Sándor, Count Róbert (Budapest, 16 April 1929 - ) – Research scientist. He moved to Sweden in 1947; and received his higher education in Sweden and in the United States. He was Dean of the Stockholm Ophthalmologic-Optometrists School, where he modernized the organization of the School. He founded the Ophthalmological Information Center, of which he became Chief Executive Officer after it was incorporated (1972-1984). He has been Director of the Hoja Optikslip optical firm since 1984. Besides his work in optics, his interests led him to other scientific fields: Japanese history, cultural developments and combatant sports. Several Swedish and international organizations and institutes invited him to join their memberships. By 1985 he had produced more than 100 scientific publications (studies and books). Especially interesting are those dealing with the Japanese sword smiths and his studies about their relationships to the Sabir people’s hammering technique. His work is known all over the world and is highly esteemed. – B: 1020, T: 7675.→Sabirs. Sándor, ErzsiB. (Liz, Elizabeth) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 18 August 1883 - Budapest, 21 March 1962) – Opera singer (coloratura and dramatic soprano). She was born into a Szekler family. Her father was a tenor soloist of the Szekler Regiment and the little Erzsi learned singing from him. At the age of 10 she made her debut in the title role of the play Hőköm Matyi. She was chorister of a church choir, and graduated from a teacher training college. However, in 1903 she started to study voice under the direction of Ödön (Edmund) Farkas, the director of the Music Conservatory of Kolozsvár; later with Mrs. V. Maleczky at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Music Academy of Budapest. In 1908 she traveled to Paris for further studies. Between 1905 and 1931 she was a member of the Opera House of Budapest, where she made her debut in Delibes’ Lakmé. During her career, she performed at Ostend, Vienna and Berlin with great success. Her perfectly trained voice, superb virtuosity, balanced and sweeping performance elevated her to a position among the most important opera singers. She excelled in the leading soprano roles of Mozart’s operas, and she was a renowned oratorio singer as well. Erzsi Sándor’s main roles in Mozart’s operas included Constanza in Il Seraglio (Szöktetés a szerályból); Donna Anna in Don Giovanni; Susanne in The Marriage of Figaro (Figaró házassága); Fiordiligi in Cosi fan tutte,(Mindenki így csinálja),andThe Queen of the Night (Az éj királynője) in The Magic Flute (Varázsfuvola). In Verdi’s operas, she played Violetta in LaTraviata; Gilda in Rigoletto; Desdemona in Otello, andthree roles in Offenbach’s Tales of Hoffmann (Hoffmann meséi). In Puccini operas she played: Mimi in La Bohème (Bohémélet); title role in MadamaButterfly (Pillangókisasszony); Liu in Turandot; additional roles wereSophie in R. Strauss’ Rosenkavalier (Rózsalovag), and Melinda in Erkel’s Bánk bán. Her song and oratorio performances were equally successful. In 1917 she was awarded the prestigious title of Chamber Ssinger of the Emperor and King (Kaiserliche and Königliche [k.u.k] Singer (Császári és királyi kamaraénekesnő). In 1929 she met with G. Puccini who asked her to sing Liu in his last opera, Turandot. In 1921 she was elected life-member of the Opera House, and in 1934 its honorary member. She was a recipient of the Corvin Wreath (Corvin Koszorú) in 1930. Her white marble bust is in the Opera House of Budapest. Zoltán Bosnyák, her husband, Secretary of State and playwright, started to write her biography; but it was Imre (Emeric) Balassa who completed it and published it. – B: 0902, 0883, 1444, 1031, T: 7103.→Sándor, Mária; Farkas, Ödön; Bosnyák, Zoltán; Balassa, Imre. Sándor, Frigyes (Frederick) (Budapest, 24 April 1905 - Budapest, 1 June 1979) – Violinist, conductor and educator. He studied at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest with Gyula (Julius) Mambriny and Imre (Emeric) Waldbauer. From 1926 he was concertmaster, and from 1933 assistant conductor in the Budapest Choral and Orchestra Association.Due to problems with his arms, he was gradually forced to abandon violin performances. By the mid-1930s, he was a well-known conductor of a number of ensembles including the Hungarian Women's Chamber Orchestra. He promoted primarily Baroque music, also the works of Haydn, Mozart, and contemporary Hungarian composers. He was the first to perform Béla Bartók's Divertimento for String Orchestra. From 1945 he taught violin and chamber music at the Capital’s Higher Music School (Székesfővárosi Felsőbb Zeneiskola), and the National Music School (Nemzeti Zenede), Budapest. In collaboration with Pál (Paul) Járdányi, Albert Rényi, and Endre (Andrew) Szervánszky, he published a five-volume series on violin teaching in 1949, where the technique for playing pentatonic melodies, based on folk music motives, prominent in Kodály's compositions, was developed for the first time for the purposes of basic education. In the same year, he was appointed Director of the newly founded Béla Bartók Specialized Secondary School of Music He continued musical performances as conductor of the institution's choir and orchestra. Between 1958 and 1975, Sándor taught chamber music at the Academy of Music of Budapest and, with his students, he founded the FranzLiszt Chamber Orchestra in 1963. He remained its music director until his death. His works include Violin Studies (Hegedűetűdök); Mihály Hajdú: 8 Studies for Youth Chamber Orchestra (Hajdú Mihály: 8 etűd ifjúsági. vonózenekarra), with Ottó Till; Dances and Trio Sonatas from the 17thcentury(Táncok és triószonáták a XVII. századból), with Olivér Nagy; János Decsényi: 15 Studies For Youth Chamber Orchestra (Decsényi János: 15 etûd ifjúsági Vonózenekarra), with Ottó Till; István Szelényi: 8 Short Duets and Sonatina for 2 Violins (Szelényi István: 8 kis duett és szonatina 2 hegedûre); Tartini: 3 Sonatas for Violin and Piano (Tartini: 3 szonáta hegedûre és zongorára), andMusic Education In Hungary(A zenei nevelés Magyarországon), (1964). A Music School in Dunaújváros bears his name. – B: 0883, 1735, T: 7667, 7456.→Sándor, Renée;Járdányi, Pál; Szervánszky, Endre; Bartók, Béla; Kodály, Zoltán. Sándor, György (George) (Streit) (Budapest, 4 April 1938 - ) – Writer, performer and humorist. He was born into a Jewish family, but converted to Catholicism in 1978. His father died as a soldier in a forced labor camp. His performing career started at Kaposvár in 1957. In the same year he was admitted to the Academy of Dramatic Art, Budapest. However, he was dismissed as an ungifted individual in 1958. In 1959, he worked at the Géza Gárdonyi Theater (Gárdonyi Géza Színház), Eger as a carpenter, but he also acted in smaller roles. From 1960 he worked as an assistant and supernumerary at the Petőfi Theater (Petőfi Színház), and at the Thália Theater (Thália Színház), Budapest. His first evening performance was at the University Stage (Egyetemi Színpad) in 1964. He significantly contributed the phraseology of TV Cabaret. He published his writings in the papers New Hungary (Új Magyarország), the Hungarian Nation (Magyar Nemzet,) and the Snow-shoe (Hócipő), among others.He had eight evening talk shows with András (Andrew) Nagy Bandó at the Third Theater (Harmadik Színház) of Pécs, which later was published in a book. Since 2008, he has his Evening Shows at the Chamber Theater (Kamaraszínház), Budapest. In his work four phases can be discerned: 1) Eveing Shows, such as Hook (Horog); Talcum Powder (Hintőpor); The Most Happy Barrack (A legvídámabb barakk), and the Diary of More Insane (Több őrükt naplója); 2) Radio plays, such as Cabaret Theater (Kabarészínház). 3) Television pieces, such I Lost My Way (Elvagyok tévedve), and theThe Humorist, and the Subsitue New Year’s Eve (Humorista és Pótsziveszter). 4) Books, such as How Did I Become aHumorist? (Hogyan lettem humorista?), and Strange Dialogue (Furcsa párbeszéd), with András Nagy Bandó. He is recipient the Mari Jászai Prize (1998), the Sándor Petőfi Freedom Prize (1992), the Heritage Prize (199), and the Kossuth Prize (2011). – B: 0874, 1031, T: 7103.→Nagy Bandó, András.
Sándor, István (Stephen) (Luka, 11 August 1750 - Vienna, 29 March 1815) – Bibliographer and writer. He studied at the Jesuit College of Nagyszombat (now Trnava, Slovakia) (1774). With his inheritance he managed the Luka estate. In 1784 he moved to Vienna; then traveled further abroad. In 1791 he published a monthly paper entitled Variety (Sokféle), and edited it until 1808. In 1803 he pioneered the writing and publishing of the Hungarian Library House (Magyar Könyvesház) on Hungarian bibliographies. He bequeathed his personal library and a considerable sum of money to the future Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Ferenc (Francis) Toldy named the Sándor Codex after him. – B: 0883, 1138, T: 3240.→Sándor Codex;Codex Literature.
Sándor, János (John) (Budapest, 7 June 1933 - Victoria, BC, Canada, 14 May 2010) - The Hungarian-born Canadian conductor, János Sándor, graduated with distinction from the Franz Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest. As a student at the Academy he won 3rd prize at the Besançon (France) International Conductors Competition. From 1961 to 1975 he was Principal Conductor of the Győr Philharmonic Orchestra and Music Director of Opera Pécs. In 1975 he was appointed Conductor of the Budapest State Opera, and from 1986 to 1989 he was Head of the Music Department of the Academy of Drama and Film in Budapest. Sándor conducted Hungary’s top symphony orchestras and has appeared as a guest conductor with numerous other orchestras in more than twenty countries. His interest in young people led to his involvement with many youth orchestras, including the Festivals of Canadian Youth Orchestras in Banff, Alberta, where he conducted the Gala Concert of the inaugural festival in 1974. A founding member of Jeunesses Musicales in Hungary, he regularly conducted the International Orchestra of the Jeunesses camp at Pécs, and was an invited guest conductor at International Youth Orchestra Festivals in Switzerland and Scotland. He was a guest coundtor more than 20 countries. Since coming to Canada in 1991, János Sándor was guest conductor with the Victoria Symphony Orchestra, the CBC Vancouver Orchestra, the Edmonton Symphony Orchestra, the Victoria International Festival Orchestra, the Civic Orchestra of Victoria, as well as the Sonor Ensemble of San Diego. His first appearance as Guest Conductor of the Greater Victoria Youth Orchestra was in spring 1995. In September 1995 he joined the University of Victoria as Artist-in-Residence, and Music Director and Conductor of the University of Victoria Orchestra and Chorus. He was appointed Music Director of the Greater Victoria Youth Orchestra (GVYO) in 1998. He was featured in the Gala concert celebrating the opening of CBC Victoria in October 1998, and the following spring he was Special Guest Conductor for the Ontario Festival of Youth Orchestras. In April 2000 he directed the combined musical forces of the UVic Orchestra and the GVYO, together with the UVic Chorus and a specially auditioned children’s choir in the first-ever performances on Vancouver Island of Gustav Mahler’s Symphony of a Thousand. János Sándor made more than 30 recordings. His recording for Hungaroton of Béla Bartók’s Miraculous Mandarin, Dance Suite and Hungarian Peasant Songs, in the complete edition of Béla Naretók's works, qualified as one of “the best five recordings of the year”, in Hi-Fi News, and it was awarded the Arthur Honegger Prize of the Grand Prix Nationale du Disque. A recipient of the Liszt Prize (1963) and the Merited Artist title (1967), from his native Hungary, he retained his ties there as Permanent Guest Conductor of the Budapest State Opera and as Music Director Laureate and Honourary Life Member of the Győr Philharmonic Orchestra. – B: 1031, 1868, T: 7617.→Bartók, Béla
Sándor, Judit (Judith) (Budapest, 10 October 1923 - Budapest. 25 October 2008) – Opera singer (soprano). She studied singing in the Fodor Music School, Budapest, under Elizabeth Gervay and later, between 1941 and 1948, at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music in Budapest under Ilona Durigo, Imre (Emeric) Molnár and Margit Walter. She made her debut as Cherubino in Mozart’s Marriage of Figaro. In 1948, the Opera House of Budapest engaged her, where she remained a member until 1978. Both as a soprano and mezzo-soprano, she made a number of memorable renderings on stage. In her Mozart opera roles, like Donna Elvira in Mozart’s Don Giovanni, and Dorabella in Cosi fan tutte, she reached the peak of her career. Her feeling for style and fully living her part in acting rendered her interpretations unforgettable. She also played the leading roles in several premières of Hungarian operas. In addition, she acquired an international reputation as a singer in oratorios and in German Lieder.. She was able to render the demands of her vocal as well as her prosodic message in equal purity. Her best-known roles were Mélisande in Debussy’s Palléas etMélisande; Leonora in Beethoven’s Fidelio; Octavian in R. Strauss’ Der Rosenkavalier; Cherubino in Mozart’s Marriage of Figaro (Figaró házassága), andSieglinde in Wagner’s DieWalküre. Since 1978 her pedagogic activity has been increasingly coming to the fore and she acted as a juror in a number of international vocal competitions. She gained distinction as an interpreter of the works of Arnold Schönberg and Paul Hindemith. She wrote a book on her life entitled On the Pilgrimage of Music (A zene zarándokútján) (2004). In 1953 she was a recipient of the Franz Liszt Prize; in 1963 she was awarded the Merited Artist title; in 1992 the Béla Bartók–Ditta Pásztory Prize, and in 1993 the Kossuth Prize. – B: 1445, 1742, T: 7456.
Sándor, Kálmán (Coloman) (Újpest, 14 January 1903 - Budapest, 24 December 1962) – Writer and journalist. He completed his education in Budapest; as a student he was a member of the Galileo-circle. After the fall of the Hungarian Soviet Council Republic on 1 August 1919, he went to Vienna in 1920, where he stayed for a few months; then he returned to Hungary, where he became a commercial correspondent and later, a book-keeper. He took part in the work of the illegal study circle of the socialist students. In 1926 he was a student of the École des Hautes ÉtudesSociales in Paris. In 1927 he returned to Hungary, where he was engaged in journalistic work. He began his work as a literary writer in 1929. His essays and short stories appeared in the papers, West (Nyugat), People’s Word (Népszava), and Pester Diary (Pesti Napló). The novels he wrote in the 1930s, featuring the privation and reduced circumstances of the workers and petty bourgeoisie, paint a damning picture. In 1944 he was deported to the concentration camp of Dachau, where he became seriously ill. After the war, for a while he was medically treated abroad and he returned to Hungary in 1946. He played an important role in the post-war literary life and then his literary skills developed considerably. His works include Senior Neanderthal Bookkeeper (A neandervölgyi könyvelő) short stories (1947); Pillory (Szégyenfa), novel (1951); The Day of Anger (A harag napja), drama, produced in the Comedy Theater (Vígszinház), Budapest, in 1952, also presented as a film in 1953; The Town of Nobody (A senkivárosa), play (1955), and Showy Wedding (Díszes esküvő), short stories (1961). He received the Kossuth Prize in 1953, and the Attila József Prize in 1950 and 1951. – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.
Sándor, Károly (Charles) (Csikar) (Szeged, 26 November 1928 - ) – Soccer-player. He first began playing soccer in his town of birth. In 1947, the Hungarian Gymnasts’ Circle (Magyar Torna Klub – MTK) engaged him; he remained faithful to this organization during his entire career. His team proved to be triple champion. Between 1949 and 1964 he played on 75 occasions in the national eleven and scored 27 goals. Early in the 1950s, he played mainly in the reserves. From 1957 he was the team captain of the selected team. He took part in the World Championships in Sweden in 1958, and in Chile in 1962. He ended his career in 1964 aged 36. He was an excellent outside forward. He was famous for his sprinting and for his goals achieved from a sharp angle. During the time of the Golden Team it was L. Budai, who was his rival on the guard. For this reason he missed the 1952 Olympic gold, he did not play in the Championship of the Century; he was only a reserve and he was also not nominated for the 1954 World Championship, even though he traveled there with his team. Altogether in 379 championship matches he scored 182 goals. Between 1955 and 1964, he participated in 21 international matches and he was successful in 11. During his lifetime, he received a number of distinctions: in 1993, he was presented with the Middle Cross Medal of the Republic of Hungary, and in 1998 he received the Gold Commemorative Medal of the President of the Republic of Hungary. There is a College named after him at Agárd on Lake Velence. – B: 1031, T: 7456.
Sándor, Mária (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 1895 - Budapest, 9 October 1964) – Opera singer (mezzo-soprano). She was the younger sister of Elizabeth Sándor. She completed her voice studies in Kolozsvár under the direction of Ödön (Edmund) Farkas. From 1912 to 1914, she was a member of the People’s Opera (Népopera) in Budapest. From 1915 to 1933 she was member of the Opera House, Budapest. In 1921 and 1922 she was on a concert tour in North America with her husband, Béla Környey, the famous tenor. She had numerous performances on the Radio and at concerts at home and abroad. Her forte was character roles including Carmen in Bizet’s Carmen; Nedda in R. Leoncavallo’s Pagliacci(Bajazzók); Sáffi (Szaffi) in J. Strauss Jr.’s The Gypsy Baron (A cigánybáró), and Márta in E. d’Albert’s The Lowlands(Tiefland – A hegyek alján). – B: 0883, 1445, T: 7456, 7103.→Sándor, Erzsi B.; Környei, Béla; Farkas, Ödön. Sándor Renée (Budapest, 8 July 1899 - Budapest, 29 August 1977) – Pianist. Her brothers were the pianist Ádám Sándor and the conductor Frigyes (Frederick) Sándor. As a student of Ernő (Ernest) Dohnányi, she completed her studies at the Ferenc (Franz) Liszt Academy of Music of Budapest (1921). From 1922, she toured Germany together with her brother, Árpád. She interpreted the music of Baroque and Viennese masters, as well as those of Mendelssohn and Bartók with great sensitivity and musicality. For a while she played chamber music regularly with Vilmos (Wiliam) Tátrai and his String Quartet. Prior to 1945 she taught the compulsory subject of piano at the Goldmark Music School; from 1949 at the Béla Bartók Specialized Secondary School of Music (Bartók Béla Zeneművészeti Szakiskola), and then at the Academy of Music. She received the Merited Artist title and the winner of the Liszt Award (1969). – T: 0883, 1160, T: 7684.→Dohnányi, Ernő; Tátrai, Vilmos; Sándor, Frigyes. Sandor, Thomas (Budapest, 1924 -) – Biochemist, educator, FRSC. His tertiary studies were at the University of Budapest and the University of Toronto, obtaining a Ph.D. in 1960. His career from 1959 was as follows: Senior Research Associate, Laboratoire d’Endocrinologie, Hôpital Notre Dame, Montreal; Research Professor of Medicine, Université de Montreal since 1970; visiting Professor of Zoology, University of Sheffield, UK, and University of Buenos Aires, Argentina (1974). He has been invited to be a lecturer at universities in Canada and other countries including the USA, UK, France, Germany, Spain, India and Hong Kong. He organized one of the first research laboratories specializing in comparative endocrinology and comparative steroid biochemistry of non-mammalian vertebrates. He authored or co-authored more than 100 research papers published in Canadian and international scientific journals. He was awarded the Nuffield Foundation of Canada Traveling Fellowship (1964), the Endocrine Society Traveling Fellowship (1968), and the Science Research Council, UK, Senior Visiting Research Fellowship (1970-1971). He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada – FRSC, Affiliate of the Royal Society of Medicine, London, and a member of several international societies. – B: 0893, T: 4342.
Sándorffy, Camille (Budapest, 1920 - ) – Educator, FCIC, FRSC. His tertiary studies were at the University of Szeged, where he obtained a Ph.D. in 1946, and at the University of Paris (Sorbonne), earning a D.Sc. (1949). He was Professor of Chemistry at the Polytechnic of Budapest. Between 1951 and 1953 he was on a post-doctorate fellowship at the National Research Council of Canada. In 1954 he became Professor of Chemistry at the University of Montreal, Quebec. From 1968 to 1974 he was a visiting professor at the University of Paris. His book-length publications include Les Spectres electroniques en chimie théorique (1959); Electronic Spectra and Quantum Chemistry (1964); Semi-empirical Wave-Mechanical Calculations on Polyatomic Molecule, co-author, (1971), and more than 200 scientific papers in chemistry. He received Le Prix de Livres Scientifiques du Quebec (1967), the Medaille Pariseau (1974), the Killam Memorial Scholarship (1978), the Herzberg Award (1980), the Prix Marie-Victorin of Quebec (1982), and the Chemical Institute of Canada Medal (1983). – B: 0893, T: 4342.
Sánta, Ferenc (Francis) (Brassó, now Braşov, Romania, 4 September 1927 - Budapest, 6 June 2008) – Writer. He was born and raised in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). His secondary education was at the High School of the Unitarian College, Kolozsvár (now Cluj-Napoca, Romania) (1940-1945) and at the Reformed College, Debrecen (1945-1946). He worked as a miner at the Coal Mine of Pilisszentiván (1947-1950); as a worker at the Red Star Tractor Industry (Vörös Csillag Traktorgyár), Kispest, and the Crane and Ship-building Works of Ganz Industries (Ganz Daru és Hajógyár), Budapest (1957). From 1978 he was a contributor at the Literary Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In 1956 he was a member of the Petőfi Literary Society (PetőfiIrodalmi Társaság) and, in 1987 he was one of the founding members of the Hungarian Democratic Forum (Magyar Demokrata Fórum – MDF); in 1990 he was a founding member of the Hungarian Henry George Society (Magyar Henry George Társaság). From 1989 he was a leading member of the Hungarian Spiritual Defense Society (Magyar Szellemi Védegylet) and, from 1994 he was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Art (Magyar Művészeti Akadémia). He burst unto the Hungarian literary world with his first short story entitled We Were Many (Sokan voltunk) (1954). He was welcomed as the forerunner of a new prose-writing generation, since his realism was reminiscent of that of Zsigmond Móricz. Sánta was one of the renowned writers of Hungarian contemporary literature. His writings include Winter Blooming (Téli virágzás), story (1956); the Fifth Seal (Az ötödik pecsét), novel (1963); Twenty Hours (Húsz óra), novel (1964), and At the Threshold of Freedom (A szabadság küszöbén), writings, (1994). His works appeared in 23 languages. He was a recipient of the Attila József Prize (1965, 1964), the Golden Nimpha Prize (1970), the Kossuth Prize (1973), the Officer Cross of Merit of the Republic of Hungary (1993), the For Hungarian Art (2004), and For my Country Prize (2004). – B: 0874, 1257, 1031, T: 7103.→Móricz, Zsigmond.