Sass, Árpád (Budapest, 1 September 1896 - Békéscsaba, 27 June 1957) – Painter. He began his studies in Nagybánya, (now Baia Mare, Romania) a famous artist colony, at the time in Transylvania, Hungary. After World War I he went to Italy on a study trip . After his return he went to Szolnok, another artist colony. From 1929 to 1937 he worked in the artist colony of Kecskemét. Later, he settled in Békéscsaba. In the wake of World War II, he was in charge of the County Békés Section of the School of Arts Foundation until his death. He mainly painted scenes and compositions with figures. His works include Street in Szolnok (Szolnoki utca); Circus; Fisherman’s Hut (Halásztanya), and Itinerant Knife-grinder (Vándorköszörüs). In 1927 he appeared at the National Salon in a collective exhibition. Some of his paintings, such as the Halásztanya, Szolnoki utca, and Circus are held in the National Gallery, Budapest. – B: 0883, 1031, T: 7456.
Sass, Flóra (Lady Baker) (Sepsiszentgyörgy ?, now Sfãntu Gheorghe, Romania, 6 August 1842 - Sandford, England 11 March 1916) – Africa researcher. In the autumn of 1848, the Romanian peasants, incited against Hungarians in Transylvania (Erdély) by the Habsburgs, murdered her parents; her Romanian nurse saved her. An Armenian family adopted both of them. Her foster father, as an army major, took an active part in General József Bem’s army throughout the Transylvanian campaign in the War of Independence against the Habsburg’s rule (1848-1849). In the wake of the defeat the Armenian family fled with other Hungarians to Viddin, Turkey, where, in the general confusion, the little girl disappeared without a trace. Only a decade later, in January 1859, an English engineer, Samuel White Baker, found her in Viddin’s slave market, bought and married her.

Baker, a passionate hunter, was just preparing to go to Africa, when he learned that his countrymen, Grant and Speke, were trying to determine the source of the Nile River. At his own expense, he equipped an expedition and set out in 1861 from Cairo up the Nile valley. On his dangerous journey, his wife, Flora, saved him from the mutinying slaves. He met the remnants of the Grant and Speke returning expedition. Proceeding further south, Baker and his wife discovered Lake Albert, which he named after the late consort of Queen Victoria. Later, they discovered the second source-branch of the Nile. Back in the British Capital, they were received with great celebration, and the Queen knighted Baker.

In 1869, in agreement with the Egyptian Monarch, Ismail Kedive, the British began their large-scale political and military undertaking to extend Egypt’s suzerainty over the unexplored African territories south of Gondokoro. They also wished to take strong measures against the slave trade on the Nile and, last but not least, to serve the interests of Britain in the unoccupied areas. An expedition of over 2000 adventurers was shipped up the River Nile in steam ships and trawlers under the ultimate authority of Sir Baker. Flora Sass accompanied her husband everywhere, including this dangerous journey, almost equal in size to a military campaign. The wife of “Pasha” Baker kept a private diary of the trip that ultimately became a unique historical document: the chronicle of a colonial undertaking. On this trip they faced epidemics and attacks by natives, who decimated the crew. The elimination of the slave trade took place only during the presence of Baker’s soldiers. They reached the goal of their journey, Masindi, capital of the kingdom of Unyoro, in the summer of 1873. Here Baker had a fort built and began to negotiate with the ruler, Kabba Rega, who overtly accepted the suzerainty of Egypt, but secretly endeavored to reject it. As a result of the fierce attacks, the English-Egyptian force, by then diminished to 100 men, was forced to flee the capital. Thereupon Baker used diplomacy: he installed the tribal chief Rionga, the adversary of Kabba Raga, the ruler of Unyoro, who accepted the overlordship of Egypt and possessed sufficient military forces backed by foreigners to assert his power. Baker’s mission successfully ended the African phase of Flora Sass’s life, which she started as a slave girl, continued as an explorer and finally became a chronicle-writer. The memory of Flora Sass remained for a long time among the natives living along the Nile. She was given the title of ‘Myaudue’ (Morning Star), and the colonial officials heard stories about her even a quarter of a century later. The Hungarian Florence Nightingale, Flora Sass, is the chief heroine of the book by Richard Hull, The Lover of the Nile, published in London, and her name also appears in Baker’s Biography. – B: 1482, 1105, 1020, T: 7456.
Sass, Sylvia (Budapest, 12 July 1951 - ) – Opera-singer (dramatic soprano). She comes from a musical family. At the age of 14, she sang with the school orchestra in Adam's operetta Nürnberger Puppe (Nurenberg Doll). She studied music at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music, Budapest, as a student of Mrs. F. Révhegyi. (1970-1972). She then sang in the Hungarian State Opera, Budapest (1979-1986). She has been a teacher at the Academy of Music, Budapest, from 1996. She had her debut as Frasquita in Bizet’s Carmen in 1971. She became popular in Budapest in roles such as Freia in Wagner’s Das Rheingold, Violetta in Verdi’s La Traviata, and Mimi in Puccini’s La Bohème. It was in 1976 that she ascended to stardom by singing Giselda in Verdi's I Lombardi at Covent Garden in London. In 1977 she sang in Turin as Lady Macbeth in Verdi’s Macbeth, and that same year made her Metropolitan Opera debut in Puccini’s Tosca with José Carreras. In 1978 she conquered the last of the major opera houses, debuting at La Scala with Placido Domingo in Puccini's Manon Lescaut. In 1984 she starred in a revival of Franz Schrecker's Der Ferne Klang (The Distant Sound) in Venice, and also performed the world premiere of Alfano's ending of Turandot in 1982. She also performed in the world premiere of D. Malipiero's Sogno di un tramonto d’autunno in Mantova in 1988. She wrote an opera libretto, runs her own music business and voice school in Budapest, and has started to produce her own recordings, labeled Cant-Art, and has released four CDs. In the 1980s she retired from the stages of opera houses, but continues to give recitals and master courses; between 1996 and 2000 she taught at the Music Academy of Budapest. She wrote three books: The Inner Voice (A belső hang), Songs of Dreams (Álmok éneke) and In the Fascination of Angels (Az angyalok bűvöletében). She is also an accomplished painter, and had nine art exhibits throughout Hungary, and even a documentary about her artwork, broadcast on Hungarian Television. She settled in France. She is the recipient of many awards and prizes, among them: first prize at the Kodály Voice Competition in Budapest in 1972; won the Grand Prix as Violetta in La Traviata at the International Opera Competition in 1973. In 1974 she won the Silver Medal (there was no First Prize) at the International Tchaikovsky Competition in Moscow. She also received the Merited Artist title in 1977. – B: 0874, 1031, 1445, T: 7103.
Sauer, Ignác (Ignatius) (Veszprém, 2 October 1801 - Pest, 17 November 1863) – Physician. He studied at the Universities of Pest and Vienna; in 1826 he obtained his Medical Degree at the University of Vienna. From 1826 to 1841 he practiced in Vienna; between 1843 and 1860 he was Professor of Peculiar Pathology at the University of Budapest, and in his inaugural address, he flagrantly used the Hungarian language. In 1846 he became National Senior Physician, organizer of civic public health and Senior Physician of the National Guard (Nemzetőrség); in 1861 he was again National Senior Physician; in 1862 and 1863 he was Vice-Chancellor of the University. He introduced percussion and auscultation in Hungarian medical practice. He was a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (1859). His works include Der Typhus in vier Cardialformen (1841), Prolonged Skin Eruptions (Huzamos bőrkütegekről) (1844). – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Savanyú, Jóska (or Józsi; Joe) (Savanyó) (Oroszi, 1845 - Tótvázsony, 9 April 1907) – Highwayman of the Bakony Mountain Range. His father was head shepherd at Oroszi in the northern foothills of the Bakony Range, in County Veszprém. The years from 1878 to 1884 represented his golden age as a robber leader, carrying out his robberies and ravages in the Counties of Veszprém and Zala (both are in Transdanubia). He became a legendary figure who helped the exploited servants against their masters. In 1883, a nationwide warrant was issued for his apprehension; in 1884 he was caught during revelry in the inn of Haláp (east of Debrecen). He was imprisoned in the fortress jail of Illava (now Ilava, Slovakia, in the Vág River valley, northeast of Trencsén, now Trencin, Slovakia) until 1901; then, until 1906, he was kept in the Vác jail. Through the good offices of the Bishop of Vác, Count Károly (Charles) Csáky, he was pardoned and released. He opened a tailor’s workshop, but soon afterwards committed suicide. – B: 0883, 1134, T: 7456.→Highwaymen’s Time; Sobri, Jóska; Rózsa, Sándor; Vidróczki, Márton.
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