Sákovics, József (Joseph) (Budapest, 26 July 1927 - Budapest, 2 January 2009) – Foil fencer. He completed the College of Foreign Languages, majoring in English and French; in 1965 he obtained a diploma as fencing instructor specialist in the School of Physical Education. He was at first a competitor for the Csepel Club, later for the Budapest Locomotive Club, and then, from 1954 in the Budapest Honvéd Club. From 1957 to 1964 he competed for the Red Meteor (Vörös Meteor) Club of Budapest (MTK). In 1949, he was the individual Hungarian champion in duel foilfencing and, in 1950 he received the title of champion in foil-fencing. Between 1951 and 1962 he was a member of the selected team on 75 occasions. At the World Championship in Stockholm in 1951 he attained seventh place in duel foilfencing. In the World Championship in Rome in 1955 he was a member of the team that received a bronze medal. In the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne, his duel foil-fencing team received a silver medal, the foil team a bronze medal. In 1959 in Budapest, he became World Champion in duel foilfencing. In the Rome Olympics of 1960 he achieved fourth place in individual foilfencing, as well as in the duel foil-fencing team. Between 1963 and 1968 he acted as Captain of the Fencing Federation. In the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, he won four gold medals. From 1970 he worked as a trainer of the Federation; from 1972 he was an associate of the Physical Research Institute. From 1974 he was active as a trainer in Budapest, while, between 1979 and 1980 he again served as Captain of the Federation. Sákovics is the first Hungarian duel foil-fencer, Federation Captain of the Hungarian select duel foil-fencing team. His wife, Lidia Dömölky, was also an Olympic champion in foil fencing. – B: 1031, T: 7456.
Salamon – (1) According to the chronicle, written in the Manx Gaelic language on the Isle of Man (1066-1266), Solomon was the original name of King István I (St Stephen, 997-1038) of Hungary. The chronicle, as published with commentary by George Broderick of Edinburgh in 1973, includes accounts of the lives of both King István and his wife, Gizella, who were both honored as saints in the Christian Church. It suggests a connection with the British Royal family through István’s relative, Agatha. (2) King István I was known as Solomon by John of Fordun (died in 1384), a Scottish chronicler, who also indicated that Solomon was bestowed the Christian name of Stephanus. – B: 1020, T: 7658.
Salamon, Béla (Saly) (Beregrákos, now Rákosin in Slovakia, 4 March 1885 - Budapest, 15 June 1965) – Actor, theater manager. He started work as a shop assistant; in 1913 he became an actor in the Royal Orpheum, later, in the Royal Beer Cabaret. In 1920 and 1921, he was acting for the Bonbonnière Cabaret and, from 1921 to 1923 he was a member of the Apollo Stage. In 1921 he also worked for Transylvanian Hungarians Cultural Society (Erélyi Magyarok Kultúrális Egyesülete – EMKE) and the Trocadero Cabaret. In 1923, together with Endre (Andrew) Nagy, he founded and managed the Teréz Ring-Boulevard Stage, running it until 1931. He played on the stage of almost all the cabarets of the Capital. From 1939 to 1945 he was banned from the stage because he was a Jew. In 1951 he was contracted with the Merry Stage (Vídám Színpad), where he stayed until his death. Many of his stage witticisms became household words. Till the end of his life he played the clumsy, but cunning, helpless, average man, with which he made his first success in the scene String Quartet (Vonósnégyes) by Szőke Szakáll. He enjoyed a very wide popularity. He played episode roles in a number of films including Kiss me, Sweetheart! (Csókolj meg, édes!) (1932); The Clever Mom) (Az okos mama) (1932); Young Lady looking for a Room (Úrilány szobát keres) (1937); Momentary Cash-flow (Pillanatnyi pénzzavar) (1938); The Hypochondriac (A képzelt beteg) (1952), and Love-Thursday (Szerelemcsütörtök) (1949). He wrote several of his sketches and croquis appeared in dailies and weeklies. He was the author of the books: Hey, performer! (Hej, Színművész!) (1939), and Soda Water Bottle and its Surroundings (Szódásüveg és környéke) (1964). He was awarded the title of Merited Artist in 1958. – B: 0883, 1105, 1445, T: 7456.→Nagy, Endre; Szőke, Szakáll.
Salamon, Ferenc (Francis) (Déva, 29 August 1825 - Budapest, 9 October 1892) – Publicist and historian. He studied at the College of Nagyenyed (now Aiud, Romania) and coached the children of Baroness Simon Kemény. In 1848 he joined the national army (Honvéd) of Hungary. After the collapse of the Revolution and Freedom Fight of 1849, he taught deaf-mute children at Nagyvárad (now Oradea, Romania). In 1854 he was engaged as a teacher at Nagykőrös. However, in 1856, he gave up his teaching career and moved to Pest, where he became a journalist, working as a contributor for Hungarian News (Magyar Hírlap), and later for Pester Diary (Pesti Napló). He was a supporter of Baron Zsigmond (Sigismund) Kemény, Ferenc (Francis) Deák, and the 1867 Compromise with Austria. From 1867 he was Editor of the official paper, Budapest Gazette, and later, from 1870 until his passing, he was Professor of Hungarian History at the University of Pest. In 1860 he became a member of the Kisfaludy Society. Besides esthetic and critical studies, he wrote some important historical works. They include Hungary in the Era of the Ottoman Turkish Occupation (Magyarország a török hódítás korában)(1864), for which he received the Grand Prix of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in 1887); The first Zrinyis (Az első Zrinyiek) (1865); His Smaller Historic Studies (Kisebb történelmi dolgozatai) (1875); History of Buda-Pest, vols. i-iii (Buda-Pest története, I-III) (1878-1885), and Literary Studies, vols. i,ii (Irodalmi tanulmányok, I-II) (1889). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Kemény, Baron Zsigmond; Deák, Ferec; Compromise of 1867.
Salamon, King (1063 - 1074) – The elder son of King András I (Endre, Andrew) (1046-1060), crowned by his father at the age of six, and formally enthroned in 1063 upon the death of King Béla I (1060-1063), when he arrived in Hungary supported by German troops. He was betrothed at the age of not yet five to the 10-11-year-old Judit, the daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Heinrich III. He was forced to release the Duchy to his cousins Princes Géza, László and Lambert, who then assisted him in defeating the Cumanians and the Pechenegs. He recaptured Nándorfehérvár in 1071, and continued his warfare into Byzantine territory.
In 1074 he fought heavy battles against the Princes; was victorious against Géza, but suffered complete defeat at Mogyoród and lost his throne, upon which he fled to his brother-in-law Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1050-1106) to offer Hungary as feudal tenure. He was only able to retain the Fortress of Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) despite assistance from Henry IV. Salamon acknowledged King László I (St Ladislas), (1077-1095), but turned against him, was imprisoned and released in honor of the canonization in 1083 of King István I (St Stephen) (997-1038). Assisted by the Cumanians, he unsuccessfully attacked Hungary and the Byzantine Empire. After his death, he was buried on the Peninsula of Istra at Pola, Italy, where he was later revered as a saint. – B: 0883, 1138, T: 7658.→Judit; King András I; King Béla I; King László I; King István I; Sword of God.
Salamon, László (Ladislas) (Tamás Salló) (Nagyvárad, now Oradea, Romania, 10 July 1891 - Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca Romania) 16 October 1983) – Poet, publicist and essayist. He completed his high school education at his birthplace, where poet Gyula (Julius) Juhász was among his teachers. At the University of Budapest, he enrolled in the Arts course, majoring in Hungarian and Latin and joined the club of the socialist students. In 1913 he started his journalistic career with the paper Nagyvárad Diary (Nagyváradi Napló). In World War I he served on the front, was wounded and discharged. He took part in the 1918 Revolution; later, he was imprisoned, returning to Nagyvárad in 1922. Early in 1924 he moved to Kolozsvár, becoming associate editor of the paper New Orient (Új Kelet). His writings appeared in the papers, Temesvár News (Temesvári Hírlap) and Future Society (A jövő társadalma). With László Dienes, he took part in the founding of the journal Our Age (Korunk), and became associate editor of the daily of the Social Democratic Party, entitled Worker News (Munkás Újság). In 1931 he launched the first leftist social democratic journal, The Other Road (A Másik Út). During World War II, his articles appeared in the leftist paper, People’s Word (Népszava). During the German occupation of Hungary, the Gestapo captured him and deported him to the Dachau Concentration Camp. He returned to Hungary only at the end of the war. From 1948 he was Editor of the paper, Truth (Igazság), and from 1950 until his retirement in 1954, he was an associate editor of its editorial board at Kolozsvár on behalf of the State Literary Publishers. His works include For the Altar of Eros (Eros oltárára), poems (1916); Dreadful Adolf (Rettenetes Adolf) tragic-comic epic (1933); Man, Where Are You? (Ember, hol vagy?), poems (1943), and Blue Bird of May (Május kék madara), essays (1923-1943) (1971). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Juhász, Gyula.
Salánki, János (John) (Debrecen, 11 May 1929 - Budapest, 29 January 2003) - Physician, biologist. In 1954 he earned his Medical Degree at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Debrecen. From 1955 to 1959 he completed his postgraduate studies at the Lomonosov University of Moscow. From 1960, he was a contributor to the Institute of Pathological Biology of the University of Debrecen. From 1962 to 1990 he worked as Director of the Tihany Research Institute of Biology of the Academy of Sciences. From 1991, he was a research professor of neurobiology, comparative biology and environmental biology. He introduced the microelectro-physiological technique for the study of elemental neurological mechanisms and demonstrated the central localization on cell level of taste-sensing receptors in gastropods. He showed the degree of contamination of heavy metals among animals of Lake Balaton. From 1977 he was Editor of Acta Biologica Hungarica and a member of a number of scientific societies in Hungary and abroad. His works include Comparative Studies on the Regulation of the Periodic Activity in Marine Lamellibranches (in Comp.Biochem, Physiol, 1966), and My Way in Science (in Acta Biol. Hung, 1999). He was a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (corresponding 1976, regular 1987). He was awarded several prizes; among them the Academy’s Prize, and the Order of Labor. – B: 1730, T: 7456.
Salgó, András (Andrew) (Andrés Salgo) (Mezőtúr, 1909 - Mexico City, 1976) – Painter. At the University of Budapest he studied Architecture, and at the École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts of Paris, he studied painting. He emigrated to Mexico, escaping from fascism. There he mainly painted large murals, and created expressive panel paintings (Don Quijote-series; also in portfolio). His murals are characterized by neo-primitive simplification and the monumentalism of the great Mexican artist generation. He published art critiques and essays in Mexican papers and journals. He was President of the National Group of Mexican Painters and Sculptors. In 1965 he showed his works in the Exhibition Hall of the Institute of Cultural Connections (Kultúrális Kapcsolatok Intézete) Budapest. A few of his works and a portfolio were placed in the Hungarian National Gallery and in his hometown. – B: 0883, 1105, T: 7456.
Salgótarján, Massacre of - Ironically, of all the massacres perpetrated by the Communists during the 1956 Revolution, probably the worst occurred on 8 December 1956 in Salgótarján, an old leftist center of the workers’ movement. At the outbreak of the Revolution on 23 October 1956, the Communist leadership of the county and the higher ranking AVH (Államvédelmi Hatóság – State Security Police) officers fled with their families to Besztercebánya (now Banská Bystrica, Slovakia) in neighboring Czechoslovakia. The lower ranking AVH personnel went into hiding near the border, crossing it regularly, because the First Secretary of the Communist Party in Besztercebánya was supplying them with provisions and weaponry.
On 5 November, the newly armed AVH unit, which was hiding out in Karancslapujtó near the border, attacked the County National Committee located in the Salgótarján County Hall and disarmed the National Guard unit which defended it. The next day, however, the freedom fighters, under the leadership of Rudolf Haday and Lajos (Louis) Hargitay, the National Guard commanders, retook the County Hall and scattered the AVH or Pufajkás unit in Karancslapujtó as well. (The Pufajkás unit was comprised of the remnants of the various security organs of the Communist state, which lacking official uniforms or status as yet, were dressed in the Russian style winter jackets padded with cotton). To regain their position, the Communist leaders of Salgótarján called for Soviet help and a Red Army detachment, under the command of Colonel Seludin, arrived on November 14 to take control of Salgótarján. The same day there was an armed conflict on the Czechoslovak border between the National Guard and the AVH personnel, who were receiving help from across the border. Under the protection of the armed Soviets, on 17 November, the Salgótarján Communists set up a new executive committee and the commissioners of the Interior Ministry removed those officers from the security units who sympathized with the freedom fighters. The workers of the city united behind the newly formed independent County Workers’ Council.
The County Workers’ Council announced a 48-hour warning strike for December 3-4, while Pufajkás units were harassing the population in the surrounding villages. On December 6, the AVH forcibly dispersed a meeting of the Workers’ Council, and the next day they arrested two of its members. On 8 December, a demonstration was organized to demand the release of those arrested. The unarmed demonstrators, numbering about 2000, included workers, women and children. They were lured to the square in front of the county police headquarters, where they were trapped between the Soviet troops and the AVH units. The massacre began at 11 o’clock and the firing lasted for several minutes. The fleeing unarmed people were shot from behind, even children, as their wounds later revealed.
There is no agreement on the exact number of dead. The clerk of vital statistics put it to 131. The estimated number of the wounded came to 150. Though there were no injuries among the Hungarian security troops or the Soviet soldiers, Communist propaganda later claimed that they were attacked, and only fired in self-defense. Following the massacre, the Workers’ Council was dissolved and the main participants and their leaders were arrested. The cruelly tortured and bullet-ridden bodies of the National Guard commanders, Rudolf Haday and Lajos Hargitay, were found in the Ipoly River on 10 December. – B: 1020, T: 7665.→State Security Police; Freedom Fight of 1956.
Salkházi Sára (Sarah) (Schalkházi) (Kassa, now Košice, Slovakia, 11 May 1899 - Budapest, 27 December 1944) – Social worker, nun, teacher, newspaper reporter and editor. She gave up the career of teacher and editor and entered the Society of Social Worker Nuns (Szociális Testvérek Társasága) (1929). She was the leader of the Slovakian Catholic Young Women’s Movement (Szlovákiai Katolikus Leányifjúsági Mozgalom) for the whole country, then Central Director of the Organization of Catholic Working Girls and Women (Katolikus Dolgozó Lányok és Nők Országos Szervezete) (1942-1944). She hid the persecuted after the German occupation of 19 March 1944 in the home for the laborer women on the shore of Lake Balaton. When someone denounced those hiding in the home in Bokréta Street in Budapest, she too was carried off. The circumstances of her death are unknown. She wrote articles in the papers The People (A Nép); The Working Woman (A Dolgozó Nő), and The Word of the Spirit (A Lélek Szava). She also wrote The Black Flute (Fekete Furulya), short story (1926) – B: 0883, T: 7684.
Sallay, András (Andrew) (Budapest, 15 December 1953 - ) – Ice-show dancer. He was the male member of the legendary Regőczy-Sallay ice-show dancing pair. He attained his most important sporting results when he joined up with Krisztina Regőczy. From 1972 to 1980 he was nine times Hungarian champion. In 1970 the pair became part of the selected pool. They took part in numerous international championships, with good placing. They received sixth place in the World Championships jn Munich in 1974, in Colorado Springs in 1975, as well as in the European Championships in Copenhagen. They finished in fifth place in the Olympics in Innsbruck in 1976, and received fourth place in the World Championships in Göteborg, and also in the Europe Championships in Geneva. They reached fourth place in the World Championships in Tokyo and, finally, they received a silver medal at the European Championships in Helsinki, at the Lake Placid Olympics in 1980, and at the European Championships in Göteborg, while they became World Champions in Dortmund. Between 1980 and 1985 they were professional ice-dancers. They were members of the American Ice Follies and Holiday on
Ice. In 1985 they ended their joint active professional career as three-time professional world-champions. Since 1986 Sallay has been engaged, among other things, in sport-management as a representative of the International Management Group. He is President of the Blue Danube Golf Club. – B: 1031, T: 7456.→Regőczy, Krisztina.
Salló, István (Stephen) (Csíkszereda, now Miercurea Ciuc, Romania, 3 March 1932 - Tatabánya, 1 November 2004) – Hungarian sculptor in Transylvania (Erdély, now in Romania). He was a teacher in Transylvania between 1951 and 1959, and was Director of the Culture House at Csík Rajon (closed since), and also of the Folk Arts House of Hargita County between 1968 and 1978. Together with his colleagues, he fought for the preservation of the Szekler cultural heritage. Under their direction many folk-theatrical groups were formed, together with the folk dancers, folk orchestras, singers and performers. He regularly organized exhibitions for folk artists who worked individually or in groups (wood carvers, potters, weavers, spinners, embroiderers). He published folk literature as well. His literary output includes poetry, fairy tales for children and folk comedies. His short stories, instructive articles and mini-fictions appeared in newspapers. Besides his educational and cultural work, he dedicated himself to sculpting. In 1978 he moved to Hungary and settled in Tatabánya, where he spent the rest of his life. His art was recognized and his work is sought after. His working material was almost exclusively fine carved, sometimes colored wood. He took part in several collective (6) and individual (11) exhibitions in Transylvania and in Hungary. His works include Kings of the House of Árpád (relief); St Margaret (woodcarving); Portrait of Széchenyi; Portrait of Jakab Fellner, and Cry for Help (Segélykiáltás), memorial stone and column and gate. His major works are in Budapest, Tata, Csorna, Kisbér, Tatabánya, Komárom, and in schools, cultural centers, squares and museums (Esztergom, Tatabánya). He was a recipient of the National Prize III, Bucharest (1981), National Grand Prix, Budapest (1987), Art Prize of County Komárom (1987) and he was named honorary freeman of the town of Csorna (1987). – B: 1654, 1105, T: 7103.
Samo, Principality of – In 626 A.D., under the leadership of Samo, an adventurer-trader of Frank origin, the Vends, residing on the western side of Pannonia (now Transdanubia or Dunántúl, Western Hungary), broke away from the Avars and defeated the army sent against them by Dagobert I, the Frank king. The uprising of the Vends surprised the Avars, who were at that time involved in an attack on Byzantium. While the Vends were successful in breaking away from Avar rule, they could not challenge their supremacy in the East, and were forced to withdraw behind the Vienna Basin. Due to the Vend uprising, the Avars gave up the siege of Byzantium in 627, and could only occupy Samo’s territory west of the Vienna Basin after his death. The independence of the Vends ended with the death of Samo around 658. – B: 1230, 1031, T: 7665.→Avars.
“Sandaled” Gentry – It was the most destitute stratum of the lesser nobility in the time of late feudalism in Hungary. The landless, uneducated “bocskoros nemesek” (Squireens) wore only sandals instead of boots, which was the custom with the well-to-do nobility. In the period of the Reform Movement, they opposed any bourgeois reform and, after 1848, with the abolition of serfdom, they assimilated into the class of the poor peasantry. – B: 1231, T: 3233.
Sándor, Anna (Budapest, 1950 ? - ) – Screenwriter. She spent her childhood in Canada and was educated at the University of Windsor, Ontario (1975). She began her career as a stage- and TV- actress in her mid-twenties, and has written more than 50 TV scripts. She was a lecturer in ’Writing for TV’ at the Summer Institute of Film in Ottawa (1985), guest speaker at ACTRA Screenwriters Seminar (1986), a guest panelist at the Banff TV Festival, Convergence Montreal (1989). Her screen writings include Tarzan in Manhattan (1989); Stolen One Husband (1990); Miss Rose White, TV teleplay (1992); Amelia Erhardt: The Final Flight (1994); Tiger Cruise (2004); Mom, Dad and Her, story, teleplay (2008). Movies: A Population of One (1980); Charlie Grant’s War (1985); The Marriage Bed (1986), and Two Men (1988). Feature films: King of Kensington, head writer and writer of over 30 episodes (CBC 1975-1980); Running Man, High Card, For the Record, CBC Anthology Series (1982-1983); Seeing Things (CBC TV, 1983-1985); Hangin’ In, co-creator of series (CBC TV), and Danger Bay, four episodes (1986-1988). Her films have garnered the Emmy, three Humanitas Awards, the Writers Guild of America Award, the Gemini Award, and the Margaret Collier Award for lifetime achievement in the Canadian industry. – B: 0892, 1719, 1081, T: 4342, 7103.
Sándor Codex – A Hungarian linguistic record from the beginning of the 16th century. It was copied by an unknown nun around 1521. Its most notable section is the translation of Visio Tundali’s 10th chapter, based on a work written around 1150 by a friar named Marcus. The first Hungarian drama, Three Christian Girls, loosely translated by Hrotsuita Dulcitius, a famous nun of Ganderscheim Abbey in Germany in the 10th century, is also in this Codex. Originally, it was part of the Cornidus Codex. Ferenc (Francis) Toldy named this section after the bibliographer István (Stephen) Sándor, following the Codex-division at the University Library of Budapest in the middle of the 19th century. – B: 1150, T: 3240.→Codex Literature.
Sándor, Count Móric (Bajna, northwest of Budapest, 23 May 1805 - Vienna, 23 February 1878) – Sportsman and landowner. He acquired fame for his daring exploits on horseback, in swimming and hunting. His nickname was “the devil-rider”. He ended his life in the mental hospital of Döbling, Austria. He donated his rich library to the National Széchenyi Library. He wrote the work Hunting in our Country and Sport in Hungary (Hazai vadászatok és sport Magyarországon), co-authored with Count Manó Andrássy and others (1857), also published in French. – B: 0883, T: 7456.