Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 1450 C. E

Download 46.88 Kb.
Date conversion16.05.2016
Size46.88 Kb.

Period 3: Regional and Transregional Interactions, c. 600 – 1450 C.E.

Key Terms

  • Diaspora

  • Swahili

  • Hanseatic League

  • Caravans

  • Caravanserai

  • Dar al-Islam

  • Coerced labor

  • Mit’a

  • Caste system

  • Chinampa

  • Waru Waru

Key People

  • Ibn Battuta

  • Marco Polo

  • Xuangzang

  • Muhammad

  • Abu Bakr

  • Genghis Khan

  • Kublai Khan

  • Al Razi

  • Al Khwarizmi

  • Mansa Musa

  • King Ezana

  • Joan of Arc

  • William the Conqueror

Key Events

570 – 632

Life of Muhammad

618 – 907

Tang dynasty in China


The hijra

711 – 1492

Muslim occupation of Spain

750 – 1258

Abbasid dynasty

960 – 1279

Song dynasty in China


Schism between the eastern and western Christian churches


Norman invasion of England


First crusade

11th – 13th century

Kingdom of Ghana

11th – 15th century

Swahili cities in East Africa

12th – 15th century

Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe

12th – 16th century

Kingdom of Axum

13th century

Beginning of chiefdoms in Oceania

13th – 15th century

Empire of Mali

1206 – 1526

Sultanate of Delhi


Beginning of Mongol conquests

1271 – 1295

Marco Polo’s travels to China

1279 – 1368

Yuan dynasty


Founding of the Ottoman dynasty

1304 – 1369

Life of Ibn Battuta


Founding of Tenochtitlan by the Mexica (Aztecs)


Beginnings of buboninc plague in China

1337 – 1453

Hundred Years’ War


Beginnings of bubonic plague in the Mediterranean world

1368 – 1644

Ming dynasty

14th – 17th century

Kingdom of Kongo

1405 – 1433

Zheng He voyages in the Indian Ocean


Beginning of the Portuguese slave trade in Africa

Key Comparisons

  1. Feudalism in Japan and Western Europe

  2. Mongol rule in Russia and China

  3. Muslim Spain and feudal Europe

  4. The spread of Islam and the spread of Buddhism

  5. Chinese and European presence in the Indian Ocean

  6. Urban Areas in the Islamic world, non-Islamic Europe, and China

  7. Acceptance of Islam in Africa and Europe

  8. Mesoamerican and Andean civilizations

  9. Polynesian, Viking and Bantu Migrations

  10. Gender roles in early Islam and under the caliphate

Key Concepts

  1. Expansion and Intensification of Communication and Exchange Networks

    1. Existing trade expanded and new routes developed

      1. Growth in the major trade routes led to the development of new cities

        1. Silk Roads

          1. Hangzhou

          2. Calicut

          3. Baghdad

          4. Novgorod

        2. Mediterranean Sea Lanes

          1. Venice

        3. Trans-Saharan Caravan Routes

          1. Timbuktu

        4. Indian Ocean Basin

          1. Swahili City-States

          2. Melaka

        5. The Americas

          1. Tenochtitlan

          2. Cahokia

      2. New routes between Mesoamerica and the Andes developed

      3. Trade in luxury goods was supported by new innovations

        1. Luxury goods

          1. Silk and cotton textiles

          2. Porcelain

          3. Spices

          4. Precious metals and gems

          5. Slaves

          6. Exotic animals

        2. New innovations

          1. More sophisticated caravan organization

            1. Caravanserai

            2. Camel saddles

          2. Maritime innovations

            1. Compass

            2. Astrolabe

            3. Larger ship designs

          3. New forms of credit and monetization

            1. Bills of exchange

            2. Credit

            3. Checks or banking houses

      4. State helped to support the trade

        1. Minted coins and paper-moneys

        2. Created trade organization

          1. Hanseatic League – Europe

        3. Created infrastructure

          1. Grand Canal – China

      5. Expansion of empires helped facilitate the trade

        1. Existing

          1. China

          2. Byzantine Empire

        2. New

          1. Mongol Empire

    2. Movement of people had environmental and linguistic effects

      1. Expansion of trade depended on understanding and adaptations to local environments

        1. Vikings – longboats

        2. Arabs and Berbers – camels to travel across the Sahara

        3. Pastoralists – used horse to travel the steppe

      2. Migrations effected the environment

        1. Bantus

          1. Spread of agriculture

          2. Spread of iron metallurgy

        2. Polynesian peoples

          1. Cultivated and transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands

        3. Migrations and commercial contacts led to the spread of languages

          1. Existing languages

            1. Bantu languages

            2. Turkic and Arabic languages

          2. New languages

            1. Swahili

    3. Cross-cultural exchanges

      1. Islam developed on the Arabian peninsula

        1. Came from interactions between Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians and local peoples

        2. Expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia

          1. Military expansion

          2. Merchants

          3. Missionaries

      2. Diaspora communities were established in key trade cities

        1. Muslim merchants in the Indian Ocean

        2. Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia

        3. Sogdian merchants in Central Asia

        4. Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean basin, and on the Silk Roads

      3. Inter-regional travellers show the extent and limitations of inter-cultural knowledge and understanding

        1. Ibn Battuta

        2. Marco Polo

        3. Xuangzang

      4. Literary, artistic and cultural traditions spread

        1. Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism in East Asia

        2. Hinduism and Buddhism in Southeast Asia

        3. Islam in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

        4. Toltec/Mexica and Inca traditions in Meso and Andean America

      5. Spread of scientific and technological traditions

        1. Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars

        2. Return of Greek science and philosophy to western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia (Spain)

        3. Spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe

    4. Continued spread of crops and diseases throughout the Eastern hemisphere

      1. New foods and agricultural techniques were adapted

        1. Bananas in Africa

        2. New rice varieties in East Asia

        3. Cotton, sugar and citrus throughout Dar-al Islam (the Muslim World) and the Mediterranean

      2. Disease followed trade routes and military conquest

        1. Black Death

  2. Continuity and Innovation of State Forms and Their Interactions

    1. Empires collapse and reformed and some new empires were created

      1. Collapsed Classical empires were reconstituted using traditional and new sources of power

        1. Reconstituted empires

          1. Byzantine

          2. Sui, Tang, Song

        2. Traditional

          1. Patriarchy

          2. Religion

          3. Land-owning elites

        3. New methods

          1. Taxation

          2. Tributary systems

          3. Adaptation of religious institutions

      2. New forms of governance emerged

        1. Islamic states

          1. Abbasids

          2. Muslim Iberia

          3. Delhi Sultanate

        2. Mongol Khanates

        3. City-states

          1. Italian peninsula

          2. East Africa

          3. Southeast Asia

      3. Some states mixed local and borrowed traditions

        1. Persian traditions influencing Islamic states

        2. Chinese traditions influencing Japan

      4. State systems expanded in scope and reach

        1. City-states flourished in the Maya region

        2. Imperial systems Mexica and the Andes (Aztecs and Incas)

    2. Contact and conflict between states and empires encouraged technological and cultural transfers

      1. Tang and Abbasids

      2. Mongols

      3. The Crusades

  3. Increased Economic Productive Capacity and its Consequences

    1. Innovations stimulated agriculture and industrial production

      1. Innovations led to agricultural increases

        1. Champa rice varieties

        2. The chinampa field system in the Andes

        3. Waru waru field cultivation

        4. Terracing techniques

        5. Horse collar

      2. Crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to similar climates

      3. Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded production of textiles and porcelain for export

      4. Industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China

    2. Cities experienced decline and increased urbanization

      1. Decline of cities

        1. Invasions

        2. Disease

        3. The decline of agricultural productivity

        4. The Little Ice Age

      2. Revival of cities

        1. End of invasions

        2. Availability of safe and reliable transport

        3. The rise of commerce

        4. Warmer temperatures

        5. Increased agricultural productivity

          1. Rise of population

          2. Greater availability of labor

      3. Cities continued to be governmental, religious and commercial centers

    3. Changes in labor management and gender relations and family life

      1. Labor organization

        1. Free peasant agriculture

        2. Nomadic pastoralism

        3. Craft production and guild organization

        4. Coerced and unfree labor

        5. Government imposed labor taxes

        6. Military obligations

      2. Social structures

        1. Shaped by class and caste hierarchies

        2. Patriarchy

        3. Women exercised more power and influence (in some areas)

          1. Mongols

          2. West Africa

          3. Japan

          4. Southeast Asia

      3. New forms of coerced labor

        1. Serfdom

          1. Europe

          2. Japan

        2. Mit’a system

          1. Incan empire

        3. Slavery increased in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean

          1. Military and domestic

      4. Free peasants resisted attempts at raised dues and taxes

        1. Revolts in China and the Byzantine Empire

      5. Spread of religion led to changes in gender and family structure

        1. Buddhism

        2. Christianity

        3. Islam

        4. Neo-Confucianism







East Asia

Japanese feudalism

Tang/Song dynasties


Yuan dynasty

Ming dynasty


Long-distance trade


Flying money

Zheng He expedition

Grand Canal




Moveable type

Celadon pottery

Bubonic plague

Japanese shogunate


Chinese expansion into Vietnam

Mongol domination in China

Nomadic threats



Patriarchal family


S. E. Asia

Expansion of China into Vietnam

Malay sailors






Regional kingdoms




Polynesian migrations

Stratified society

Settlement of Hawaii

Isolation from global trade network

Central Asia


Steppe diplomacy


Silk Roads trade

Moldboard plow


Mongol Peace

Women have a voice in tribal councils

Mongol dominance


Isolation of Russia from Western Europe

Pastoral namdism

Steppe diplomacy


South Asia

Delhi Sultanate

Rule of Tamerlane

Arabic numerals

Indian Ocean trade

Caste system




Caste system

S.W. Asia


Mongol destruction of Baghdad

Malay sailors

Long-distance trade


Veiling of women



Bubonic plague

Rise of Islam, Sunni/Shi’ite split, transfer of knowledge of sugarcane to Europeans

Nomadic tribes

North Africa

Regional kingdoms

Islam, Mamluk dynasties

Trans-Saharan trade, gold, salt



Travels of Ibn Battuta

Bubonic Plague


Trans-Saharan trade

Sub-Saharan Africa

Stateless societies


Indian Ocean

Trade in ivory, ebony, animal skins

Trade with Portugal


Bantu migrations

Swahili griots

Age grades


Introduction of banana cultivation by Malay sailors



Bantu migrations

Western Europe


Holy Roman Empire

Attempted Mongol incursions

Islamic Spain

Investiture conflict


Moldboard plow

Rise of universities

Bubonic plague

Mediterranean trade routes

Hanseatic League


Population growth

Viking invasions



Palace schools


Increased urbanization and trade

Decline of feudalism




Eastern Europe

Byzantine Empire

Mongol invasion

Seljuk and Ottoman incursion

Expansion of Western Europe


Trade in fur and timber

Hanseatic League


Viking invasion

Mongol invasion

Viking invasion


Eastern Orthodox Christianity

Byzantine trade networks

North America

Regional tribal organization



Trade with Mesoamerica

Anasazi and Mississippian cultures


Trade with Mesoamerica

Isolated from global trade networks

Latin America

Aztec and Incan empires


Long-distance and regional trade


Incan roads


Human sacrifice



Parallel descent



Ayllus, capulli

Aztec and Incan empires

Isolated from global trade networks

The database is protected by copyright © 2016
send message

    Main page