People, Groups, and Roles



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Socio-Technical System for Power Systems in Puerto Rico (Developed by William Frey, Efrain O’Neill, Alberto Ramirez, and Agustine Irizarry)


Hardware

Software

People, Groups, and Roles

Procedures / Protocols

Laws / Policies

Rates and Rates Structure

Soft

  • Solar

  • Photo Voltaic Cells

  • Windmills

  • Hydroelectric

  • Hydrogen (electrolysis)

Hard


  • Oil

  • Coal

  • Nuclear Fissure

  • Nuclear Fission

  • Incinerators

(Shrader-Frechette)



SoDIS (Software Development Impact Statement—(Gotterbarn 2002)
Intelligent Power Routers
Modes of Operation

Government

  • EPA

  • JCA

  • PREPA

  • DRN

Citizen Interest Groups



  • MPSA

  • Liga Ecologia

Public


  • Energy consumers

  • NIMBY

Private Industry



  • Pharmaceuticals

  • Multinational

  • Local Industries

  • Oil Refineries

Unions (UTIER)


CIAPR

Market-Based Energy Distribution
Conservation Strategies
Energy Consumption Habits
Power Distribution

  • High Demand

  • Normal Demand

  • Low Demand

  • Power Disruption Situations

Methods of Distributive Justice



  • Entitlement (liberty-preserving)

  • Pattern Based

    • Market

    • Need

    • Merit

    • Right

    • Egalitarian

Engineering Codes
Legislation establishing public utilities
Privatization of Public Utilities
EPA, DRN, JCA, OSHA Regulations
Civil Law

  • Eminent Domain

  • Property Rules

  • Liability Rules

Public Hearnings



Archival material on Power STS
Data collection for STS construction
Data collection for market analysis (hypothetical versus actual)
Free and Informed Consent (Risk Assessment Data)

Feasibility


5. Implement solution over feasibility constraints


Alternative Constraint

Resource

Interest

Technical




Time

Cost

Individual

Organization

Legal/ Social

Available Technology

Manufacturability

#1






















#2






















#3





















Short Bibilography


1. Acceptable Evidence: Science and Values in Risk Management, edited by Deborah G. Mayo and Rachelle D. Hollander. London, UK: Oxford University Press, 1991.

2. K. S. Shrader-Frechette. “Ethics and Energy” in Earthbound: New Introductory Essays in Environmental Ethics, 1st Edition, edited by Tom Regan. NY, NY: Random House, 1984.

3. Nancy G. Leveson. Safeware: System Safety and Computers. NY, NY: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1995.

Charles Perrow. Normal Accidents: Living with High Risk Technologies. North America, Basic Books, 1984.

4. Malcolm Gladwell. “Blowup” in The New Yorker, January 22, 1996: 32-36.

5. James Reason. Human Error. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 1990.

6. Mark Sagoff. The Economy of the Earth: Philosophy, Law, and the Environment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Socio Technical System Grid for Engineering Ethics in Puerto Rico

Engineering Projects

Physical Surroundings

People, Groups, and Roles

Procedures

Laws

Engineering Ethics Curricula

Minas de Cobre
Caso Cogentrix


Island between N and S America



Engineering Ethicists (Philosophers with Ce-PRO)

1. Pass ABET accredited school

2. Revalida (Fundamentales y Specialidad)

3. Engineering In Training

4. Sponsored by CIAPR Member



Ley 319 (1938)
Ley 12 (1980)
Ley 173 (1988)
Amendment 2004

FSC—Macro Ethics

Engineering Ethics and Social Issues (Corruption and Colonialism)

Philosophy/Ethics of Technology
(Engineers as Reformers)


Super Acueducto
Tren Urbano


Two Languages (Spanish and English)


CIAPR

  • Licensing Exams

  • Certifying Engineers

  • Controlling behavior

ABET Accreditation

EC-2000 (3 f, g, h and 4)



Ley 173 plus amendments

FSC—Micro Ethics

Preparing students to be ethics advocates in corporate environment

Case-Based Engineering Ethics Bowl

(Engineers as Helpers)


E-Government

Spanish Colonialism
US Colonialism
Free Association with United States
Future: Statehood, Free Association, Independence

PR/US government (Codes in US an PR)

Questionable Practices:

Corruption

Firmoneria (Blueprints)

Environment (Inkjet)

Conflicto de Intereses

Competencia Desleal



  • Bidding

  • Promotion

Ingenieros como testigos

CIAPR v Metcalf & Eddy (Misfit between US and PR law on role of corporations in engineering and US “industry exemption”)

Ethics Across the Curriculum

15/85

Retreats/Workshops



Case/Module Development

Ethics Toolkit

Moral Exemplars (Finding positive as well as negative engineering models)



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