People, Groups, and Roles

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Socio-Technical System for Power Systems in Puerto Rico (Developed by William Frey, Efrain O’Neill, Alberto Ramirez, and Agustine Irizarry)



People, Groups, and Roles

Procedures / Protocols

Laws / Policies

Rates and Rates Structure


  • Solar

  • Photo Voltaic Cells

  • Windmills

  • Hydroelectric

  • Hydrogen (electrolysis)


  • Oil

  • Coal

  • Nuclear Fissure

  • Nuclear Fission

  • Incinerators


SoDIS (Software Development Impact Statement—(Gotterbarn 2002)
Intelligent Power Routers
Modes of Operation


  • EPA

  • JCA


  • DRN

Citizen Interest Groups

  • MPSA

  • Liga Ecologia


  • Energy consumers


Private Industry

  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Multinational

  • Local Industries

  • Oil Refineries

Unions (UTIER)


Market-Based Energy Distribution
Conservation Strategies
Energy Consumption Habits
Power Distribution

  • High Demand

  • Normal Demand

  • Low Demand

  • Power Disruption Situations

Methods of Distributive Justice

  • Entitlement (liberty-preserving)

  • Pattern Based

    • Market

    • Need

    • Merit

    • Right

    • Egalitarian

Engineering Codes
Legislation establishing public utilities
Privatization of Public Utilities
EPA, DRN, JCA, OSHA Regulations
Civil Law

  • Eminent Domain

  • Property Rules

  • Liability Rules

Public Hearnings

Archival material on Power STS
Data collection for STS construction
Data collection for market analysis (hypothetical versus actual)
Free and Informed Consent (Risk Assessment Data)


5. Implement solution over feasibility constraints

Alternative Constraint








Legal/ Social

Available Technology





Short Bibilography

1. Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk Management, edited by Deborah G. Mayo and Rachelle D. Hollander. London, UK: Oxford University Press, 1991.

2. K. S. Shrader-Frechette. “Ethics and Energy” in Earthbound: New Introductory Essays in Environmental Ethics, 1st Edition, edited by Tom Regan. NY, NY: Random House, 1984.

3. Nancy G. Leveson. Safeware: System Safety and Computers. NY, NY: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.

Charles Perrow. Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies. North America, Basic Books, 1984.

4. Malcolm Gladwell. “Blowup” in The New Yorker, January 22, 1996: 32-36.

5. James Reason. Human Error. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 1990.

6. Mark Sagoff. The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the Environment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Socio Technical System Grid for Engineering Ethics in Puerto Rico

Engineering Projects

Physical Surroundings

People, Groups, and Roles



Engineering Ethics Curricula

Minas de Cobre
Caso Cogentrix

Island between N and S America

Engineering Ethicists (Philosophers with Ce-PRO)

1. Pass ABET accredited school

2. Revalida (Fundamentales y Specialidad)

3. Engineering In Training

4. Sponsored by CIAPR Member

Ley 319 (1938)
Ley 12 (1980)
Ley 173 (1988)
Amendment 2004

FSC—Macro Ethics

Engineering Ethics and Social Issues (Corruption and Colonialism)

Philosophy/Ethics of Technology
(Engineers as Reformers)

Super Acueducto
Tren Urbano

Two Languages (Spanish and English)


  • Licensing Exams

  • Certifying Engineers

  • Controlling behavior

ABET Accreditation

EC-2000 (3 f, g, h and 4)

Ley 173 plus amendments

FSC—Micro Ethics

Preparing students to be ethics advocates in corporate environment

Case-Based Engineering Ethics Bowl

(Engineers as Helpers)


Spanish Colonialism
US Colonialism
Free Association with United States
Future: Statehood, Free Association, Independence

PR/US government (Codes in US an PR)

Questionable Practices:


Firmoneria (Blueprints)

Environment (Inkjet)

Conflicto de Intereses

Competencia Desleal

  • Bidding

  • Promotion

Ingenieros como testigos

CIAPR v Metcalf & Eddy (Misfit between US and PR law on role of corporations in engineering and US “industry exemption”)

Ethics Across the Curriculum



Case/Module Development

Ethics Toolkit

Moral Exemplars (Finding positive as well as negative engineering models)

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