Period 5 Review – Mexican War: The Mexican-American War was a border conflict between Mexico and the United States. Following the Annexation of Texas, there was a dispute as to how much land would belong to each entity. So, a war was waged and eventually the Americans won. We paid $15 million and acquired the territory of New Mexico, Arizona, and California. This was significant because we established the southern border of our country and gained more land. Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo: The Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo was the treaty which ended the Mexican-American War. We paid $15 million in order to gain territories of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming. This was significant because it established the border of the U.S and Mexico (Rio Grande) and also we got more land (Manifest Destiny) and finally it led to the slavery issue which sparked conflicts for the Civil War. Compromise of 1850: Because of the conflict of whether slavery was to be allowed in the new territories in the South West, Congress needed a compromise. Thus, Stephen Douglas created the Compromise of 1850 in order to appeal to both sides. It had 3 parts: California would be a free state, the Mexican Cession territories would have popular sovereignty, and the slave trade would be banned in D.C. This was an attempt to quell the issues regarding slavery for a little bit, but it was just a temporary solution. This was significant because it attempted to solve the issue of slavery, however it was just a temporary solution. Kansas-Nebraska Act: Stephen Douglas was a congressman from Illinois and he wanted to build a transcontinental railroad through Illinois because it was his home state. So he needed to create the lands of Kansas and Nebraska into states. And to appeal to the south, he proposed that they would have popular sovereignty. This nullified the Missouri Compromise Line and it sparked a new debate over slavery. Democrats were first to seize the land, and then the Whigs sent in their people to make Kansas a free state. Eventually, this led to conflict now known as Bleeding Kansas. This was significant because it sparked the slavery issue again, and it created a division in the country. Republican Party: The Republican Party sprang from the Kansas-Nebraska Act. The Whigs were falling and becoming fractured because of the whole slavery issue, so the Republican Party rose up as part of the Free-Soil movement. The Republicans wanted to contain slavery in the south, and didn't want it to spread to the West. This was significant because the Republican Party’s first president was Abraham Lincoln who was a super influential president who emancipated the slaves and who won the Civil War for the North. Nativism: Favoring the interests and culture of native-born inhabitants over those of immigrants. In 1850, the American Party was formed to give political expression to nationalism. This party was formed at the time when Democrats were having success with gaining the votes from Catholic born immigrants, mostly the Irish. The American Party’s goal was to keep politics in the hands of the Americans, which is why this is an example of nativism. The Whigs began to move towards the idea of nativism since the Irish immigrants were taking jobs in America for lesser pay.
Wilmot Proviso: The amendment offered by Pennsylvania Democrat David Wilmot in 1846, which stipulated that as an express and fundamental condition to the acquisition of any territory from the Republic of Mexico neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist in any part of said territory. This idea came up after James Polk’s idea of expansionism on antislavery grounds was opposed by almost all the northern members of the Whig party. This triggered the first breakdown of the national party system and reopened the debate about the place of slavery in the future of the nation.
Bleeding Kansas: Violence between pro- and antislavery forces in Kansas Territory after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854. The Kansas-Nebraska Act had overturned the Missouri Compromise, which angered many people in the US. Many people from both sides of the debate fled to Kansas to influence the decision. This led to violence between the two sides and Kansas became a bloody battleground.
John Brown’s Raid: New England abolitionist John Brown’s ill-fated attempt to free Virginia’s slaves with a raid on the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, in 1859. John Brown would have been able to pull this off, but he never told the slaves of Virginia to raid with him. He was caught right away and sentenced him to death. This attempt of a raid warned the South that they should watch out for the North, since this man was willing to kill the Southerns the free the slaves. The event opened the eyes of the Southerners.
John L. O’Sullivan: Was an American columnist and editor, and used the term “manifest destiny” to promote the annexation of Texas. He stated that Americans could force American democracy on Mexicans and Indians if they were unable to cooperate. He stated them as being backward peoples.
Dred Scott Case: Dred Scott, a former slave, demanded his freedom based on his residence in a free state. The Court ruled that slaves were property and government couldn’t restrain free movement of property, ultimately siding with the pro-slavery side. The decision invalidated the Missouri Compromise, for it allowed room for slave states above the Missouri Compromise line. It was an attempt in 1857 by the Supreme Court to solve the political controversy over slavery, but in turn it worsened the conflict.
Election of 1860: By 1860 sectional differences caused one national party, the Whigs, to collapse. The Democrats were split by the Northern Democrats led by Stephen Douglas and the Southern Democrats who were led by Breckinridge. Breckinridge supported the extension of slavery to the territories; Lincoln stood firmly for its exclusion; Douglas attempted to hold the middle ground with his principle of popular sovereignty; Bell vaguely favored compromise as well. Bell was the candidate of the Constitutional Union Party that emphasized allegiance to the Union and strict enforcement of all national legislation. It consisted of the Southern Whigs who joined with some border- nativists to protect the union. The sectional election resulted in Lincoln’s victory, although he had no votes from any of the Southern states. THe contest in North was between Lincoln and Douglas, which was swayed by Lincoln’s electoral votes, despite Douglas’s popular vote.
Fort Sumter: Fort Sumter, a major federal military installation, was dangerously low on supplies, and this caused Lincoln to risk the fight to resupply the area. On April 6, Lincoln carefully notified the South governor of South Carolina that he was sending a relief force to the fort carrying only food and no military supplies. However, General P.G.T. Beauregard demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter and attacked Lincoln’s relief force near Charlestown Harbor. As a result, the war had begun with a Confederate victory.
Emancipation proclamation- the emancipation proclamation was a proclamation made by President Abraham Lincoln that in summary freed the slaves. Unfortunately the statement didn't carry that much weight. In actuality all the proclamation did was free slaves that were behind confederate lines and in fact didn't free them in the border states. Abraham Lincoln did this strategically because he didn't want to lose the support of the border states. Some people consider the emancipation proclamation to be nothing but political rhetoric but it did have very beneficial kickback. The statement angered the South and hurt their morale while at the same time giving the South a cause to rally around which did wonders to help the Union win the Civil War.
Anaconda Plan- The Anaconda Plan was a strategy for the Union made by General Winfield Scott. The idea of the plan was to blockade and surround the South in other words "constricting" them like a constrictor snake and hoping they would surrender as a result of this. Unfortunately this plan was unsuccessful as the blockade did little to nothing and the South did not surrender as a result.
Southern Advantages- One thing that the South had that the North did was really something to fight for. The South was fighting to keep their way of life which was a way of life that thrived off slavery. This helped them to raise a decent army and have better morale then the North (at the start of the war. Also the South had much better generals then the Union such as Robert E. Lee.
Disadvantages- The South disadvantages included their very low numbers. The North had much larger numbers which allowed them to fight a war of attrition. The South also had much less supply then the Union. Lastly they were a new “country” so they were not very centralized and they weren’t very industrialized.
Lincoln’s Proposed Reconstruction Policies- When the Civil War ended Lincoln was faced with the problem of rebuilding a very broken nation. First was the issue of getting the South to rejoin the Union as easily and possible. He also wanted to build a strong Republican party in the South. He thought the best way to do this was to pardon the South for what they did so they would reenter the Union without any problems. All each state had to do was have 10% of voters swear to support the Constitution and the Union and they would be granted government executive recognition.
Congressional Reconstruction- Much of the Congressional Reconstruction after the Civil War consisted of granting African Americans or “freedmen” rights in the newly re-kindled United States. Congress ratified the 14th amendment to the constitution which guaranteed them equal protection under the laws. Congress then went on to ratify the 15th amendment which gave freedmen the right to vote. Also during the reconstruction period the Freedmen’s bureau was a government created program that helped to enforce African American rights in the South.
Johnson Policies (1865-1866): Johnson described reconstruction as the responsibility of the executive, not legislative branch. His goal was to reinstate the union as fast as possible. He accused the planter elite, as opposed to the states, for leading the south to secession and defined the conditions for reentry to the union. In 1865 Johnson permitted amnesty and pardon, which included restoration of property rights to all confederates, except for slaves, who vowed loyalty to the union and support for emancipation. Although majority of confederate officials and wealthy landowners were excluded they could petition for presidential pardons. Johnson’s policies, in general, had nothing to say about voting or civil rights of former slaves.
Radical Republicans: These were men whose careers were formed by the dispute of slavery. A group of people with the deep belief in political rights and equal opportunity which was secured by a strong national government. They argued that once free labor, universal education and equal rights were executed in the south, the province could share in the North's material wealth, progress, and free-flowing social mobility. Their plan called for republicans to start the spread of small farms, creative cultivation of crops, free schools, social independence, thriving manufactures and the arts, respect for sincere labor and equality of political rights. These citizens also opposed the black codes, a set of laws passed by states and townships denying the rights of citizenship to free African Americans before the civil war.
KKK: Was the most well known of the vigilante groups, founded by confederate veterans, that terrorized African Americans in the south. These confederates threatened, whipped, and murdered black and white republicans to prevent them from voting.
Freedmen’s Bureau: An agency established by congress in March 1865 which lasted seven years and supplied social, educational, and economic services, advice, and security to former slaves and penniless whites.The goal was to provide food, clothing, and fuel to poverty-stricken former slaves. The Freedmen's Bureau was given the responsibility of supervising and keeping control of all subjects connected to refugees and freedmen.
Tenure of Office Act (1867): Act stated that any officeholder appointed by the president with the Senate’s consent could not be removed until a successor was approved for that spot; Andrew Johnson tested this by electing Grant in Secretary of War Stanton’s place, but Grant left the office--led to Johnson’s impeachment from office
Compromise of 1877: congressional settling of the 1876 presidential election (that ended in a deadlock); installed Republican Rutherford B. Hayes in the White House, and gave Democrats control of all state governments in the South
Sharecropping System: labor system that evolved during and after Reconstruction whereby landowners furnished laborers with a house, farm animals, and tools, and advanced credit in exchange for a share of the laborer’s crop; preferred method to African Americans (freedom from white supervision and control); for planters, system stabilized the workforce
Amendments (13, 14, 15): (13th) passed in 1865, abolished slavery in the US; (14th) passed in 1866 as a fear that the Civil Rights Act would be declared as unconstitutional, defined US citizens as all persons born or naturalized in the US; (15th) passed in 1870, stated that the right of US citizens to vote shall not be denied because of race, color, or having previously been a slave, Congress required that Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia (remaining unreconstructed states) ratify the 14th and 15th amendments before readmission
How did the ideas of Manifest Destiny dominate the presidential election of 1844?
The question of the Annexation of Texas was still in the air after John Tyler tried to annex it. So, whoever had a better policy towards action to Texas, was going to win. Most of the candidates refused to bring up the issue of Texas, however James K Polk was for the annexation of Texas and wanted to expand the lands of the United States, which later became coined as Manifest Destiny. So since Polk’s goal was to expand westward (being a democrat), he won which is how Manifest Destiny played a big part in the election of 1844.
How did the Texas Revolution lead to the Mexican War?
The Texas Revolution occurred because there were many American settlers in Texas due to the land given out by Stephen Austin. So they fought for their independence and achieved it. Now when Texas gained independence, there was territory that was still “up in the air” and it could have belonged to either side. So that led to the Mexican American War because that war began because the Mexicans wanted their land/Texas back so there were multiple skirmishes in the area until they declared war on each other. So, the Mexican American war occurred because there were still many border disputes between Texas and Mexico following the Texas Independence Movement.
Explain why the Compromise of 1850 was only a temporary solution to a much bigger problem.
This was only temporary because eventually, the government would go back to the idea of popular sovereignty. At first, the government wanted to force California into becoming a slave state because of the boundaries made by the Missouri Compromise. This compromise wouldn’t last very long because California would become antislavery state because of the idea of popular sovereignty. The idea of popular sovereignty gave America a stronger fugitive slave law.
How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act change the political landscape in the 1850s?
The Kansas-Nebraska Act ended the Compromise era by giving America a new idea of working out problems. This cause a change in the political landscape because the Whigs, Free-Soil party members, and northern Democrats joined together to form the republican party. This changed the idea of the represented parties in the American government. The Kansas-Nebraska Act became a law in the May of 1854 with a large amount of negotiation. The principles of the Kansas-Nebraska Act were: the splitting of the Nebraska territory into two parts, Kansas as a new territory would become a slave state, the idea of popular sovereignty would become a regularity for the American government, and the Missouri Compromise would be repealed. Douglas was able to convince everyone of his ideas. This was another example of how the Kansas-Nebraska Act changed the political landscape of the nation because Douglas was able to create a sense of mortality when no one else could.
How did the Republican Party provide a political home for disgruntled groups and philosophies in the mid-1850s?
The Republican Party, formed in 1854, attracted northern whigs who opposed slavery, Free-Soil Party supporters who opposed the expansion of slavery, and northern reformers concerned about temperance and Catholicism. The Presidential candidate John C. Fremont won 33 percent of the popular vote in 1856 and in 1860, Abraham Lincoln won 40 percent and was elected in a four-way race. The party united the dissenting Northern groups into one united force that ultimately drove the Civil War against the Southerners.
How did the Dred Scott decision and John Brown’s Raid further divide the nation?
The Dred Scott Decision and John Brown’s Raid were radical outputs of the issue driving sectionalism and dividing the nation: slavery. The Dred Scott proved that even the Supreme Court was on the side of the pro-slavery, for its decision revealed that there was no free state in reality and that the government had no right to interfere with the free movement of property throughout the territories. The decision intended to settle the controversy over the expansion of slavery once and for all, but it inflamed the conflict even more. John Brown, the self-appointed avenger slaughtered unarmed proslavery men in Kansas in 1856. However, free African Americans such as Fredrick Douglas didn not support Brown, thinking his plan to raid the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, was doomed to failure. The events ignited further radicalness that added on to the pressure from the Kansas-Nebraska Act and resulted in the CIvil War.
Why were the border states so important to Lincoln in reuniting the nation?
The Border States were so important to Lincoln because of the ‘tipping’ factor that these states held in their allegiance. In order to reunite the nation Lincoln’s first obvious order of business was defeating the Confederates in the Civil War to get them back into the Union. If the border states would have seceded and sided with the Confederates it may have tipped the scales in the war and the Civil War could have ended in favor of the South. Instead Lincoln appeased the Border states and gained their allegiance which helped the Union with the war and re unite the nation.
How did the Civil War show the weaknesses of a confederation style of government?
The South Confederation government was a government that was similar to the federation government of the North but at the same time different. Instead of a strong centralized government the South’s Confederation had a weaker central government with the states having more power. This proved to be the South’s biggest weakness because Jefferson Davis had a lot of trouble controlling the individual states. He specifically had trouble getting the stated to form a national army to face the Unions strong army. This lead to the eventual breakdown of the Confederacy and their eventual surrender. This showed that a confederate government was a very weak form of government because it was decentralized and gave states too much individual power.
What exactly did the Emancipation Proclamation do? Why was it written in this way?
The Emancipation Proclamation was a mandate delivered by president Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863 which freed slaves in all Confederate states that remained in conflict, states the union did not maneuver. It was written this way in hopes to meet the abolitionist request for a war against slavery while not losing the support of conservatives, most importantly those part of the border states, ending the war, and keeping the union as a whole.
In what ways was Lincoln’s assassination another blow to the future of the South?
Lincoln’s assassination blew the future of the south because Lincoln had favored a swift restoration of the southern states to the Union with little federal interference in their affairs. Lincoln’s agenda was to forget all of this had happened in order to reinstate the union and to end the war. Now, under Johnson’s command, those who wished to rejoin the union had to take an oath of allegiance in order to gain back their property rights. And his plan mentioned nothing of equal rights as Lincoln's mindset had.
What mistakes did Andrew Johnson make in dealing with the Radical Republicans?
The main source of conflict between Andrew Johnson and the Radical Republicans came from the Radicals’ belief that Johnson was a southern sympathizer that would eventually undermine Congress’ plans for Reconstruction of the South. They believed this because Johnson, himself, was a former slave owner, and despite him having been the only Southern Senate member to remain loyal to the Union, they thought that his Southern roots would influence his decisions. This distrust eventually prevented Southerners that were elected through Johnson’s state governments from sitting in Congress, and Johnson’s attacks on Radical Republicans led to moderates and radicals uniting to override his vetoes. Therefore, Johnson’s bad relationship with Radical Republicans invalidated many of Johnson’s decisions, and hurt him in more ways than one.
How did sharecropping become a new form of slavery?
Although sharecropping was the preferred method of labor to African Americans (as opposed to gang labor), the sharecropping system was actually just slavery by another name. Although it made African Americans feel as though they were independent and self-sufficient, by allowing families to set their own hours and tasks, giving them freedom from direct white supervision and control, the whites still had control over them and their land. Through this system, whites still had the power to set regulations and quotas for the farm and products, and they had the ability to hold loans against the African Americans. All they really had to do in this system was provide the African Americans with a shelter, some farm animals and tools, and in exchange, they made more profit off of the laborer’s crops than they had invested in allowing the African Americans to establish their own homes/farms.