Period Packets – Period 8: 1945-1980 Unit 9 – Chapters 36-39 Included in Each Period Packet



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Period Packets – Period 8: 1945-1980

Unit 9 – Chapters 36-39
Included in Each Period Packet:

  • Key Concepts – an overview of what you need to know

  • Main Themes – how the seven themes of the course apply to this period

  • Vocabulary – important terms, people, places, etc.

  • Chapter Reading Guide – pretty straight forward…

  • Crash Course Guide – video guide to watch (they will be amazingly helpful)

  • Review Concept Chart – how to get ready for the test.



PERIOD 8: 1945-1980 - Key Concepts
After World War II, the United States grappled with prosperity and unfamiliar international responsibilities, while struggling

to live up to its ideals.


Key Concept 1: The United States responded to an uncertain and unstable postwar world by asserting and attempting

to defend a position of global leadership, with far-reaching domestic and international consequences.

I. After World War II, the United States sought to stem the growth of Communist military power and ideological influence, create a stable global economy, and build an international security system.



  • The United States developed a foreign policy based on collective security and a multilateral economic framework that bolstered noncommunist nations.

  • The United States sought to “contain” Soviet-dominated communism through a variety of measures, including military engagements in Korea and Vietnam.

  • The Cold War fluctuated between periods of direct and indirect military confrontation and periods of mutual coexistence (or détente).

II. As the United States focused on containing communism, it faced increasingly complex foreign policy issues including decolonization, shifting international alignments and regional conflicts, and global economic and environmental changes.



  • Postwar decolonization and the emergence of powerful nationalist movements in Asia, Africa and the Middle East led both sides in the Cold War to seek allies among new nations, many of which remained nonaligned.

  • Cold War competition extended to Latin America, where the U.S. supported noncommunist regimes with varying levels of commitment to democracy.

  • Ideological, military and economic concerns shaped U.S. involvement in the Middle East, with several oil crises in the region eventually sparking attempts at creating a national energy policy.

III. Cold War policies led to continued public debates over the power of the federal government, acceptable means for pursuing international and domestic goals, and the proper balance between liberty and order.



  • Americans debated policies and methods designed to root out communists within the United States even as both parties tended to support the broader Cold War strategy of containing communism.

  • While the Korean conflict produced some minor domestic opposition, the Vietnam War saw the rise of sizable, passionate and sometimes violent antiwar protests that became more numerous as the war escalated.

  • Americans debated the merits of a large nuclear arsenal, the “military-industrial complex,” and the appropriate power of the executive branch in conducting foreign and military policy.


Key Concept 2: Liberalism, based on anticommunism abroad and a firm belief in the efficacy of governmental and

especially federal power to achieve social goals at home, reached its apex in the mid-1960s and generated a variety of

political and cultural responses.
I. Seeking to fulfill Reconstruction-era promises, civil rights activists and political leaders achieved some legal and political successes in ending segregation, although progress toward equality was slow and halting.

  • Following World War II, civil rights activists utilized a variety of strategies – legal challenges, direct action, and nonviolent protest tactics –to combat racial discrimination.

  • Decision-makers in each of the three branches of the federal government used measures including desegregation of the armed services, Brown vs. Board of Education and the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to promote greater racial justice.

  • Continuing white resistance slowed efforts at desegregation, sparking a series of social and political crises across the nation, while tensions among civil rights activists over tactical and philosophical issues increased after 1965.

II. Stirred by a growing awareness of inequalities in American society and by the African American civil rights movement, activists also addressed issues of identity and social justice, such as gender/sexuality and ethnicity.



  • Activists began to question society’s assumptions about gender and to call for social and economic equality for women and for gays and lesbians.

  • Latinos, American Indians and Asian Americans began to demand social and economic equality and a redress of past injustices.

  • Despite the perception of overall affluence in postwar America, advocates raised awareness of the prevalence and persistence of poverty as a national problem, sparking efforts to address this issue.

III. As many liberal principles came to dominate postwar politics and court decisions, liberalism came under attack from the left as well as from resurgent conservative movements.



  • Liberalism reached its zenith with Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society efforts to use federal power to end racial discrimination, eliminate poverty and address other social issues while attacking communism abroad.

  • Liberal ideals were realized in Supreme Court decisions that expanded democracy and individual freedoms, Great Society social programs and policies, and the expanded power of the federal government, yet these unintentionally helped energize a new conservative movement that mobilized to defend traditional visions of morality and the proper role of state authority.

  • Groups on the left also assailed liberals, claiming they did too little to transform the racial and economic status quo at home and pursued immoral policies abroad.


Key Concept 8.3: Postwar economic, demographic and technological changes had far-reaching impacts on American

society, politics, and the environment.
I. Rapid economic and social changes in American society fostered a sense of optimism in the postwar years as well as underlying concerns about how these changes were affecting American values.

  • A burgeoning private sector, continued federal spending, the “baby boom” and technological developments helped spur economic growth, middle-class suburbanization, social mobility, a rapid expansion of higher education, and the rise of the “Sun Belt” as a political and economic force.

  • These economic and social changes, in addition to the anxiety engendered by the Cold War, led to an increasingly homogeneous mass culture, as well as challenges to conformity by artists, intellectuals, and rebellious youth.

  • Conservatives, fearing juvenile delinquency, urban unrest, and challenges to the traditional family, increasingly promoted their own values and ideology.

II. As federal programs expanded and economic growth reshaped American society, many sought greater access to prosperity even as critics began to question the burgeoning use of natural resources.



  • Internal migrants as well as migrants from around the world sought access to the economic boom and other benefits of the United States, especially after the passage of new immigration laws in 1965.

  • Responding to the abuse of natural resources and alarming environmental problems, activists and legislators began to call for conservation measures and a fight against pollution.

III. New demographic and social issues led to significant political and moral debates that sharply divided the nation.



  • Although the image of the traditional nuclear family dominated popular perceptions in the postwar era, Americans’ family structure was undergoing profound changes as the number of working women increased and many social attitudes changed.

  • Young people who participated in the counterculture of the 1960s rejected many of the social, economic and political values of their parents’ generation, initiated a sexual revolution, and introduced greater informality into U.S. culture.

  • Conservatives and liberals clashed over many new social issues, the power of the presidency and the federal government, and movements for greater individual rights.


PERIOD 8: 1945-1980 - Main Themes


Themes

Applied to this period

Identity

Liberalism vs. Conservativism – role of government in lives of citizens

New movements – feminism, civil rights, Mexican Migrants, American Indians, student freedom, anti-war, Americans with disabilities, Homosexuality, etc.

Conformity vs. authenticity – 50’s, 60’s, 70’s culture clashes

Anti-communism vs. pro-democracy – containment policies, red scare, US involvement in the world

Mistrust of the government – Pentagon Papers, Watergate

Treatment of minorities – equal opportunity, affirmative action, immigration



Work, Exchange, and
Technology

Service based economy – standardization of goods and processes

Manufacturing economy – northern industry and southern farming

Stagflation of the 70’s – OPEC oil crisis, inflation

Highways and roads – interstate highway act, suburbia

Cold war technology – arms race, space race, nuclear and hydrogen bombs, military industrial complex

Global economy – international trading, globalization

Workers’ rights – Unionism, minority and women treatment


Peopling

Continued immigration – Mexican and other Latin American Migration (partially due to Globalization of the economy and cold war politics in Central America)

Inner city poverty – white flight, suburbs, urban renewal

Population shifts to the south – Sunbelt expands, Frostbelt and rustbelt decrease

Population explosion – Baby boom!



Politics and Power

Liberalism vs. Conservatism – presidential push and pull for executive control (Fair Deal, Modern Republicanism, New Frontier, Great Society, New Federalism) and court cases (Warren Court vs. backlash)

Corruption of the executive branch – War Powers Act, Pentagon Papers, Watergate

Cold War Containment – United Nations, Yalta Conference, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, CIA, NATO

Cold War Hot Spots - Berlin Airlift, Hungary Revolt, Cuban Missile Crisis, Suez Canal Crisis, Yom Kippur, Six Day War, Berlin Wall

Arms Race and Space Race – H Bomb, Test Ban Treaty, ICBM’s, SALT I and II, Detente

Cold War Full Scale Conflict – The Korean War, The Vietnam War – know these well!!!

Korean War – China goes Communist, UN Security Council, McArthur, 38th Parallel, DMZ, POWs

Vietnam War – Tonkin Gulf Affair, Operation Rolling Thunder, Ho Chi Minh, Vietcong, Tet Offensive, Mai Lai Massacre, “Win the Hearts and Minds”, Vietnamization

Red Scare – China goes Communist, McCarthyism, HUAC, Loyalty Review Board,

Political turmoil – assassination of MLK, Malcom X, JFK, Bobby Kennedy, Iran Hostage Crisis, Camp David Accords



America in the World

Global economy – international trading, globalization, OPEC

Cold War! – US international police force in the name of anti-communism, NATO, CIA – see Pol and Power

Cold War “Wars” and Hot Spots – see Politics and Power


Environment and

Geography



Industrialization of the North – pollution, urbanization, deforestation

Mass farming in the Sunbelt – use of chemicals, mechanization

Destruction of the environment – deforestation, pollution, EPA, Silent Spring, Green Movement, Earth Day


Ideas, Beliefs, and Culture

Racism/Ethnocentrism – Civil rights, American Indians Alcatraz Occupation, Migrant Workers

Women – tradition housewife, Women’s Liberation Movement, ERA, Title IX, Roe V. Wade

Post war soldiers – GI bill, Levittown, suburbs

Youth movements – Hippy, student protests, anti-war, green movement

Red Scare – China goes Communist, fallout shelters, duck and cover

50’s culture – conformity, standardization, Middle class suburbia, role of women, rock n roll, Beat Movement, Expressionism

60’s Counterculture – Hippy Movement, Haight and Ashbury, Black Panther/Black Power Groups, see you Youth movements



PERIOD 8: 1945-1980 - Vocabulary
For each packet, you must be able to IDENTIFY and EXPLAIN THE CONTEXTUAL SIGNIFNICANCE of each term below. These may or may not be in the book. Use other resources (online) to accomplish this if necessary.
World War II containment Korean War Vietnam War decolonization nationalist movements Middle East military-industrial complex desegregation

Non-violent civil disobedience Brown v. Board of Education Civil Rights Act of 1964 Lyndon Johnson “Great Society” baby boom middle-class suburbanization “Sun Belt” Immigration Act of 1965 nuclear family counterculture



PERIOD 8: 1945-1980 - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Six)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.


  1. In one concise sentence, summarize “Postwar Economic Anxieties.”

  2. Create a flowchart explaining cause and effort of “Postwar Prosperity.” Be sure to include the growth of the middle class, military budgets, access to cheap energy, the Sunbelt, the growth of suburbia, and the baby boom in your flowchart. Use pages 831-838 to complete your flowchart.

  3. At the end of World War II, how did the Cold War initially develop and lead to a shift in foreign policy in America? Be sure to include the Yalta Conference, the creation of the United Nations, the Nuremberg Trials, the Berlin Airlift, and the Containment Doctrine in your response.

  4. Complete the chart on the early Containment Activity in the Cold War

    Event

    Details

    How it promoted Containment? Effective or not?

    Truman Doctrine







    Marshall Plan







    Central Intelligence Agency

    (CIA)








    North Atlantic Treaty Org

    (NATO)








    The Warsaw Pact/Eastern Bloc







    Communist China







    The Hydrogen Bomb







  5. How did America’s response to the Cold War lead to a new Red Scare? Be sure to address the Loyalty Review Board, the HUAC, Alger Hiss, and the Rosenbergs in your response.

  6. Examine the quote on page 854 and answer the following question. How does this quote embody the failure of Truman’s Fair Deal?

  7. Create an outline telling the story of the Korean War. Use the following for categories: the causes, the course, and consequences. Be sure to include the following terms in your outline: The UN National Security Council, a “Police Action”, 38th parallel, McArthur, the DMZ, and POWs (some are not in the book – see PPT).


PERIOD 8: 1945-1980 - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Seven)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.


  1. Complete the follow chart on 1950’s Culture

    50’s Culture Trend

    Details

    How it promotes Conformity and Standardization

    Service Based Economy







    The role of Women







    “Fast Food”







    Television







    Rock N Roll







    Conservationism







  2. Examine the political cartoon on page 877. Write a short argumentative paragraph in support of the sentiment it illustrates (address McCarthyism, Jim Crow South, Brown V. BOE, and the Montgomery Bus Boycott, the Little Rock Nine, Sit-Ins, and SNCC in your response). Then write a short argumentative paragraph in opposition of the sentiment it illustrates (address Operation Wetback, the Indian New Deal, and the Federal Highway Act in your response). Use pages 868-874 to do this.

  3. Create a network tree graphic organizer about Eisenhower’s Cold War activity. Include the main categories of European, Asian, Middle Eastern, Latin America, and new technology. Each subcategory should have contextual support (hint: look for bolded terms). Use pages 874-878 to do this.

  4. In one concise sentence, summarize “Kennedy Challenges Nixon for the Presidency.”

  5. Read the quote on page 880 and interpret what Eisenhower means by “the military-industrial complex.”

  6. Compare 1950’s artistic movements in regards to their promotion and opposition to 1950’s standardization and conformity. Be sure to explain each movement’s goals, leaders, and ways it promoted or opposed conformity. Include the following movements: abstract expressionism, International style, Post War Literature, the Beats, and the Southern Renaissance.


PERIOD 8: 1945-1980 - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Eight)
Answer the following questions fully and completely. – These are out of order!!!


  1. Create a graphic organizer comparing and contrasting the presidencies of Kennedy and Johnson in terms of their domestic policies and the Civil rights movement. Be specific and thorough. For domestic, address their name and achievements. For the Civil Rights, address all important events, leaders/groups, and accomplishments. Use pages 889-90, 896-903 (this is a BIG question)!

  2. In one concise sentence, summarize “Rumblings in Europe.”

  3. Complete the chart on Cold War Activity under Kennedy:

    Cold War Event

    Details

    How it reflected Kennedy’s “flexible response”

    Philosophy?



    Escalation in Vietnam







    The Bay of Pigs







    The Cuban Missile Crisis







    The Test Ban Treaty







    Moscow Washington “Hot line”







  4. Examine the two quotes on page 905. Construct one argumentative sentence in support of MLK’s sentiment and one in support of Malcolm X’s sentiment. Use the information on pages 904-905 to do this.

  5. Complete the following graphic organizer on the Vietnam War under Johnson (the book covers this horribly…you will need to use my PPT as well).

Event: The Vietnam War

Problem or Goal:

Identify the Participants/Key Players:

Where:

When:

Key Episodes, Events, Battles:

Outcome: In the War effort, on Johnson’s Presidency, and at home.

Significance/So What?


  1. Describe the cultural upheaval of the 1960’s. Include the who, what, when, why, how and significance.



PERIOD 8: 1945-1980 - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirty-Nine)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.


  1. How did the war in Vietnam contribute to economic stagflation and how did Nixon’s response lead to further political strife? Be specific, using pages 916-919.

  2. In two concise sentences, summarize “Nixon’s Détente with Beijing and Moscow.” Make sure to accurately explain the terms détente and SALT in these sentences.

  3. Complete the chart on important court cases during the 60’s -70’s under the Warren court:

    Court Case

    Details

    Societal group addressed and how it helped them.

    Griswold v. Connecticut







    Gideon v. Wainwright







    Escobedo and Miranda







    Engel v. Vitale







    Roe v. Wade







    Griggs v. Duke Power Co.







  4. Compare the effectiveness of Nixon’s domestic policies in terms of supporting social welfare of the poor, minorities, and the environment with that of his foreign actions in Asia and the Middle East. Be specific and use pages 921-25.

  5. Complete the graphic organizer on the Watergate Scandal:

People/Agencies Involved

Problem
Watergate!

Setting

Events

Solution/Resolution

Nixon Resigns

Consequences to the Solution of the Problem


  1. Create a four way comparing the challenges and successes women and Minorities experienced in America during the 70’s. Be sure to address the ERA, Title IX, Phyllis Schlafly, Roe v. Wade, Bakke v. University of California, Affirmative Action, the Alcatraz Occupation, and the US v. Wheeler in your graphic organizer.

  2. Answer the following question: Was Carter an effective president? Address the inflation rate, the Camp David Accords, the SALT II agreements, and the Iran Hostage Crisis in your response.

PERIOD 8: 1945 - 1980 - Crash Course Videos
For each period, watch the following videos. There are no questions to go with these videos, but they will be EMMENSLY VALUABLE in helping you contextualize and compare time periods!

1. The Cold War: Crash Course US History #37

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9C72ISMF_D0&index=38&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s


2. The Cold War in Asia: Crash Course US History #38


URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y2IcmLkuhG0

3. Civil Rights and the 1950s: Crash Course US History #39

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S64zRnnn4Po




4. The 1960s in America: Crash Course US History #40


URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkXFb1sMa38

5. The Rise of Conservatism: Crash Course US History #41


URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OCrxD19DHA8


6. Ford, Carter, and the Economic Malaise: Crash Course US History #42

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyN5LPHEQ_0



PERIOD 7: 1890-1945 - Theme Chart Review
Identify what is happening in each of the seven themes in this period. Descriptions should not be more than two sentences. Recognize that certain themes will be more prominent in certain time periods than in others.






Identify - Details, events, people, places, etc.

Descriptions – The Big Picture

Identity









Work, Exchange, Technology



Peopling




Politics and Power



America in the World



Environment and Geography



Ideas, Beliefs, and Culture




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