Pestvidéki Ásványbánya Vállalat

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Shaman Drum – The wizard’s drum was the essential tool of the shaman and is part of shamanism in all its development. The drum played an important role in the call and summons of all the primitive cultures. This is the tool of the shaman’s trance, as was the winged stallion with the shaman soaring into the sky. All the round drums, large or small, are made from the thin bark of a tree. The lower sidewalls of the drum are covered in bark (6 to 14 cm) and its upper part is covered with animal hide. It is empty on its lower part. The shaman holds the drum in one hand and the drumstick, a small piece of wood or stick made of bone, in the other. Its upper surface is covered with fur to provide soft sounds. The drum summoned both the faithful and the spirits. The more powerful the shaman, the more spirits are at his disposal. He also used his drum for healing or fortune telling.

Among Hungarian folk songs there is a little verse: “Stork, stork why is your leg bleeding? Turkish child wounded it, Hungarian child is healing it with a pipe drum and fiddle made out of reed” (Gólya, gólya, gilice – Mitől véres a lábad? – Török gyerek vérezte – magyar gyerek gyógyítja – Síppal, dobbal, nádihegedűvel). Only the shaman heals with drum and pipe. – B: 1020, T: 7682.→Shaman; Táltos.

Sharers (Részesek) – These are relatives of the Csángós – the Hungarian-speaking natives of Moldavia, Romania, and of the Hungarian settlers of the country. A fragmented group of Magyars stayed behind in Etelköz, and settled between the River Szeret (now Siret, Romania), and the slopes of the Carpathian Mountains before the Magyar settlement of the country. They still speak a distinct archaic Hungarian language that is different from the Hungarian and Szekler dialects. Their settlements were established in today’s Moldavia well before the spread of Christianity. Even the geographical names of their villages, mountains and rivers of the area indicate their antiquity. They joined forces with the Hungarians well before they settled down in the Carpathian Basin.

Hungarians of Moldavia still remember the old story of the Hungarian King László’s visit, when he built them a fort. It is a historical fact that King László I (1077-1095) repelled the Cumanians (Kunok), who then settled south of the Hungarian population on the Rivers Szeret and Tatros (now Trotuş Romania).

King András II (1205-1235) organized the Hungarians of the eastern side of the Carpathian Mountains. He also resettled some Szeklers among the Hungarians already living in Cumania, the territory to the East and South of the Carpathian Mountains, which became known as Moldavia, Wallachia and Szörénység (Szörényi Bánság, now Banatul Severinului, Romania). During this period, Hungarian villages were also established among the Cumanians and Petchenegs in Wallachia and the Szörénység. The Christian missionaries successfully converted the Cumanians and Petchenegs. The freshly resettled Christian Szeklers (Székelys) reinforced the original population and blended in well. These remote places became strong under the rule of Hungarians kings. The Diocese of Milkó was established in 1227-1228, and King Béla IV established the Diocese of Szörény in 1236 at Szörényvár (now Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Romania).

The Hungarian territory on the eastern side of the Carpathian Mountains came under attack by the Tartars between 1239 and 1242. The original population thinned out and was slowly replaced by the Vlachs (ancestors of Romanians) arriving from the Lower Danube area. Over the next hundred years the population profile changed dramatically. Eventually the Vlachs of Voivode Bogdan became the majority group in Moldavia. The first voivodeship was established by the 14th century..

The one- or two-century-old Hungarian settlements kept their identity and autonomy for a long while. Following the Mongol-Tartar offensive, King László IV (1272-1290) sent Franciscan monks to the newly rebuilt Hungarian villages. Even the Vlach Voivode Radu’s mother, the Hungarian Klára Dobokay, and his Hungarian wife, Anna, built a Christian church in Arges between 1376-1384, where King Lajos I (1342-1382) established the Diocese of Arges.

Following the lost Battle of Mohács against the Turks (1526), the Hungarian kings faced considerable internal hardships and gradually lost their influence beyond the Carpathian Mountains and the local Hungarian population began to lose their identity. They were still, however, able to persuade the local Voivode to recognize their local rights. This momentous event identified them as “Sharers”.

The Vlach Voivode and historian Cantemir, in his work Descriptio Moldaviae published in 1771, wrote in detail about the Sharers’ rights. The so-called Sharers lived within their own villages, were governed by their own laws, and were exempt from any orders issued by the Voivode. While they paid their yearly taxes, the final amount was always mutually agreed upon with the incoming new Voivode. In 1817 the Obsteasca Adunera Moldovei, the Moldavian legislative body, recognized the native Sharers’ rights and declared. “Since they are known as Sharers they do not need a deed to their properties, for everyone knows they own their ancient properties”. The so-called Sharers (in the Vlach texts written as ‘razesi’ or in possessive form ‘rasesilor) did not belong to any landlord and shared the ownership of the borderland of their villages. Petru Poni’s Statistica Rasesilor, published by the Romanian Academy of Sciences in 1921, estimated their population to be 21% in Wallachia, 24% in Moldavia and 40% in the Szörénység. The 1989 census tallied 1.7 million sharers among the 8 million inhabitants of Wallachia; 1.2 million among Moldavia’s 5 million people and among the population of 2.5 million in Szörénység, there were 1 million shareholders; totalling about 3.9 million in 1989. Over time the Sharers of Wallachia and Szörénység were entirely assimilated into the Romanian population, while the Hungarians of Moldavia, together with the shareholders, still totaled around 1.8 million. In 1902, Gustav Weygand, a university professor in Leipzig, estimated that the Hungarian inhabitants of Moldavia, the so-called Csángós, inhabited 49 villages in the province of Bako, and 38 villages in the province of Roman. By the latest estimates the Hungarian population numbers about 100,000. While the people no longer speak the language, in many villages they still consider themselves of Hungarian descent. – B: 1020, T: 3240.→King László I; King András II; Csángó; Cumanians, Petchenegs; Szeklers; Wallachia; Vallachs.
Sheepdog, Hungarian – The different varieties are the results of their breeding and inborn characteristics. These dogs learn the duties of obedience at a suitable age and, between the ages of 6 and 10, can “run down” or outdistance the herd. Hungarian sheepdogs probably originated from Tibet, possibly from Lebedia and from the Etelköz. The large-bodied komondor and kuvasz are used for guarding the herd and the manor while the smaller bodied puli, pumi and mudi are used for driving the herd of cattle, droves, herds of swine, and possibly turkey flocks and water fowl. – B: 1020, T: 7684.→Puli; Pumi; Mudi; Komondor; Kuvasz.
Shelter – It is a flat plank-like construction of 2-3 meters in height supported by two poles. It can be flipped or transported so that it provides shelter for the shepherd or his belongings against sun or rain. The szárnyék is a similar shelter. In the Hortobágy region it appeared next to any simple shack. It was most frequently used in the Upper-Tisza and the Kiskunság regions. In some local dialects it is called ekho. – B: 1134, T: 3233.
Shepherd - One who grazes and cares for the flock of sheep and is entrusted with their breeding process. The shepherd boy, a young boy with insufficient experience, works with the shepherd. The head shepherd is an older, able shepherd enjoying great respect, who is entrusted with the responsibility of several herds. He may be accountable for as many as one thousand head of animals and for the shepherds subordinated to him. – B: 1020, T: 7684.
Shepherd Dog – These dogs are bred and trained to guard and shepherd the herd, the grazing stock. They are also suitable for guarding a manor and are used as military and police dogs. Among the foreign breeds of shepherd dogs from the Western lands, the German shepherd dog is the most widely used in Hungary. – B: 1138, T: 7684.→ Hungarian domestic animals; Herding dogs; Sheepdog, Hungarian; Mudi; Puli; Pumi; Kuvasz.
Shepherding – One of the oldest forms of animal keeping and husbandry. In Hungary there are two types of shepherding: one, where the animals are kept outdoors year round in the pastures; and the other, the half-wild pasturing practice, where the animals are outdoors from spring to late fall. Only the hardy indigenous Hungarian racka sheep and the Hungarian Gray Cattle tolerate this outdoor type of lifestyle. Shepherding in Hungary varied greatly and was always adapted to the given regional conditions.

1) Shepherding in the Bakony in Transdanubia was characterized by grazing pigs and sheep in the forest.

2) Shepherding in the Hortobágy on the Great Hungarian Plain included the great grassy plains, where the traders rented this area until the 17th century for raising mostly cattle and some herds of horses.

3) In the Kiskunság (Little Cumanian Plain) region between the Rivers Danube and Tisza, historical events affected the type of husbandry practiced. Both the arrival of the Cumanians and the Turks had an effect. Ultimately, the impoverished owners replaced the cattle herds for a few sheep as their land holdings decreased.

4) In the Nagykunság (Great Cumanian Plain) region, as the high density of settlements was reduced, the land became communally owned. The working animals and the “milkers” were usually kept in close proximity, and returned nightly to the barn for the evening milking, while the cattle herds kept farther away, stayed outdoors all year long. Horse and sheep breeding was practiced only from the beginning of the 19th century.

5) The Palóc shepherding in the Mátra and Bükk Mountains regions was characterized by shepherding, and herding cattle in the forests.

6) In the Somogy region in Transdanubia, pig keeping was practiced. Data from the 11th to the 19th centuries indicate that pig husbandry was the main financial resource of this area. Sheep herding became popular with the arrival of the Spanish Merinos to the southern region of Lake Balaton.

7) The Szekler shepherding in Transylvania was characterized by large herds of cattle and horses kept outdoors year-round in the natural pastures of the Carpathian Mountains. The sheep herds, made up of the very hardy, heat tolerant Transylvanian ‘racka’, and later the so-called cigálya, were mostly in family hands. These were kept in the half-wild pasturing way. – B: 1020, T: 3240.→Gray Cattle; Racka sheep.

Shepherd’s Art – In researching the ancient shepherding customs of the Hungarians, the expression “art” was used for the first time in 1898 by Otto Herman, who collected and exhibited the relics of this ancient occupation. The shepherds, who are part of the peasantry, are the nomadic carriers of the folk art, selecting and transforming its decorative elements according to their own taste, to use on the tools and utensils of their lifestyle, thereby creating a special folk art that is still based on common roots. The artistically inclined shepherds usually copied their predecessors in creating the various objects necessary in their daily life. They used the raw materials offered by nature in the local surroundings. In Transdanubia (Dunántúl), the ample supply of wood was readily adapted to the carving of wooden utensils and tools, while the same articles carved out of cattle bones were found throughout the country. – B: 1134, 1020, T: 7670.→Hermann, Otto.
Sher-Gil, Amrita (Dalma) (Hungary, 30 January 1913 - Lahore, India, 5 December 1941) – Painter. She was daughter of a Sikh father and a Hungarian mother; niece of the orientalist, Ervin Baktay. Until the age of eight, she lived in Hungary. Already at that early age, she showed a talent for painting. In 1921 her family traveled to India to settle; the little girl received her training from Indian masters. She painted mainly scenes in watercolor and portraits. Later she furthered her art in Paris and, in 1933 she won the Grand Salon Paris Gold Medal with her painting Three Girls (Három lány). In the thirties, she visited Hungary several times. After marrying her childhood love, the medical student Viktor Egon, she returned to India again. Amrita all along had a double bonding: she was passionately fond of European and Hungarian art and literature, while she painted pictures in India which shattered the artistic traditions of the British colony, depicting nude women and persons from the untouchable castes in a country where both were regarded scandalous. Her romantic life ended suddenly and sadly early in 1941: a mysterious disease attacked her, and killed her. With her individual post-impressionistic style, she created a new school. She is considered as one of the greatest figures in modern Indian painting. Ever since her passing, her paintings have been declared national treasures. Her painting entitled Village Scene (1938) was sold for 69 million rupees in 2006, whereby this picture became one of the most expensive creations of India. Her paintings include Young Girls (Fiatal lányok) (1932); Self-portrait (Önarckép) (1936); Dressing-up of Brides (Menyasszonyok öltöztetése) (1937); Two Elephants (Két elefánt) (1942) and Camels (Tevék) (1945). A number of her pictures are open for viewing in Delhi and in the National Gallery of Modern Arts. – B: 1031, 2002, T: 7456.→ Baktay, Ervin; Brunner, Erzsébet.
Show Trials (Mock Trials) – The preplanned judicial trials of dictatorial regimes became notorious in Stalin’s Soviet Union, and later on in the satellite countries of Eastern Europe, including Hungary. Between 1945 and 1962 there were several such economic and political show trials in Hungary. These included the Cardinal Mindszenty, the MAORT, the Rajk and the Premier Imre Nagy trials. The majority of those convicted in these trials were rehabilitated by 1990, albeit mostly only after their death. – B: 1153, 1231, T: 7665.→Mindszenty, József; Grősz, József; Rajk, László; Ordass, Lajos.
Siculicidium Mádéfalva, Peril of.

Sidló, Ferenc (Francis) (Budapest, 21 January 1882 - Budapest, 11 January 1953) – Sculptor. He attended the Creative Art School in Budapest, studied in Munich and Rome. While working at the Gödöllő Artists Colony, he created a bas-relief work depicting the coronation of King Ferenc József (Francis Joseph) (1867-1916) for the Cultural Palace of Marosvásárhely (now Targu Mureş, Romania), one of several architecturally related plastic masterpieces. He took part in the 1909 exhibit by the artists of Gödöllő at the National Salon and was a regular participant of the exhibitions in Budapest with his portraiture-like sculptures, nudes and other works. The Ernst Museum exhibited his collected works in 1909. His better-known public sculptures include Artur Görgey at Miskolc, Imre (Emeric) Madách at Balassagyarmat. Sidló’s most successful creation is of King István (St Stephen) at Székesfehérvár, and the Fountain of the Danaids. He sculpted many heroic monuments and modeled many figures for the Pantheon at Szeged. He also created numerous applied artworks such as tapestry and ceramics. – B: 0883, 1144, T: 7675.→Görgey, Artur; Madách, Imre; István I, King.
Sidó, Ferenc (Francis) (Vágpatta, now Pata, Slovakia, County Nyitra, 18 April 1923 - Budapest, 6 February 1998) – Table-tennis player, soccer-player, trainer and sporting official. He ran numerous sporting branches and associations. In 1935 he began his career as a table-tennis player in Pozsony (now Bratislava, Slovakia) (TE) and as a soccer-player. From 1943 to 1944 he was the goalkeeper of the soccer team and, from 1946 to 1947 he played volleyball. In 1940 he was accepted in the Hungarian selected team as the table-tennis player of the Physical Exercise Club of Újpest (UTE). On several occasions, he changed his association membership; but from 1947 he restricted his sport only to table- tennis. In the post-World War II era, he proved to be the determining personality in Hungarian table-tennis. During the 21 years between 1940 and 1961 he appeared altogether 190 times in the Hungarian selected team and, during this period, he received 26 medals in the World Championships, among them 9 gold medals. At the 1953 World Championships in Bucharest, he won the title of World Champion in single, male partner, and mixed doubles as well; the World Championship title he received there was the best individual result of his career. In 1958, in the first European-Championship in this field of sports, he was a member of the Hungarian team winning the European Championship. He retired from active sports after the World Championship in Peking in 1961. He was nine times World Champion in table tennis. – B: 1031, T: 7456.
Siege of BudapestBudapest, Siege of.
Siegmeth, Károly (Charles) (Sziegmeth) (Znaim, Moravia, now Znojmo, Czech Republic, 11 September 1845 - Munkács, now Mukacheve, Carpatho-Ukraine, 21 April 1912) – Railway engineer, tourist book writer, and cave explorer. He completed his studies at the Universities of Vienna, Zurich and Munich; at the latter he also worked as an assistant teacher. He formed the Eastern Carpathian Section of the Carpathian Association of Hungary and organized local exhibitions and tourist itinerary meetings. He established several tourist resorts and a ceramics school at Ungvár (now Uzhhorod, Ukraine). He wrote publications on the stalactite cave of Aggtelek; its systematic survey and the creation of the artificial entry at Veresfő were his accomplishments. His works include The Cave Region of Abaúj-Gömör (Az abaúj-gömöri barlangvidék) (1887, 1891), The Stalactite Cave of Aggtelek (Az Aggteleki csepkőbarlang) (1890), and Die ungarischen Ostkarpathen (Zürich). – B: 0883, 1415, T: 7456.
Sigmond, Elek (Alec) (Kolozsvár, now Cluj-Napoca, Romania, 25 February 1873 - Budapest, 30 September 1939) – Chemical engineer, soil chemist. He completed his studies at the Budapest Polytechnic, where he obtained a Chemical Engineering Degree in 1895. In 1898 he received a Ph.D. from the University of Kolozsvár. First, he worked at the chemical testing Bureau of Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania), then, in 1899, he received a position at the Plant Cultivation Station (Növénytermelési Állomáshoz) of Magyaróvár, where he became acquainted with the problems of soil chemistry, which engaged his interest for the rest of his life; he published numerous studies and papers on this subject. In 1905 he became an honorary lecturer in Agricultural Chemistry at the University of Budapest. With a state scholarship he was sent on a study trip to become acquainted with the Agricultural Scientific Institutions of France, England, Denmark and the USA. In 1908 he was appointed first Professor at the new Agricultural Chemical Technological Chair of the Budapest Polytechnic. On his initiative, the first International Agro-Geological Conference was held in Budapest in 1908. He was President of the International Pedological Society (Talajtani Társaság) for 25 years. He was a recipient of a number of distinctions, was honorary member of societies abroad, and a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The more important results of his scientific work were: new chemical method for the determination of the phosphoric acid that can be assimilated in the soil; investigations for the determination of the phosphoric acid need of the soil; also problems of formation and improvement of alkaline soils (his most important work). His other works include Agricultural Chemistry (Mezőgazdasági chemia) (1904); Hungarian Alkaline Soils and Methods of their Reclamation (Berkeley, 1927), and The Principles of Soil Science (Általános talajtan), in Hungarian (1934, in English 1938). A commemorative medal is named after him (1956); his bust stands in Kossuth Plaza in Budapest (1983). – B: 1406, 1031, T: 7456.
Sigray, Count Jakab (Jacob) (ca 1760 - Buda, 20 May 1795) – Assessor of the Law Court of District Kőszeg, reformer, martyr. In 1780 he received the title of Count. Around 1792, he appeared in Free Mason’s circles. He became the Director of the Society of Reformers within the secret society of the Jacobites, by the recommendation of Ignác (Ignatius) Martinovics, the head of the conspiracy. In the summer of 1794, the winding up of the conspiracy started. Sigray learned about it and in order to avoid arrest, he donned woman clothes. On his way to Pest, he was recognized at Veszprém, arrested, and taken to Vienna. His brother József (Joseph) tried to rescue him, but to no avail. In the lawsuit against the Jacobites, he was sentenced to death and beheaded together with others at the Blood Field (Vérmező) of Buda. – B: 0883, 1105, T: 7103.→Jacobites in Hungary; Martinovics, Ignác.
Sík, Endre (Andrew) (Budapest, 2 April 1891 - Budapest, 10 April 1978) – Diplomat, politician, lawyer, writer and historian. He was the younger brother of Sándor (Alexander) Sík. After graduating from high school, he became a Piarist novice at Vác. Later, he left the Order and completed the Law course at the University of Budapest in 1913. While he was an articled clerk, he wrote essays for the papers, People’s Word (Népszava) and Socialism (Szocializmus). He served in the army during World War I; in 1915 he became a prisoner of war in Russia, where he was politically active as a journalist, editing the paper, Revolution (Forradalom) (February-May 1920); he also worked in China and Moscow. He completed a course in Philosophy (1923-1926), later becoming a professor in the Africa Department of Moscow University (1926-1937). He studied the history of African peoples, the result of which was a published work in several volumes, also some papers, studies and short stories. From 1938 to 1945 he was a lecturer at the University of Moscow, and one of the editors of the Kossuth Radio in Moscow. He returned to Hungary in September 1945, filling high political and administrative positions. He was an envoy extraordinary and a minister plenipotentiary, a section head in the Foreign Ministry and finally, Foreign Minister from February 1958 until his retirement on 13 September 1961. He was active in the Peace Movement; from 1964 President of the National Peace Council. His other works include Racial Problem and Marxism (Faji kérdés és marxizmus) (in Russian, 1930); History of Black-Africa, vols. i-iv (Fekete-Africa története I-IV, (1961-1973, also in French and English), and Years on the Bem Embankment (Bem rakparti évek), memoirs (1970). – B: 0883, 1257, T: 7456.→Sík, Sándor.
Sík, Ferenc (Francis) (Békéscsaba, 25 March 1931 - Budapest, 16 January 2005) – Stage manager. He obtained his Dip.Ed. (teacher’s diploma) in 1957 and concurrently was the leader of the Corps de Ballet of the Hungarian State Folk Ensemble, and also its solo dancer. After completing the general section of the Academy of Dramatic Art, he was engaged by the Géza Gárdonyi Theater (Gárdonyi Géza Színház) of Eger. Between 1965 and 1981 he worked as stage manager for the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház) of Pécs. From 1982 he was Manager of the National Theater (Nemzeti Színház), Budapest; from 1991 he was its Senior Manager. From 1973 he was also Artistic Leader of the Castle Theater (Várszínház) of Gyula. His more important stage managements were Brecht-Weill’s Beggar’s Opera (Koldus opera); Alexix Arbuzov’ An Irkutsk Story (Irkutszki történet) Shakespeare’s The Tempest (A vihar); Comedy of Errors (Tévedések vígjátéka), Gy. Illyés’ Daniel Among His Folks (Dániel az övéi között); A. Sütő’s The Dream Commando (Az álomkommandó), and Advent on the Hargita (Advent a Hargitán). He also stage-managed some TV films including My Mom Promises a Light Dream (Anyám könnyű álmot ígér) (1979); I Can’t Live Without Music (Nem élhetek muzsikaszó nélkül) (1979), and Pie in the Sky (Torta az égen) (1984). He received the Mari Jászai Prize (1970), the Merited Artist title (1975), the Outstanding Artist title (1985) and the Kossuth Prize (1994). The Ferenc Sik Memorial Ring was established in 2006. – B: 1031, 1445, T: 7456.
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