Period Packets – Period 4: 1800 – 1848 (Broken into two units – Unit 3 and 4) Included in Each Period Packet



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Period Packets – Period 4: 1800 – 1848

(Broken into TWO Units – Unit 3 and 4)
Included in Each Period Packet:

  • Key Concepts – an overview of what you need to know

  • Main Themes – how the seven themes of the course apply to this period

  • Vocabulary – important terms, people, places, etc.

  • Chapter Reading Guide – pretty straight forward…

  • Crash Course Guide – video guide to watch (they will be amazingly helpful)

  • Review Concept Chart – how to get ready for the test.



PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Key Concepts
The new republic struggled to define and extend democratic ideals in the face of rapid economic, territorial and demographic changes.
Key Concept 4.1: The United States developed the world’s first modern mass democracy and celebrated a new national culture, while Americans sought to define the nation’s democratic ideals and to reform its institutions to match them.
I. The nation’s transformation to a more participatory democracy was accompanied by continued debates over federal power, the relationship between the federal government and the states, the authority of different branches of the federal government, and the rights and responsibilities of individual citizens.


  • As various constituencies and interest groups coalesced and defined their agendas, various political parties, most significantly the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans in the 1790s and the Democrats and Whigs in the 1830s, were created or transformed to reflect and/or promote those agendas.

  • Supreme Court decisions sought to assert federal power over state laws and the primacy of the judiciary in determining the meaning of the Constitution.

  • With the acceleration of a national and international market economy, Americans debated the scope of government’s role in the economy, while diverging economic systems meant that regional political and economic loyalties often continued to overshadow national concerns.

  • Many white Americans in the South asserted their regional identity through pride in the institution of slavery, insisting that the federal government should defend that institution.

II. Concurrent with an increasing international exchange of goods and ideas, larger numbers of Americans began struggling with how to match democratic political ideals to political institutions and social realities.




  • The Second Great Awakening, liberal social ideas from abroad and Romantic beliefs in human perfectibility fostered the rise of voluntary organizations to promote religious and secular reforms including abolition and women’s rights.

  • Despite the outlawing of the international slave trade, the rise in the number of free African Americans in both the North and the South, and widespread discussion of various emancipation plans, the U.S. and many state governments continued to restrict African Americans’ citizenship possibilities.

  • Resistance to initiatives for democracy and inclusion included pro-slavery arguments, rising xenophobia and anti-black sentiments in political and popular culture, and restrictive anti-Indian policies.

III. While Americans celebrated their nation’s progress toward a unified new national culture that blended Old World forms with New World ideas, various groups of the nation’s inhabitants developed distinctive cultures of their own.




  • A new national culture emerged, with various Americans creating art, architecture, and literature that combined European forms with local and regional cultural sensibilities.

  • Various groups of American Indians, women, and religious followers developed cultures reflecting their interests and experiences, as did regional groups and an emerging urban middle class.

  • Enslaved and free African Americans, isolated at the bottom of the social hierarchy, created communities and strategies to protect their dignity and family structures, even as some launched abolitionist and reform movements aimed at changing their status.

Key Concept 2: Developments in technology, agriculture and commerce precipitated profound changes in U.S. settlement patterns, regional identities, gender and family relations, political power, and distribution of consumer goods.
I. A global market and communications revolution, influencing and influenced by technological innovations, led to dramatic shifts in the nature of agriculture and manufacturing.


  • Innovations including textile machinery, steam engines, interchangeable parts, canals, railroads and the telegraph, as well as agricultural inventions, both extended markets and brought efficiency to production for those markets.

  • Increasing numbers of Americans, especially women in factories and low-skilled male workers, no longer relied on semi-subsistence agriculture but made their livelihoods producing goods for distant markets, even as some urban entrepreneurs went into finance rather than manufacturing.



II. Regional economic specialization, especially the demands of cultivating southern cotton, shaped settlement patterns and the national and international economy.


  • Southern cotton furnished the raw material for manufacturing in the Northeast, while the growth in cotton production and trade promoted the development of national economic ties, shaped the international economy, and fueled the internal slave trade.

  • Despite some governmental and private efforts to create a unified national economy, most notably the American System, the shift to market production linked the North and the Midwest more closely than either was linked to the South.

  • Efforts to exploit the nation’s natural resources led to government efforts to promote free and forced migration of various American peoples across the continent, as well as to competing ideas about defining and managing labor systems, geographical boundaries and natural resources.

III. The economic changes caused by the market revolution had significant effects on migration patterns, gender and family relations, and the distribution of political power.




  • With the opening of canals and new roads into the Western territories, native-born white citizens relocated westward, relying on new community systems to replace their old family and local relationships.

  • Migrants from Europe increased the population in the East and the Midwest, forging strong bonds of interdependence between the Northeast and the Old Northwest.

  • The South remained politically, culturally, and ideologically distinct from the other sections, while continuing to rely on its exports to Europe for economic growth.

  • The market revolution helped to widen a gap between rich and poor, shaped an emerging distinctive middle class and caused an increasing separation between home and workplace, which led to dramatic transformations in gender and family roles and expectations.

  • Regional interests continued to trump national concerns as the basis for many political leaders’ positions on economic issues including slavery, the national bank, tariffs, and internal improvements.


Key Concept 3: U.S. interest in increasing foreign trade, expanding its national borders and isolating itself from European conflicts shaped the nation’s foreign policy and spurred government and private initiatives.
I. Struggling to create an independent global presence, U.S. policy makers sought to dominate the North American continent and to promote its foreign trade.


  • Following the Louisiana Purchase, the drive to acquire, survey, and open up new lands and markets led Americans into numerous economic, diplomatic and military initiatives in the Western Hemisphere and Asia.

  • The U.S. sought dominance over the North American continent through a variety of means, including military actions, judicial decisions, and diplomatic efforts.



II. Various American groups and individuals initiated, championed and/or resisted the expansion of territory and/or government powers.


  • With expanding borders came public debates about whether to expand and how to define and use the new territories.

  • Federal government attempts to assert authority over the states brought resistance from state governments in the North and South at different times.

  • Whites living on the frontier tended to champion expansion efforts, while resistance by American Indians led to a sequence of wars and federal efforts to control Indian populations.



III. The American acquisition of lands in the West gave rise to a contest over the extension of slavery into the western territories as well as a series of attempts at national compromise.


  • The 1820 Missouri Compromise created a truce over the issue of slavery that gradually broke down as confrontations over slavery became increasingly bitter.

  • As over-cultivation depleted arable land in the Southeast, slaveholders relocated their agricultural enterprises to the new Southwest, increasing sectional tensions over the institution of slavery and sparking a broad-scale debate about how to set national goals, priorities and strategies.



PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Main Themes


Themes

Applied to this period

Identity

American Identity separate from Europe

Transcendentalism

Second Great Awakening

Reform movements – Prison, Utopian Societies

Abolitionism and Temperance

America as an independent nation

Sectionalism vs. Nationalism


Work, Exchange, and Technology

Interstate commerce conflict

Industrialism of the North

Plantations/Cash crops of the South

Transportation – Canals, Railroads, Toll Roads

Farming technology – cotton gin and Steele plow

Industrial technology – steam engine, sewing machine, spinning jenny, water frame, etc.



Peopling

Regional differences (Sectionalism) – political, social (including religious), economic – North vs. South vs. West

Technology – Telegraph and Railroad

Westward expansion – Oregon/Santa Fe Trail, Mormons, Settlement of Texas, Conflict with Mexico, conflict with Indians and Europeans

Slavery in the South

Movement of American Indians West

Early immigration – Irish, Germans



Politics and Power

Federal vs State Rights!

New Political Parties – around issue of Federal vs. States’ Rights

Nullification conflicts

Gaining new land and territory expansion – creates power balance conflict

Slave vs. Free state states fight for power!

New rules about elections/citizenship – 10-12th amendments



America in the World

War of 1812 – Impact on America’s role in the world

Mexican American War – Impact on America’s role in the Americas

European vs. American interests in the Americas – Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties, 54-40 or Fight!, Adams-Onis Treaty, etc.


Environment and Geography

Northwestern Movement – Frontier is being “civilized”

Industrialization of the North – pollution, urbanization, deforestation

Plantations of the south – deforestation, large scale farming


Ideas, Beliefs, and Culture

New ideas about religion – Second Great Awakening, Methodist Church, AME Church, etc.

Equality Movements - Abolition, Temperance, Suffrage

New American Artistic Identity – dictionary, transcendentalist writings, American landscape painting.




PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Vocabulary
For each packet, you must define and EXPLAIN THE CONTEXTUAL SIGNIFNICANCE of each term below. These may or may not be in the book. Use other resources (online) to accomplish this if necessary.

Participatory democracy constituencies Federalists Democratic-Republicans Democrats Whigs Second Great Awakening human perfectibility (perfectibility of man)

Secular reforms international slave trade free African Americans

Xenophobia steam engines interchangeable parts

Canals railroads agricultural inventions Textile machinery telegraph arable land

Semi-subsistence agriculture urban entrepreneurs the American System

Market revolution national bank tariffs

Internal improvements Louisiana Purchase Missouri Compromise



PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Reading Guide (Chapter Eleven)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.

  1. In one clear, concise sentence summarize “Federalist and Republican Mudslingers.

  2. Who won the election of 1800? Why was this election considered a “revolution”?

  3. In terms of behavior and attitude, how was Jefferson’s presidency different from that of Washington and Adams?

  4. How did Jefferson’s administration pave the way for the two-party system in American politics?

  5. Complete the graphic organizer about the Madison vs. Marbury case and its significance in American Politics.

People/Agencies Involved

Problem
Midnight Judges

Setting

Events

Solution/Resolution

Marbury v. Madison

Consequences to the Solution of the Problem


  1. How was Jefferson able to acquire the Louisiana Purchase? Be detail in your description. Make sure you include the following in your answer: Jefferson, Monroe, Livingston, Toussaint L’Ouverature, $10 million, $15 million.

  2. Identify Lewis and Clark. (Who? What? Where? When? Why are they important?)

  3. Draw the route of Lewis and Clark and Pike on the following map.




  1. What are the five most important facts from “The Aaron Burr Conspiracies”?

  2. What does the political cartoon on p.216 imply about Jefferson?

  3. Complete the following chart – use the parts filled in to help you do this.

    Problem




    Effect




    Causes




    Solution

    Embargo Act, 1807

    Problem




    Effect

    The American economy staggered

    Causes




    Solution

    Congress repeals the Act in 1809

    Problem

    Why did the Embargo Act fail?

    Effect




    Causes




    Solution




  4. In three clear, concise sentences summarize “Madison’s Gamble”.

  5. Identify Tecumseh (Who? What? Where? When? Why is he significant to American history?). Make sure to note primary source quotes on p.220.

14. Explain why Madison believes war with Britain is inevitable in 1812.

PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Reading Guide (Chapter Twelve)
Answer the following questions fully and completely

(For Questions 1 and 2)

Whether the United States shall continue passive under these…accumulating wrongs, or, opposing force to force in defense of their national rights, shall commit a just cause into the hands of the Almightily Disposer of Events,… is a solemn question which the Constitution wisely confides to the legislative department of the Government. In recommending it to their early deliberations I am happy in the assurance that the decision will be worthy the enlightened and patriotic councils of a virtuous, a free, and a powerful nation.

-President James Madison, Message to Congress, Washington, June 1, 1812

1. What is President Madison asking of Congress?


  1. What does the Constitution have to do with it?

  2. Use the outline structure to tell the story of the War of 1812. Write one sentence per bullet giving detailed information in the context of the War of 1812.

Causes

  • The British and High Seas

    • Impressment

  • The Chesapeake incident

  • What do Americans want after the Louisiana purchases?

  • “War Hawks”- Anger at the British + the need for growing room (Canada looks goods) + hawks trying to start a fight = WAR

The Who’s Who if the War of 1812

The Fighting – Theatres of the War

  • Canada

  • Atlantic

  • D.C.

  • New Orleans

The Results

  • Treaty of Ghent

  • All in all, the War of 1812 was a ________________________ (nothing was really gained territorially on either side). However, the “second Revolution” did make Britain realize that their former colonies were gone from their grasp forever.

  • Hartford Convention

  • National Heroes?

  • The Rush-Bagot Agreement

  1. How did the American System and the results of the War of 1812 contribute to the Era of Good Feelings? Be sure to include: a definition of the American system, the role of Henry Clay, the Tariff of 1816, and the building of the Erie Canal in your response.

  2. In one concise sentence, summarize “The Panic of 1819 and the Curse of hard times.”

  3. In one concise sentence, summarize “Slavery and the Sectional Balance.”

  4. Fill in the following chart on Nationalism vs. Sectionalism in the early 1800’s:

Event

What is the main issue?

What was the end result

How does it promote

Nationalism?



Missouri Compromise










McCullough v. Maryland










Gibbons v. Ogden










Fletcher v. Peck










Anglo-American Convention










Adams-Onis Treaty










Monroe Doctrine










Russo-American Treaty












PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Reading Guide (Chapter Thirteen)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.

  1. Describe the events of the election of 1824. Who were the candidates? What were the results? What role did Henry Clay play in this election? What is the “corrupt bargain”?

  2. How would you characterize John Quincy Adams’ presidency?

  3. Describe the events of the election of 1828. What made this election different from elections in the past?

  4. Complete the following chart on Jackson’s impact during his presidency.

    Event

    Details

    How it was in reaction to Jackson? Positive/Negative?

    The “Spoils System”







    The Tariff of Abominations







    The Nullification Crisis







    Compromise of 1833/Force Bill







    The Trail of Tears







    The Bank War







    The Election of 1832







    The Pet and Wildcat Banks







    The Whig Party







  5. What was Martin Van Buren like as president? Be specific with your details.

  6. Examine the satiric bank note on p.263. Can you identify other ways in which the document takes aim at Jackson’s banking policies? What symbols did the note’s creator assume the public would comprehend?

  7. Identify the Panic of 1837. (Who? What? Where? When? What happened? Why is it significant? Make sure you note the primary source boxes on p.265)

  8. In one clear concise sentence summarize “Gone to Texas”.

  9. After reading “The Lone Star Rebellion,” make an argument (2 sentences) for each of the three sides of the conflict (Texans, Mexico, and the US), justifying their actions. Be specifics to support your argumentative statement.

  10. Explain the election of 1840. How was the campaign shaped to favor William Henry Harrison?

  11. In two clear, concise sentences summarize “Politics for the People” and “The Two-Party System”.

  12. Explain the emergence of the two party system in 1840.


PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Reading Guide (Chapter Fourteen)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.

  1. What was western movement like? Explain the type of person moving west, their experience, and their economic situation.

  2. What was early urban immigration like? Explain who was coming to America, why, and what they experienced when they arrived (economically and politically).

  3. In two concise sentences, summarize the “Flare-up of Antiforeignism.” Be sure to include the role of religion and the Know-Nothing Party.

  4. Describe the American Industrial Revolution. Include why it was possible in America, the Factory System, the works, the Commonwealth vs. Hunt, and the conditions in the factories. (Read from page 285-294 to find this information.

  5. Complete the chart on inventions and their impact on the economy. (Read from page 285-299 to find this information).

    Invention

    Inventor and use.

    How did it benefit northern industry, westward

    movement, or southern plantations?



    Cotton Gin







    The Telegraph







    Interchangeable Parts







    Sewing Machine







    Mechanical Reaper







    Steele Plow







  6. In two concise sentences, summarize “Women and the economy.” Be sure to include Factory Girls and the cult of domesticity in your response.

  7. Create a spider web graphic organizer about the Transportation Revolution. Include the shipping/boats, canals, and roads. Be specific. Use pages 296-302 to answer this question.

  8. In three concise sentences, summarize “The Market Revolution.”


PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Reading Guide (Chapter Fifteen)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.

  1. Write one sentence that summarizes the following reforms movements in early 19th century America.

  • Deism/Unitarians

  • The Second Great Awakening

  • Mormonism

  • Education Reform

  • Prison Reform

  • The Temperance Movement

  • The Suffrage Movement

  • Utopian Communities

  • American Art

  • American literature - Romanticism

  • Transcendentalism

  • American literature – other

  1. Complete the Chart on the following American Mid-19th Century Reformers.

    Leader

    Associated Movement

    His/her Role

    Charles Finney







    Joseph Smith







    Brigham Young







    Horace Mann







    William McGuffey







    Emma Willard/Mary Lyon







    Dorthea Dix







    Elizabeth Cady Stanton







    Lucreita Mott







    Robert Owen







    John Humphrey Noyes







    Washington Irving







    James Fennimore Cooper







    Ralph Waldo Emerson







    Henry David Thoreau







    Louisa May Alcott







    Edgar Allen Poe







    Emily Dickinson







    Herman Melville







  2. Connect it to one of the Reform Movements and define it in the context of its role in the reform movement.

  • The Age of Reason

  • Burned Over District

  • American Temperance Society

  • Maine Law of 1851

  • Woman’s Rights Convention at Seneca Falls

  • New Harmony/Brook Farm/Oneida

  • Federal Style

  • Hudson River School

  • American Scholar

  • Civil Disobedience


PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Reading Guide (Chapter Sixteen)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.

  1. In two concise sentences, summarize “Cotton is King” and “The Planter Aristocracy.”

  2. Describe the southern plantation economic structure. Use the graph on p. 341 to help you with this answer.

  3. Using the maps on page 342-3, write a three sentence analysis of Cotton production and slave distribution between 1820-1860.

  4. Why were free blacks considered unpopular both in the South and North?

  5. How were slaves regarded by southern planters? Make a statement in support of that sentiment.

  6. In one concise sentence, summarize “Life under the Lash.”

  7. How effective were the early attempts at abolitionist activity? Use the West Africa Squadron, Nat Turner’s Rebellion, and the Amistad case to support your response.

  8. Complete the chart about Abolitionist events.

    Event

    Who Wrote/created it?

    How did it support the Abolitionist Movement?

    American Colonization Society







    The Liberator







    American Anti-Slavery Society







    Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World







    Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass







  9. How did the South respond to early Abolitionist sentiment? Provide three specific examples from the text to support your response.


PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Reading Guide (Chapter Seventeen)
Answer the following questions fully and completely.

  1. Describe John Tyler’s presidency. Be sure to address how he became president, the reasons for his unpopularity with the Whig party, his domestic affairs, and foreign conflicts (.

  2. After reading “A War of Words with Britain,” provide three examples of the tension developing between America and Great Britain.

  3. In two concise sentences, summarize “The Lone Star of Texas Shines alone” and “The Belated Texas Nuptials.”

  4. Read the quote on page 365. In your own words, infer the message of this quote. What does this quote say about American western expansion?

  5. Complete the chart on the events that illustrate the concept of Manifest Destiny:

    Event

    Details

    How it represents Manifest Destiny

    Oregon Trail







    Fifty-four Forty or Fight!







    The Liberty Party







  6. Look at the chart on page 369. Analyze the chart contents in regards to the following question. How did the Tariff of 1846 illustrate the development of sectionalism in 19th century American politics?

  7. Create a graphic organizer showing the causes (political, economic, and social), course, and consequences (political, economic, and social) of the Mexican American War. Be specific and detailed. Use pages 368-376 to accomplish this.



PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Crash Course Videos
For each period, watch the following videos. There are no questions to go with these videos, but they will be EMMENSLY VALUABLE in helping you contextualize and compare time periods!

1. Thomas Jefferson & His Democracy: Crash Course US History #10

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_3Ox6vGteek&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=10




2. The War of 1812 - Crash Course US History #11

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMXqg2PKJZU&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=11




3. The Market Revolution: Crash Course US History #12

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RNftCCwAol0&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=12

4. Slavery - Crash Course US History #13

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ajn9g5Gsv98&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=13
5. Age of Jackson: Crash Course US History #14

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=beN4qE-e5O8&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=14


6. 19th Century Reforms: Crash Course US History #15

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t62fUZJvjOs&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=15


7. Women in the 19th Century: Crash Course US History #16

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fM1czS_VYDI&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=16


8. War & Expansion: Crash Course US History #17

URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tkdF8pOFUfI&list=PL8dPuuaLjXtMwmepBjTSG593eG7ObzO7s&index=17



PERIOD 4: 1800-1848 - Theme Chart Review
Identify what is happening in each of the seven themes in this period. Descriptions should not be more than two sentences. Recognize that certain themes will be more prominent in certain time periods than in others.



Identity

Identify - Details, events, people, places, etc.

Descriptions – The Big Picture

Work, Exchange, Technology



Peopling




Politics and Power



America in the World



Environment and Geography



Ideas, Beliefs, and Culture




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