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Seven: Century’s Challenges


1. Lee Butler, “At the End of the Journey: The Risks of Cold War Thinking in a New Era,” International Affairs 82, no. 4 (June 22, 2006).2. Hans Kristensen, Appendix 2 of Nuclear Futures: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and U.S. Nuclear Strategy, British American Security Information Council (BASIC), Basic Research Report 98, no. 2 (March 1998). For extensive quotes, see New Military Humanism, chap. 6.3. Brahma Chellaney, International Herald Tribune, May 7, 1996.4. Peter Sand, ASIL [American Society of International Law] Insight 13, no. 12 (August 28, 2009). On the sordid record, see David Vine, Island of Shame (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2009). Cole Harvey, Arms Control Today, September 2009, journal of the Arms Control Association.5. Press release (COMSUBPAC Pearl Harbor, NNS 091203-01). I am indebted to Peter Sand for the document.6. See note 29, chap. 5. These poll results are from January 2007. A huge government-media propaganda blitz since on Iran may have changed perceptions.7. Cited by Frank Costigliola, in Thomas Paterson, ed., Kennedy’s Quest for Victory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).8. World Public Opinion.org, surveys, January 18–27, 2008, http://www.worldpublic opinion.org/pipa/pdf/mar08/USGov_Mar08_quaire.pdf. Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2006). Abrahamian, in David Barsamian, ed., Targeting Iran (San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2005).9. Chas Freeman, Middle East Policy, Spring 2008.10. See references of note 23, chap. 2.11. NATO, see chap. 12. NWFZ, Michael McGwire, International Affairs, 81, no. 1 (2005).12. Union of Concerned Scientists, “U.S. Attempt to Shoot Down Satellite Undermines Efforts to Ban Space Weapons, Reduces U.S. Security, Science Group Says,” press release, February 20, 2008, http://www.ucsusa.org/news/press_release/us-attemptto-shoot-down-0098.html. John Steinbruner and Nancy Gallagher, Daedalus, Summer 2004.13. Andrew Bacevich, National Interest, Summer 2001; Lawrence Kaplan, New Republic, March 12, 2001. RAND cited by Kaplan, emphasis in original. For more on the understanding that missile defense is essentially a first-strike weapon, see Hegemony or Survival, chap. 9.14. George Lewis and Theodore Postol, Arms Control Today, October 2007.15. Quoted in Olivier Zajec, Le Monde diplomatique, April 2008.16. Shoup and Minter, Imperial Brain Trust. See Gibbs, First Do No Harm, on these considerations and specifically their role in the bombing of Serbia in 1999. See above, p. 53 and note 23, chap. 2.17. According to military/strategic analyst Melvin Goodman of the Center for International Policy, the United States is spending more than the rest of the world combined on its military, intelligence, and homeland security, and is responsible for 70 percent of global arms sales. Truthout, October 20, 2009.18. John McGlynn, “The US Declaration of War on Iran,” Japan Focus, March 20, 2008, http://japanfocus.org/-John-McGlynn/2707.19. Klaus Naumann, John Shalikashvili, et al., Towards a Grand Strategy for an Uncertain World: Renewing the Transatlantic Partnership, (Center for Strategic & International Studies, Noaber Foundation), 2007, http://www.worldsecuritynetwork.com/documents/3eproefGrandStrat(b).pdf.20. HDI, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_Human_Development_Index. Maurice Guernier, An-Nahar Arab Report and Memo, Beirut, April 17, 1978. For further quotes see Towards a New Cold War. Eight: Turning Point?


1. Dan Fromkin, Washington Post, May 29, 2009.2. Agence France-Presse, May 16, 2009.3. Akiva Eldar, Haaretz, June 1, 2009.4. See chap. 10, below.5. The State of Israel, Likud Party Platform, 1999, http://www.knesset.gov.il/elections/knesset15/elikud_m.htm. David Bar-Illan, director of Communications and Policy Planning in the office of the prime minister, interview, Palestine-Israel Journal, Summer/Autumn 1996.6. Amnon Barzilai, Haaretz, October 24, 1995. For more detail, World Orders, Epilogue.7. For details, see Deterring Democracy, Afterword. For general review of the diplomatic and military history, see Norman Finkelstein, Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict (London: Verso, 2003); Maoz, Defending the Holy Land. Also Hegemony or Survival and Failed States.8. Ibid., for review and sources.9. Jeffrey Goldberg, New York Times, May 24, 2009.10. “Chronicle of Annexation Known from the Outset,” Bimkom, B’Tselem, December 2009, Hebrew. Barak cited from Amos Harel, Haaretz, February 1, 2009, with endorsement by Tzipi Livni and Binyamin Netanyahu, reiterating a long-standing national consensus.11. World Bank, BBC, May 20, 2009. Uri Misgav, Yediot Friday Political Supplement, January 22, 2008.12. Stephen Zunes, Foreign Policy in Focus, March 4, 2009.13. All of this was clear enough from the website for his presidential campaign. See Perilous Power, Epilogue.14. Amira Hass, “An Israeli Achievement,” BitterLemons.org, April 20, 2009, http://www.bitterlemons.org/previous/bl200409ed15.html#isr2.15. Sara Roy, Harvard Crimson, June 2, 2009. For extensive review of the ugly details, see Roy’s “Before Gaza, After Gaza: Examining the New Reality in Israel/Palestine,” to appear in Palestine & the Palestinians Today, Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University. Abbreviated version of introduction to third edition of Roy, Gaza Strip.16. See above, pp. 150f., and sources cited in note 16, chap. 6.17. Peter Beaumont, Guardian, May 27, 2009.18. Platt’s Commodity News, February 3, 16, 2009.19. For sources, and more on Evans’s role in this regard, see Year 501, chap. 4; Powers and Prospects, chaps. 7, 8. Also Australian Southeast Asian specialist and former intelligence officer Clinton Fernandes’s review of Evans’s record, 2009, MS.20. International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, Gareth Evans and Mohamed Sahnoun, Co-chairs, The Responsibility to Protect: Report of the ICISS (Ottawa, Canada: IDRC Books, December 2001). Economist, July 23, 2009. See my “Human Rights in the New Millennium,” talk at London School of Economics (October 29, 2009), http://www.chomsky.info/talks/20091029.htm; Z Magazine, January 2010; www.chomsky.info. Evans-Alatas photo there and at Edward Herman and David Peterson, “The Responsibility to Protest, the International Ciminal Court, and Foreign Policy in Focus,” MRZine, August 24, 2009, http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/hp240809.html. On the various versions of R2P and the principles that govern its application, and the unique right of forceful intervention assigned to NATO in the Evans Commission Report but crucially not in the 2005 UN Summit declaration on R2P, see my “The Responsibility to Protect,” UN General Assembly, New York, July 23, 2009, and “Human Rights in the New Millennium.” For one of many current illustrations of severe misinterpretations, see Sarah Sewall, Director of the Carr Center’s National Security and Human Rights Program at the Harvard University Kennedy School of Government, Boston Review, September–October 2009. Apart from misinterpretation of R2P, Sewall writes that “NATO’s 1999 bombing campaign to stop Serbian persecution of Kosovars,” though recognized to be illegal under international law, “was nonetheless forgiven, or at least tolerated, largely on moral grounds.” Putting aside the factual claim, uncritically repeating government propaganda that is flatly refuted by the rich record of official documents, it was neither forgiven, nor tolerated, but rather bitterly condemned by the South, repeatedly and forcefully. Furthermore, like others at the Carr Center, Sewall is concerned only with Washington’s failure to prevent crimes, while entirely ignoring the shameful simultaneous U.S. record of perpetrating terrible crimes while Western intellectuals bask in self-praise for their “principles and values,” “altruism,” “nobility,” etc. See New Military Humanism, A New Generation Draws the Line, Gibbs, First Do No Harm.21. Avi Issacharoff, Haaretz, May 6, 2009. Associated Press, May 6, 2009; Reuters, May 7, 2009. For analysis of the harsh and deterioriating conditions, see Nadim Kawach, International Solidarity Movement, January 17, 2010, http://palsolidarity.org/2010/01/10761.22. Yisrael Katz, Haaretz, May 31, 2009.23. The first revelation to the general public of Israel’s U.S.-backed rejection of the “road map”—it was known and discussed in activist circles—is in Jimmy Carter’s book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006). The “reservations” are given in an appendix. The book aroused a storm of protest. As far as I could determine, this important section—the one revelation new to the general informed public—was not mentioned. There were great efforts to find trivial errors, but the one serious error was also ignored: Carter’s repetition of the conventional myth that Israel’s 1982 invasion of Lebanon was in defense against PLO rockets, already discussed. See above, pp. 153–54, and note 21, chap. 6.24. Hadashot, October 8, 1993; Yair Fidel, Hadashot Supplement, October 29, 1993.25. Helene Cooper, New York Times, June 1, 2009.26. Isabel Kirshner, New York Times, June 2, 2009.27. Akiva Eldar, Haaretz, June 2, 2009.28. Jackson Diehl, Washington Post, May 29, 2009.29. Elliott Abrams, Washington Post, April 8, 2009.30. Karen DeYoung and Howard Schneider, Washington Post, November 1, 2009.31. Text at http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=351461.32. Ed Hornick, “Obama Looks to Reach the Soul of the Muslim World,” CNN, June 3, 2009, http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/06/03/obama.muslim.outreach/. Thomas Friedman, New York Times, June 3, 2009.33. Quoted in Jeff Zeleyna and Michael Slackman, New York Times, June 4, 2009.34. Yolande Knell, Heba Saleh, and Roula Khalaf, Financial Times Special Report on Egypt, December 17, 2009. On the timid gestures about democracy in Egypt under Bush, see Failed States.35. Associated Press, January 5, 2010.36. Douglas Little, “Cold War and Covert Action,” Middle East Journal, Winter 1990. NSC 5801/1, January 24, 1958. See also Salim Yaqub, “Imperious Doctrines: U.S.-Arab Relations from Dwight D. Eisenhower to George W. Bush,” Diplomatic History 26, no. 4 (Fall 2002) and his Containing Arab Nationalism: The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004).37. For sources, and further discussion of U.S. support for Arab tyrannies and the (understood) consequences, see Hegemony or Survival, chaps. 3, 8 and Failed States, chap. 5. Also Gardner, Last Chance, and many other sources.38. Ibid. 29, xix. Fawaz Gerges, Journey of the Jihadist (Orlando: Harcourt Press, 2006), 210ff. On the reactions of moderate Islamists in Egypt and elsewhere, see Raymond Baker, Islam without Fear (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 266f. Michael Scheuer, Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror (Dulles, VA: Brassey’s Inc., 2004); at the time anonymous.39. Jeffrey Smith and Joby Warrick, Washington Post, May 28, 2009.40. Indian nuclear weapons, James Lamont and James Blitz, Financial Times, September 27, 2009. IAEA-Israel, wire services, La Jornada (Mexico), September 19, 2009; Mark Weiss, Irish Times, September 19, 2009, and AP, Washington Times, September 19, 2009 (the only English-language press reports). Obama-Israel, Eli Lake, Washington Times, October 2, 2009. Agency safeguards, States News Service, September 19, 2009, Associated Press, Washington Times, September 19, 2009. White House-India, Indo-Asian News Service, September 26, 2009.41. Daily Mail (London), October 13, 2009; Mitch Potter, Toronto Star, October 13, 2009; Jim Wolf, Reuters, August 27, 2009; Tony Capaccio, Bloomberg, July 31, 2009.42. Avner Cohen and George Perkovich, “Proliferation Analysis,” Carnegie Endowment, May 14, 2009, http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=23124.43. Julian Borger, Guardian, May 6, 2009. Reuters, May 21, 2009. “US Keeps Nuclear ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell’ - Israel Aide,” May 21, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSLL942309. Institute for Public Accuracy, “Israeli Whistleblower Vanunu on Mideast Nukes,” news release, September 17, 2004, http://www.accuracy.org/newsrelease.php?articleId=222.44. White, Middle East Policy, Fall 2008. See note 37, chap. 5, above.45. Martin van Creveld, International Herald Tribune, August 21, 2004. David Kay, “The Iranian Fallout,” National Interest, September/October 2008.46. Reuel Marc Gerecht, in Robert Kagan and William Kristol, eds., Present Dangers: Crisis and Opportunity in American Foreign and Defense Policy (San Francisco: Encounter Books, 2000).47. Leonard Weiss, Middle East Policy, Fall 2009. He mentions an authentic threat not to Israel but to the Zionist project: that irrational fears might induce people to emigrate. See Ofri Ilani, Haaretz, July 21, 2009, reporting poll findings that “1 in 4 Israelis would consider leaving country if Iran gets nukes.”48. Judy Dempsey, New York Times, January 22, 2010. Nicholas Kulish and Ellen Barry, New York Times, February 5, 2010; Reuters, “Russia Says Concerned at Romania Hosting U.S. Missiles,” February 5, 2010. Ellen Barry, New York Times, February 6, 10, 2010. The Russian concerns are two: first that they were not consulted, and second that a second generation of interceptors scheduled for 2018 might threaten the Russian deterrent, and the United States accepts no obligation to provide data about the systems. Brzezinski cited by Gerald Posner, “How Obama Flubbed His Missile Message,” Daily Beast, September 18, 2009, http://www.thedailybeast.com/blogs-and-stories/2009-09-18/how-obama-flubbed-his-missile-message/.49. Aluf Benn and Amos Harel, Haaretz, September 14, 2008; along with the missiles, the United States delivered “smart bombs” (“bunker busters”), obviously intended as a threat to Iran. Reuters, March 7; Haaretz News Service, July 14, 2009. David Sanger and Eric Schmitt, “U.S. Speeding Up Missile Defenses in Persian Gulf,” New York Times, January 30, 2010.50. Phil Stewart, “Petraeus Says Strike on Iran Could Spark Nationalism,” Reuters, February 3, 2010, http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE6123TN20100203.51. John Kerry, “Restoring Leadership in the Middle East,” speech at Brookings Institution (March 4, 2009), http://www.brookings.edu/~/media/Files/events/2009/0304_leadership/20090304_kerry.pdf.52. Gideon Levy, Haaretz, June 26, 2009. See the admiring accounts by Ethan Bronner, New York Times, February 27, 2009, and Karin Laub, Associated Press, June 27, 2009. On Jordanian instructors, see also Avi Issacharoff, Haaretz, April 8, 2009.53. Charles Levinson, “Palestinian Support Wanes for American-Trained Forces,” Wall Street Journal, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125547035200183335.html.54. A leading specialist, anonymous. On CIA collaboration with Palestinian forces, including those engaged in torture, see Ian Cobain, Guardian, December 17, 2009.55. See p. 23, above.56. See note 44, chap. 2.57. Shai Gal, http://www.mako.co.il/finances-hitech/tech/Articled2f62cb46644121006.htm (Hebrew), May 15, 2009. Mako is a news and entertainment portal that works in close cooperation with Israel’s Channel 2 TV.58. Felix Frisch, “No IDF Orders—Rafael Moving to US; the Move Will Enable the IDF to Use U.S. Aid to Buy Rafael Products,” Globes (Israeli business journal), March 17, 2004. Anshel Feffer, Haaretz, February 2, 2009 (Hebrew), http://www.haaretz.co.il/hasite/spages/1062977.html.59. Amos Harel, Haaretz, January 10, 2010.60. See “Exterminate All the Brutes.” Nine: Elections 2008: Hope Confronts the Real World


1. World Public Opinion.org, surveys, January 18–27, 2008, http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/mar08/USGov_Mar08_quaire.pdf, survey taken January 2008. See note 8, chap. 7.2. Editorial comment by Steve Charnovitz, “The ILO Convention on Freedom of Association and Its Future in the United States,” American Journal of International Law 102 (2008): 90–107.3. Greg Shaw, “Changes in Public Opinion and the American Welfare State,” Political Science Quarterly 124, no. 4 (Winter 2009–2010).4. On the remarkable scale of these campaigns in the early post–WWII years, see Elizabeth Fones-Wolf, Selling Free Enterprise (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1994); and more generally, the pioneering study by Alex Carey, Taking the Risks Out of Democracy (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1995), among other important investigations.5. Edward Luce and Andrew Ward, Financial Times, September 3, 2008. “Campaign Diary,” Financial Times, October 28, 2008.6. Matthew Creamer, “Obama Wins! … Ad Age’s Marketer of the Year,” AdAge.com, October 17, 2008.7. Andrew Edgecliffe-Johnson, Financial Times, November 25, 2008.8. Dean Baker, “Republicans Complain Obama Will ‘Bury’ Our Children with Reagan Era Debt Burdens,” Beat the Press, August 31, 2009. See pp. 88–89, above, on Reaganite statist enthusiasm.9. “Money Wins Presidency and 9 of 10 Congressional Races in Priciest U.S. Election Ever,” Open Secrets.org, November 5, 2008, http://www.opensecrets.org/news/2008/11/money-wins-white-house-and.html.10. Alan Greenspan, testimony, Senate Banking Committee, February 1997.11. John Hughes, Christian Science Monitor, November 6. Hunt, Daniel, quoted by Ethan Bronner, New York Times, November 5. Durandin, quoted by Robert Marquand, Christian Science Monitor, November 17, 2008.12. Scott Helman, Boston Globe, November 9. Christopher Cooper, Wall Street Journal, November 8, 2008.13. Peter Wallsten and Tom Hamburger, Los Angeles Times, November 14, 2008.14. Joshua Partlow, Washington Post, October 20, 2008. Carlos Valdez, Associated Press, November 2, 2008.15. El Universal, October 21, 2009; Alfredo Valadez Rodríguez, La Jornada, September 22, 2009; Doris Gómora and Francisco Gómez, “Intaca Estructura Financiera del Narco,” El Universal, November 15, 2009, http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/640031.html, reporting that 78 percent of business sectors are infiltrated by narcotrafficking while the government does not report a single case of dismantling of these structures.16. Andean Information Network, September 16, 2009. Ron Brooks, chair of NNOAC, congressional testimony, http://74.125.113.132/search?q=cache:2nTw8wktJ7IJ:www.natlnarc.org/papers/Ron%2520Brooks%2520-Mexico%2520Decertification.doc+decertification+drugs&cd=4&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us&client=firefox-a.17. On Biden’s voting record, see U.S. Congress Votes Database, Washington Post online, http://projects.washingtonpost.com/congress/members/b000444/key-votes/.18. Lindsay Renick Mayer, “Obama’s Pick for Chief of Staff Tops Recipients of Wall Street Money,” Open Secrets.org, Center for Responsive Politics, November 5, 2008, http://www.opensecrets.org/news/2008/11/obamas-pick-for-chief-of-staff.html.19. Jason Riley, Wall Street Journal, November 8, 2008.20. Steve Early, “Unions to Obama: Don’t Abandon Us,” Boston Globe, December 6, 2008.21. Stephen Zunes, “Obama’s Caterpillar Visit a Thumb in the Eye for Human Rights Activists,” Alternet, February 14, 2009, http://www.alternet.org/story/126994.22. Peter Kendall and Colin McMahon, Chicago Tribune, September 6, 7, 9, 1992.23. See Isaac Cohen, “The Caterpillar Labor Dispute and the UAW, 1991–98” Labor Studies Journal 27, no. 4 (2003): 77–99; http://lsj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/27/4/77. Cohen questions the standard conclusion that the dispute was a complete debacle for the UAW, going into how the union devised methods to achieve limited gains in the following years. Sources and background, see Year 501, chap. 11.24. Tim Canova, “The Legacy of the Clinton Bubble,” Dissent, Summer 2008, http://www.dissentmagazine.org/article/?article=1229.25. David Felix, “Asia and the Crisis of Financial Globalization,” in Baker, Epstein, Pollin, eds., Globalization and Progressive Economics. See p. 107 above.26. Paul Krugman, Huffington Post, November 24, 2008. Stiglitz, cited in Joe Nocera, New York Times, October 25, 2008. Matt Appuzzo, Associated Press, December 22, 2008.27. Dean Baker, “Missing the Stock Bubble and Housing Bubble Makes You Qualified to Fix the Crisis,” Beat the Press, American Prospect online, November 8, 2008, http://prospect.org/csnc/blogs/beat_the_press_archive?month=11&year=2008&base _name=missing_the_stock_bubble_and_h&23.28. Tim Canova, “Change on Economy?” Institute for Public Accuracy, December 1, 2008, http://www.accuracy.org/newsrelease.php?articleId=1873.29. Eric Lipton and Raymond Hernandez, “A Champion of Wall Street Reaps Benefits,” New York Times, December 14, 2008.30. Jonathan Weil, “Obama’s Bailout Bunch Brings Us More of the Same,” Bloomberg, November 11, 2008, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601039&sid=aNCFKvAMUQ6w.31. Dean Baker, “Geithner at Treasury: Can He Learn?” Guardian, November 24, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/cifamerica/2008/nov/24/barackobama-timothy-geithner-treasury.32. See p. 113, note 14, chap. 4. Simon Johnson, “The Quiet Coup,” The Atlantic, May 2009, http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2009/05/the-quiet-coup/7364/.33. New York Times, July 15, 2009.34. Edward Luce, Financial Times, December 5, 2008.35. Henry Kissinger, Washington Post, December 5, 2008. Perle, Robert Dreyfuss, “Is Iran Policy Still Up for Grabs?” TomDispatch.com, December 2, 2008, http://www.tomdispatch.com/post/175009/robert_dreyfuss_is_iran_policy_still_up_for_grabs_. Warner, Peter Baker, “Obama’s National Security Team, and the Clintons,” New York Times, November 30, 2008, http://nytimes.com/2008/11/30/world/americas/630iht-transition.4.18270224.html.36. Robert Dreyfuss, Nation, January 5, 2009. NATO expansion, see chap. 12 below.37. Alan Nairn, Nation, September 27, 1999.38. Akiva Eldar, Haaretz, December 2, 2008 (Hebrew). Dennis Ross, The Missing Peace (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004). See Norman Finkelstein, Dennis Ross and the Peace Process (Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies, 2007); Failed States, 183–4.39. Quoted in Jeff Zeleny, New York Times, November 27, 2008.40. “Notable and Quotable,” Wall Street Journal, November 22, 2008.41. For a sample of polls, see Failed States, 225. For more extensive review, Vicente Navarro, Why the United States Does Not Have a National Health Program (Amityville, NY: Baywood, 1992); Dangerous to Your Health (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1993); The Politics of Health Policy (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1994), 210ff.42. David Kirkpatrick, New York Times, August 6, 2009; Kaiser Health Tracking Poll, April 2009. New York Times/CBS Poll July 24–28, 2009. Kevin Sack and Marjorie Connelly, New York Times, June 21, 2009. Chad Terhune and Keith Epstein, Business Week, August 6, 2009. On the arguments concocted against the public option, see Dean Baker, “The Public Plan Option and the Big Government Conservatives,” Truthout, September 14, 2009, http://www.truthout.org/091409I. For an enlightening account of how the privatized health system punishes patients in the service of its Wall Street masters, see the congressional testimony of former health insurance company senior executive Wendell Potter, July 10, 2009, at http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07102009/profile.htm.43. Janet Adamy, Wall Street Journal, September 16, 2009.44. Eric Kleefeld, “Poll: Public Still Doesn’t Like Health Care Bill--And Still Like Public Option, Medicare Buy-In,” Talking Points Memo, December 22, 2009, http://tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com/2009/12/poll-public-still-doesnt-likehealth-care-bill----and-still-like-public-option-medicare-buy-in.php. Katherine Seelye, New York Times, December 22, 2009. CBS News Poll, “The President, Health Care, and Terrorism,” January 6–10, 2010, http://www.cbsnews.com/htdocs/pdf/poll_obama_011110.pdf. Research poll, January 19, 2010, commissioned by pro-Democrat organizations.45. David Kirkpatrick, “In a Message to Democrats, Wall St. Sends Cash to G.O.P.” New York Times, February 8, 2010. “Obama, in Interview, Goes Easy on CEOs,” Wall Street Journal, February 11, 2010; Edward Luce, “Bonuses Are Part of U.S. Free Market, Obama Says,” Financial Times, February 11, 2010.46. Casey Ross, “Financial Executives Spent Big on Brown,” Boston Globe, February 1, 2010.47. Brian Mooney, Boston Globe, January 21, 2010. Peter Wallsten, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2010.48. Robert Gavin, “Blue-Collar Workers Bear Brunt of Decline, Ratio of Job Losses at Depression Level,” Boston Globe, January 19, 2010, reporting a study just released by Northeastern University’s Center for Labor Market Studies.49. Jane Slaughter, “Anger Boils over Health Care Bill,” Labor Notes, February 2010.50. Kara Scannell, Wall Street Journal, February 6, 2010. As the Journal notes, endorsement of the chair’s proposal is usually routine, though not since Obama took office. Evan McMorris-Santoro, “Shelby Blocks All Earmarks in the Senate Over AL Earmarks,” Talking Points Memo, February 4, 2010, http://tpmdc.talkingpointsmemo.com/2010/02/report-shelby-blocks-all-obama-nominations-in-the-senate-overal-earmarks.php. Damien Paletta, “Democrats Go It Alone on Revamp of Finance Regulation,” Wall Street Journal, February 6, 2010. Eric Lichtblau, New York Times, February 5, 2010.51. John Broder and Clifford Krauss, “Advocates of Climate Bill Scale Down Their Goals,” New York Times, January 27, 2010. Lisa Wangsness and Susan Milligan, “GOP Seeks to Block Obama’s Labor Pick,” Boston Globe, February 4, 2010. David Rosnick and Dean Baker, Taming the Deficit: Saving Our Children from Themselves (Center for Economic and Policy Research, December 2009), http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/taming-the-deficit-2009-12.pdf. Center for Economic and Policy Research, “Future Budget Deficits Almost Entirely Due to Rising Private Sector Health Care Costs,” August 12, 2009. Paul Krugman, “The Senate Becomes a Polish Joke,” New York Times, February 5, 2010.52. On Madison’s views, see my “Consent without Consent: Reflections on the Theory and Practice of Democracy,” Cleveland State Law Review 44, no. 4, (1996): 415–37. On the conflicting views of Madison and Aristotle on democracy and inequality, see Failed States, chap. 6.53. Perilous Power, Epilogue.54. On the Gaza events, see references of note 16, chap. 6.55. Aluf Benn, Israel News, November 20, 2008. Peres, Amnon Barzilai, Haaretz, October 24, 1995. Background, see World Orders Old and New, Epilogue.56. “Declaration of Principles for a Long-Term Relationship of Cooperation and Friendship Between the Republic of Iraq and the United States of America,” White House news release, November 26, 2007, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2007/11/20071126-11.html. Mary Beth Sheridan, Washington Post, November 17. Ahmed Rasheed and Aws Qusay, Reuters, November 18, 2008.57. Steven Simon, Foreign Affairs, May/June 2008. Gardner, Last Chance, 13.58. International Herald Tribune, see Lauren Drablier, Nieman Watchdog, November 28, 2008, http://www.niemanwatchdog.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=background.view&backgroundid=308.59. See Patrick Cockburn, “America Concedes,” London Review of Books, December 18, 2008. Jonathan Steele, “The Total Defeat of the US Plan to Install a Supine Ally in the Middle East,” Guardian, November 27, 2008. See Steele’s Defeat for detailed and highly informed review of how and why Bush and Blair “lost their war, and were bound to do so.”60. For review, see Rethinking Camelot. As noted, more has appeared since but leaving the basic picture intact, and as discussed in RC, it was clear enough at the time.61. Quoted in Sheridan, Washington Post.62. Editorial, Washington Post, July 23, 2008.63. De Hoop Scheffer, Associated Press/Novum, June 29, 2007; Trouw (Netherlands), 2008. Shawn McCarthy, Globe and Mail (Toronto), June 19, 20, 2008. Mriganka Jaipuriyar and Shiva Lingam, “India Joins TAPI Natural Gas Pipeline Project; Turkmen Gas Flows Via Afghanistan, Pakistan to Start in 2015,” Platts Oilgram News, April 28, 2008. On NATO and control over Europe after the Soviet collapse, see Gibbs, First Do No Harm, focusing on the Balkans wars.64. Eric Schmitt and Mark Mazzetti, New York Times, November 10, 2008. Sami Moubayed, “US’s Syrian Raid Sets Iraq on Fire,” Asia Times, November 1, 2008. Stephen Zunes, “Bush’s Unauthorized Attack on Syria Killed Civilians; Dems Silent,” Alternet, November 11, 2008, http://www.alternet.org/story/106329/. Arab world, Assaf Kfoury, “‘They Couldn’t Handle the Donkey So They Beat the Saddle!’” November 11, 2008. Saudi press, Freeman, Middle East Policy, Spring 2008.65. David Kilkullen and Andrew M. Exum, New York Times, op-ed, May 17, 2009. The U.S. command disputes these figures. On the futuristic plans of the administration for drone development, and the possibilities they might provide not only for assassination of suspects but far more generally for population control, down to personal dwellings, and world domination on the cheap, see Nick Turse, “The Forty-Year Drone War,” Tomgram, January 24, 2010, http://www.tomdispatch.com/archive/175195/.66. Barbara Plett, BBC News, Bajaur, October 31, 2008. Pervez Hoodbhoy, Dawn, March 9, 2008.67. Stephen Graham, Associated Press, November 3, 2008. Supplies, Bruce Riedel, Current History, November 2008.68. Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos (New York: Viking Press, 2008). Hoodbhoy, interviewed by Cristina Otten for Focus, http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/tid-12856/pakistan-die-menschen-sind-blind-vor-hass_aid_355157.html. Riedel, quoted by Tim Weiner, New York Times, December 7, 2008.69. Karen DeYoung and Joby Warrick, Washington Post, November 16, 2008.70. Ismail Khan and Pir Zubair Shah, New York Times, October 28, 2008.71. Candace Rondeaux, Washington Post, November 6, 2008. Barry Newhouse, Voice of America, November 26, 2008. Rondeaux, Washington Post, November 27, 2008.72. Jimmy Burns and Daniel Dombey, Financial Times, October 6, 2008. Jason Burke, Observer, September 28, 2008.73. Declan Walsh, Guardian, May 22, 2008.74. Agence France-Presse, May 8, 2008. Joint declaration of the National Peace Jirga of Afghanistan and the Cooperation for Peace (Germany), National Peace-Jirga of Afghanistan, nd. Anand Gopal, Christian Science Monitor, October 20, 2008.75. Environics, 2007 Survey of Afghans, October 18, 2007.76. Jason Straziuso, Associated Press, January 27, 2008.77. “Face to Face with the Foot Soldiers,” Globe and Mail (Toronto), March 22, 2008.78. Rodric Braithwaite, Financial Times, October 15, 2008.79. Rasil Basu, Asian Age, December 3, 2001; Rasil Basu, MS, Fall 1988.80. Malalai Joya, A Woman Among Warlords: The Extraordinary Story of an Afghan Who Dared to Raise Her Voice (New York: Scribner, 2009).81. Nikolai Lanine, Globe and Mail (Toronto), November 30, 2006; “A Soviet Case for Bombing Iran: Logic of Interference,” January 5, 2009, draft. Lanine and MediaLens, “Invasion—a Comparison of Soviet and Western Media Performance,” November 24, 2007, Znet.82. Barnett Rubin and Ahmed Rashid, Foreign Affairs, November–December 2008.83. Senator Barack Obama, speech at AIPAC Policy Conference (June 4, 2008), http://www.aipac.org/Publications/SpeechesByPolicymakers/PC_08_Obama.pdf.84. The practice continued. See among many others Al Jazeera, “Israel Stops Aid Ship to Gaza,” June 30, 2009; Mel Frykberg, Christian Science Monitor, June 30, 2009. Over the years, the practice has occasionally been mentioned in the United States, but only casually, in passing. For references on these long-standing criminal practices, see note 6, chap. 6, above.85. “Public Opinion in Iran and America on Key International Issues,” poll, World Public Opinion.org, January 24, 2007, http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/pdf/jan07/Iran_Jan07_rpt.pdf. Chicago Council on Global Affairs, “Global Views 2008.” It may be that public opinion has shifted under the intense propaganda assault of the years since. Ten: Obama on Israel-Palestine

1. “President Obama Delivers Remarks to State Department Employees,” Washington Post online, transcript, January 22, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/22/AR2009012202550.html.2. See Zertal and Eldar, Lords of the Land.3. On what he has had to say since, and its intended lack of force, see above, pp. 177f.4. Finkelstein, “This Time We Went Too Far.” Amnesty International called for an arms embargo on Israel and Hamas, the latter irrelevant to the United States of course. New arms during the war, and the Greek refusal to deliver them, see “Exterminate All the Brutes.”5. Roula Khalaf, Financial Times, January 19, 2009. See chap. 12, below.6. Barak Ravid, Haaretz, January 19, 2009.7. See Carothers, Critical Mission. It is superfluous to review once again the ample historical record.8. Among others, Palestinian National Authority prime minister Ismail Haniyeh (Hamas), Washington Post, July 11, 2006. Hamas political leader Khalid Meshal, Zafarul-Islam Khan, Milli Gazette, India, September 16, 2007; Guardian (Khalid Meshal), February 13, 2007; Avi Issacharoff, Haaretz, April 2, 2008; Taghreed el-Khodary and Ethan Bronner, New York Times, May 5, 2009; Jay Solomon and Julien Barnes-Dacey, Wall Street Journal, Wall Street Journal (online), July 31, 2009. For more general review, Fawaz Gerges, Nation, February 3, 2010.9. Khaled Abu Toameh, Jerusalem Post, January 23, 2009.10. Wall Street Journal, January 2, 2009; Associated Press, January 22, 2009; Financial Times, January 23, 2009; Christian Science Monitor, January 23, 2009; Financial Times, January 23, 2009.11. Ken Ellingwood, Los Angeles Times, June 25, 2006. There were a few other mentions. The only serious coverage in English appears to have been in the Turkish Daily News, June 25, 2006. On the regular Israeli practices, see above, pp. 146–47 and note 6, chap. 6.12. Al Mezan press release, “IOF Kidnaps Five Palestinian Children in North Gaza,” Reference 74/2009, September 7, 2009, http://www.mezan.org/en/details.php?id=9028&ddname=&id_dept=9.13. M. Karim Faiez and Laura King, Los Angeles Times, January 24, 2009.14. Dexter Filkins, New York Times, January 22, 2009. Karzai, see above, p. 242. Eleven: The Torture Memos




1. Report of the Senate Armed Services Committee, Inquiry into the Treatment of Detainees in U.S. Custody, 110th Congress, 2nd Sess., November 28, 2008 (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2008) p. 72, http://documents.nytimes.com/report-by-the-senate-armed-services-committee-on-detainee-treatment#p=72. Jonathan Landay, “Abusive Tactics Used to Seek Iraq-al Qaida Link,” McClatchy Newspapers, April 21, 2009. Gordon Trowbridge, “Levin: Iraq Link Goal of Torture,” Detroit News, April 22, 2009.2. Paul Krugman, “Reclaiming America’s Soul,” New York Times, April 24, 2009.3. Alfred McCoy, A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006). Also Alfred McCoy, “The U.S. Has a History of Using Torture,” http://hnn.us/articles/32497.html. Jennifer Harbury, Truth, Torture, and the American Way (Boston: Beacon Press, 2005). Jane Mayer, “The Battle for a Country’s Soul,” New York Review of Books, August 14, 2008.4. News and Comment, January 24, 2009, www.allannairn.com.5. Lars Schoultz, Comparative Politics, January 1981. Edward Herman, in Noam Chomsky and Edward Herman, Political Economy of Human Rights, vol. I, chap. 2.1.1 (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1979); Edward Herman, Real Terror Network (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1982), 26ff.6. McCoy, “U.S. Has a History.” Levinson, “Torture in Iraq & the Rule of Law in America,” Daedalus, Summer 2004.7. Glenn Greenwald, “Obama and Habeas Corpus—Then and Now,” Salon, http://www.salon.com/news/opinion/glenn_greenwald/2009/04/11/bagram/index.html. Among other examples of backtracking, see Nedra Pickler and Matt Apuzzo, “Still No Rights for Bagram Prisoners,” Associated Press, Army Times, February 20, 2009, http://www.armytimes.com/news/2009/02/ap_terrordetainees022009/.8. Daphne Eviatar, “Obama Justice Department Urges Dismissal of Another Torture Case,” Washington Independent, March 12, 2009, http://washingtonindependent.com/33679. Dostum returned to Afghanistan from exile in August 2009, just before the elections, where he lent his support to President Karzai. On his past exploits, see Joya, Woman Among Warlords.9. William Glaberson, New York Times, May 16, 1, 2009.10. Michael Kinsley, Wall Street Journal, March 26, 1987.11. Patrick Cockburn, “Torture? It Probably Killed More Americans Than 9/11,” Independent, April 6, 2009.12. Anonymous (Rajiv Chandrasekaran), “From Captive to Suicide Bomber,” Washington Post, February 22, 2009.13. Robert Fisk, Independent, September 12, 200114. Jesse Holland, Associated Press, May 9, 2009. New York Times. See above, p. 163 and note 40, chap. 6.15. On the horrendous background for My Lai, see Political Economy of Human Rights, vol. I, 315–16, based on unpublished notes given to me by Newsweek Saigon bureau chief Kevin Buckley. See also Christopher Hitchens, The Trial of Henry Kissinger (London: Verso, 2001), 30f., for the same material from the same source. For new and highly important information on the Hampton assassination, see Jeffrey Haas, The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther (Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 2010). For new and quite astonishing revelations about the U.S. bombing of Cambodia and its crucial role in creating the Khmer Rouge, see Cambodia specialists Taylor Owen and Ben Kiernan, “Bombs Over Cambodia,” The Walrus (Canada), October 2006; posted on Znet. The evasion of these revelations by those who deplore Khmer Rouge atrocities, even when specifically brought to their attention, is instructive. It is not a new phenomenon, nor unique to Cambodia, but nevertheless revealing in the light of the intense focus, often with extraordinary deception, on the terrible crimes of the Khmer Rouge, which followed. For review of the dismal record, see Manufacturing Consent. It continues since, in much the same vein, often with mounting hysteria and deceit. All of this reflects, in this case quite dramatically, the usual difference between the reaction to their crimes, which we can do little if anything about, and our crimes, which we can commonly do a great deal about: in this case, terminating them at once, or at least having the decency to remember them. But they are best kept hidden, like much else that is unpalatable. Twelve: 1989 and Beyond


1. Timothy Garton Ash, Guardian, November 4, 2009; Matthew Ryder, Observer, November 15, 2009. Glossed over in the celebrations was the bloody downfall of the most vicious of the Eastern European dictators, Nicolae Ceausescu, a special favorite of Reagan and Bush I until the last days of his savage rule, when he was overthrown from within, like other killers and torturers of their entourage.2. Bertrand Benoit, Financial Times, November 9, 2009.3. BBC, December 9, 2009.4. Carothers, Critical Mission. During the Reagan years, he writes, there was indeed progress toward democracy in Latin America: in the southern cone, where U.S. influence was least and despite Reagan’s efforts to impede it by embracing right-wing dictators. Where U.S. influence was strongest, in the regions nearby, progress was least. The reason is that Washington sought to maintain “the basic order of what, historically at least, are quite undemocratic societies.” Reagan’s “democracy promotion” endeavors would tolerate only “limited, top-down forms of democratic change that did not risk upsetting the traditional structures of power with which the United States has long been allied.”5. Teresa Whitfield, Paying the Price (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1995).6. Antonio Rubio, El Mundo, November 21, 2009.7. Hans Küng, The Catholic Church (New York: Modern Library, 2001).8. Talk at a rare commemoration, November 30, 2009, at Boston College (Jesuit). See Father Sobrino’s talk at Santa Clara University, California (Jesuit), November 5, 2009, http://www.adital.com.br/site/noticia.asp?lang=ES&cod=42881.9. Derek Scally, Irish Times, November 2, 2009.10. Adam Isaacson and Joy Olson, Just the Facts 1999 Edition (Washington, DC: Latin America Working Group and Center for International Policy, 1999).11. Whitfield, Paying the Price.12. Cited with approval by Timothy Garton Ash, New York Review of Books, January 18, 1990, and William Luers, Foreign Affairs, Spring 1990. For a sample of reactions, see Deterring Democracy, chap. 10. See also Matthew Alexander, “How to Turn a Terrorist,” National Interest no. 106 (March/April 2010).13. Anthony Lewis, New York Times, March 2, 1990.14. Elaine Sciolino, New York Times, February 27, 1990: David Shipler, op-ed, New York Times, March 1, 1990. Time, March 12, 1990. For more extensive review of the reaction to this stunning triumph of democracy, see Deterring Democracy, chap. 10.15. Quoted by Jon Reed, Guardian (New York), May 23, 1990. On the reaction to the killing of one Polish priest (his murderers tried and convicted) and one hundred religious martyrs in Central America at the same time (murdered with impunity), see Manufacturing Consent, chap. 2. For one dramatic illustration in May 1986, see my Necessary Illusions (Cambridge, MA: South End Press, 1989), appendix 1, comparing the hysterical outrage over the memoirs of one Cuban political prisoner and the silence greeting the simultaneous release of a 160-page report of sworn testimony and videotapes of 430 political prisoners in El Salvador’s main torture chamber, an incredible act of courage, smuggled out of the prison, giving precise and extensive details of their torture by the U.S.-backed security forces; in one case, electrical torture by a North American major in uniform. Greeted with the usual silence, scarcely broken.16. Zelaya, Greg Grandin, “Muscling Latin America.”17. Dimitri Simes, senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, in a year-end think piece on the prospects of the ending of the Cold War; New York Times, December 27, 1988. Abrams cited by Stephen Kurkjian and Adam Pertman, Boston Globe, January 5, 1990.18. For details, see Deterring Democracy, chap. 1.19. Oxfam, cited by John Vidal, Observer, October 11, 2009, reporting on reduction of food aid by the rich countries in the face of mounting catastrophe.20. Mark Kramer, Washington Quarterly, April 2009.21. Sarotte, op-ed, New York Times, November 30, 2009; “Not One Inch Eastward?” Diplomatic History 34, no. 1 (January 2010).22. Neil Ascherson, London Review of Books, January 7, 2010. Index


Abbas, Mahmoud, 44, 147, 177, 188, 201, 254, 256Abdullah of Jordan, King, 177Aborigines, 17, 24Abrahamian, Ervand, 171Abrams, Elliott, 144, 145, 147, 276–77“abuse of reality,” 39–41Adams, John Quincy (JQA), 23–24, 26, 49Afghanistan, 242–48funding for war in, 64George W. Bush and, 263–64jihadis and, 241Obama and, 238, 242, 247–49, 257Taliban in, 141, 238, 242U.S. invasion of, 193, 240, 242–48, 257–58U.S. mega-embassy in, 63U.S. troops in, 141, 258women’s rights in, 246African Americans, 79African National Congress (ANC), 163African Union (AU), 168Ahmadinejad, Mahmoud, 144Ajmi, Abdallah al-, 266ALBA, 103, 117Albright, Madeleine, 128Allende, Salvador, 37al-Qaeda, 27, 141, 239, 259“American exceptionalism,” 39, 42, 48, 52, 267, 268American Indians, 16–18Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), 123Aminzai, Bakhtar, 243Anselem, Lewis, 68“anti-globalization,” 35, 73antimissile systems, 200. See also ballistic missile defense (BMD) programs; missile defense programsapartheid, South Africa under, 163Arab League proposal, 253, 254Arab Peace Initiative, 177–78, 234Arafat, Yasser, 154, 180, 225Aristide, Jean-Bertrand, 10, 11, 213Ascherson, Neil, 280Australia, 184Baath party, 222Bacevich, Andrew, 287n23Baghdad, U.S. embassy in, 63Bairoch, Paul, 76, 80, 86Baker, Dean, 54, 89–90, 108, 220, 222, 232Baker, James, 279Baker, Russell, 18–19, 283n21ballistic missile defense (BMD) programs, 172, 173. See also missile defense programsBangladesh, 14–15Barak, Ehud, 159, 180Basu, Rasil, 245–46Bazin, Marc, 10Beaumont, Peter, 183Bellerive, Jean-Max, 14Benedict XVI, Pope, 273Bengal, 15Benn, Aluf, 234Berle, A. A., 55Berlin wall, 270fall of, 3, 269, 271, 273bin Laden, Osama, 52, 141, 194Blair, Dennis, 224Blair, Tony, 23, 170Boehner, John, 211Boliviademocracy and elections in, 101, 104, 115, 213–15drug war and, 215, 216economics, 70–71, 104U.S. relations with, 105U.S. troops in, 59Boron, Atilio, 99–100Bosch, Orlando, 51Boumediene v. Bush, 262–63Brady, Thomas, 15Braithwaite, Rodric, 244–45Bretton Woods system, 82–84, 98–99Britain, 89, 169–70. See also EnglandBritish colonies and imperialism, 14–15, 17, 21, 80Bronner, Ethan, 157Brown, Scott, 228, 230, 231Brzezinski, Zbigniew, 199Burke, Jason, 242Burney, Charles, 259Buscaglia, Edgardo, 216Bush, George H. W., 45, 46, 62East Germany and, 273, 279Iraq and, 128Israel and, 187NATO and, 279Nicaragua and, 275Panama and, 134terrorism and, 42Bush, George W., 12, 45Afghanistan and, 263–64Arabs and, 192–93Axis of Evil speech, 138“democracy promotion” and, 42, 44–46, 66, 143, 144economic policies, 64Europe and, 170expansion of military capacity under, 136Hamas and, 147Iraq and, 23, 24, 42–44, 140, 141North Korea and, 138, 139on “Palestinian state,” 178, 186preventive war doctrine, 23 (See also Bush doctrine)Syria and, 144Tony Blair and, 170torture and, 260Venezuela and, 66“vision,” 203Bush doctrine, 23, 24, 42, 51, 239Butler, Lee, 165Calderón, Felipe, 216Cambodia, 312n15Camp David 2000 Summit, 179, 225Canada, 69, 243Canova, Tim, 221capital investment and productivity, 76Carothers, Thomas, 45, 270–71Carriles, Luis Posada, 51Carter, Jimmy, 41, 62, 254, 302n23Castro, Fidel, 51–53Caterpillar, 217–18Catholic Church, history of, 272–74Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) “torture paradigm,” 260, 262, 264Chang, Ha-Joon, 72, 91Chávez, Hugo, 98, 100, 141, 142Chellaney, Brahma, 167–68Cheney, Dick, 259, 260, 266Chile, 92–93, 116China, 69, 78, 114Christianity, history of, 272–74Cirincione, Joseph, 135Citigroup/Citicorp, 219–20civilians, responsibility to protect, 20climate change, 95, 111, 217, 232Clinton, Bill, 24, 168, 171, 179, 180, 187, 223Haiti and, 11Iraq and, 128, 129NATO and, 136Operation Gatekeeper, 29torture and, 262Clinton, Hillary Rodham, 186, 189, 225, 226Clinton doctrine, 24Clive, Robert, 14cocaine, 215Cochabamba, 104Cohen, Roger, 21Cold War, 37Colombia, 58–59, 215colonialism, 14–15, 17, 22. See also imperialism; specific topicsColumbus, Christopher, 3, 18–19“Convergence program” and “Convergence plus,” 180–81, 203 Cooper, Helene, 137cooperative security location (CSL), 58–59corporate law, 30–31corporate personhood debate, 31–35corporations, nature of, 30–31Correa, Rafael, 57“crisis of democracy,” 98Crocker, Ryan, 132Cuba, 14, 22, 49–53economic warfare against, 51–53, 55Guantánamo Bay and, 31Haiti and, 14Henry Cabot Lodge and, 22Spain and, 14, 22, 50U.S. diplomacy with, 136U.S. intervention in 1898, 14, 22–23, 50, 136Cuban Five, 51Cuba-Venezuela relations, 69–70Cumings, Bruce, 138, 139Dahlan, Muhammad, 147, 148Davidson, Basil, 81Day of Mourning in Panama, 134Dayan, Moshe, 148–49, 160, 186Dayton, Keith, 201, 202Declaration of Principles for U.S. and Iraqi governments, 140“defense industrial base,” 277. See also military spendingdeficit, federal, 64–65democracycitizen responsibility and, 52essential principle of, 145“excessive,” 98financial liberalization and, 98, 114(See also financial liberalization)hopes and enemies of development and, 75–102, 193See also elections; Haiti“democracy promotion,” 11, 41–42, 45, 211–12, 238, 270George W. Bush administration and, 42, 44–46, 66, 143, 144Obama and, 67–68South America and, 45, 66, 102, 114(See also under Latin America)UN Resolution 687 and, 170See also Haiti, democracy in“democratic deficit” in United States, 135Desch, Michael, 40–41development. See democracy, hopes and enemies of development and; research and developmentDewey, John, 96–97DeYoung, Karen, 130Diego Garcia, 168Diehl, Jackson, 188Dimon, Jamie, 229Dodd, Christopher, 109, 232Dominican Republic, 47–48domino theory, 55, 116Dostum, Rashid, 263Drake, Francis, 6Dreyfuss, Robert, 223drug prices, pharmaceutical, 226–27drug trade“free trade” and, 78–79See also narcotrafficking “drug war,” 56–57, 60–62, 79, 215–16, 277Dulles, John Foster, 49Early, Steve, 217East Germany, 171, 173, 273, 279–80East Timor, 184Eatwell, John, 107Economic Charter for the Americas, 25economic warfare, 68. See also under CubaEcuador, 71Edwards, John, 226“efficient market” theology, 64Egypt, 80–81, 192Eichengreen, Barry, 99Einstein, Albert, 166Eisenhower, Dwight D., 49, 193El Salvador, 271, 274–76Eldar, Akiva, 188elections2008 U.S., 207, 209–16, 221 (See also Obama, presidential campaign)free, 67, 101, 143–47, 151, 153Emanuel, Rahm, 216, 217, 222“emerging humanitarian norm,” 20, 21.See also responsibility to protect Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 17Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA), 217Englandeconomics, 78, 81–82See also Britain Essentials of Post-Cold War Deterrence, 165–66EuropeGeorge W. Bush and, 170“Old” vs. “New,” 43, 44European imperialism. See imperialismEvans, Gareth, 184, 185exceptionalism. See “American exceptionalism”Fall, Bernard, 122Fayyad, Salam, 253–54Federal Reserve Board, 113Feldman, Noah, 52Felix, David, 71, 83, 107, 219Ferguson, Thomas, 32, 108, 208financial crises, 93, 107, 108, 207, 228deregulation and, 219financial liberalization and, 105, 108recent and current, 63, 73, 109, 110, 212–13, 217, 221–22, 226Savings & Loan crisis, 211See also housing bubble financial institutions, 92, 107–11, 113, 209, 228Charles Schumer and, 221China as model for, 114Glass-Steagall Act and, 219globalization and, 35, 73Haiti and, 10recent bailouts of, 105, 219–21Timothy Geithner and, 221financial instruments, 220, 221financial liberalization, 72, 93, 97–98, 105, 107, 108, 111, 114financial sector, 93, 107, 110–11financial liberalization and the power of, 212Iran and, 174Joe Biden and, 216Obama and, 212, 228–29Patriot Act and, 174financialization of the economy, 34, 79, 93, 94, 97, 231Fites, Donald, 218Florida, 23, 24, 49, 51Fourteen Points (Woodrow Wilson), 48Framework Agreement of 1994, 138France, 80Franklin, Bruce, 56Franks, Tommy, 57Fraser, Doug, 218free speech, corporate personhood and, 32–34“free trade,” 6, 37, 78, 93criticism of the term, 90drug trade and, 78–79“free circulation of labor” and, 29vs. protectionism, 6, 76–78, 80, 81, 89, 211Reagan and, 12slavery and, 78, 79See also neoliberalism “free trade agreements,” 31, 90–91, 93, 103–4monopoly pricing rights in, 86national security exemptions in, 86See also North American Free Trade Agreement freedom of association, 208Freeman, Chas, 171French colonies, 7. See also imperialismFriedman, Thomas, 42, 143, 145, 146Fromkin, Dan, 177Frum, David, 223Gaddis, John Lewis, 23, 24, 26Gardner, David, 126, 193–94, 236Gaza Strip, 44, 45, 143, 159, 2032005 evacuation, 161fishing industry, 183–84Gilad Shalit and, 146, 256, 257Hamas and, 147, 150, 151, 155Hamas-led prison break, 143, 156Israel–Gaza Strip barrier, 150, 256, 270Israel’s naval blockade of, 183–84Israel’s use of U.S. arms in, 204, 253natural gas and economy of, 184Obama and, 233, 251, 253, 256Palestinian state and, 178, 180restrictions on movement in, 184, 186separation from West Bank, 148, 149, 181–82U.S.-Israeli invasion of, 147, 149–55, 182–83, 192, 201–2, 204, 233, 251victims of U.S.-Israeli attacks in, 278Gazanskidnapped by Israeli forces, 146, 257as “protected persons,” 45, 155, 186Geithner, Timothy, 220–21“genocidal” policies, 129Gerecht, Reuel Marc, 197–98Gerges, Fawaz, 26German Democratic Republic (GDR), 279. See also East GermanyGermany, 86, 278Gerson, Joseph, 66Gerson, Michael, 223Ging, John, 151Glass-Steagall Act, 219, 229global warming, 95, 111, 217, 232“globalization,” vii, 35–38, 73neoliberal, 94true, 118See also specific topics Golan, Avirama, 159Goldberg, Jeffrey, 180Gómez, Juan Vicente, 54Gonzales, Alberto R., 266Gorbachev, Mikhail S., 66, 269, 273, 278–80Gordon, Michael, 133Gottemoeller, Rose, 196Grande, Rutilio, 274Great Depression, 77, 98Greater Jerusalem, 180, 181Greenspan, Alan, 87, 108–9, 212Guantánamo Bay detention camp, 31, 260, 263–66Guatemala, 105Guernier, Maurice, 175Hague Convention of 1907, 155Haiti, 7–12Bill Clinton and, 11democracy in, 10–11, 104, 213France and, 7, 9, 12, 66, 104, 213overthrow of elected government in, 7, 11–12, 66, 68, 104, 213poverty and financial problems, 7–15Reagan and, 10takeover by U.S. corporations, 8–9terrorism and, 11U.S. dumping in, 12Venezuela and, 14Woodrow Wilson, State Department, and, 8, 47, 48World Bank and, 9Hale, Kenneth, 5–6Halliday, Denis, 129Halper, Jeff, 186Hamas, 147, 148, 150–53Gaza Strip and, 143, 147, 150, 151, 155, 156Obama and, 233–34, 254popularity and elections won by, 145, 147, 153proposed two-state settlement, 255as terrorist organization, 249, 254–55Hamilton, Alexander, 77Harbury, Jennifer, 260Hasenfuss, Eugene, 264Hass, Amira, 182Havel, Vaclav, 274, 275health care, 92, 226–28for “illegal aliens,” 31health care reform, 110, 112, 226–28, 230, 231Hekmatyar, Gulbuddin, 243Henríquez y Carvajal, Francisco, 48Hernández, Gerardo, 51Hersh, Seymour, 139Herzog, Haim, 160Hezbollah, 144–47, 249, 250Hill, Christopher, 137Hirohito, 48–49Ho Chi Minh, 48Hodgson, Geoffrey, 21Holder, Eric, 225Honduras, 58, 66–68, 117Hoodbhoy, Pervez, 240, 241Hoover Institution, 22Horwitz, Morton, 30housing bubble, 64, 108–9, 212–13Huntington, Samuel, 40idealismforeign policy and, 42–48, 52, 123, 143, 185John Quincy Adams and, 23–24Wilsonian, 8, 10, 23, 45, 47, 48, 54, 122See also United States, political idealsIgnatius, David, 42–43immigrants, undocumented, 31imperialism, 3–4, 6, 14–15, 17–20, 22culture of, 62, 134–35“expansion is the path to security” doctrine, 27“salt water fallacy,” 22–23See also Spanish conquerors; specific topicsimport substitution industrialization, 77India, 194–95Indonesia, 224Indonesia-Australia Timor Gap Treaty, 184–85insurance industry, 110. See also health care reforminteractionNuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and, 135, 169, 196, 197, 199, 249, 250nuclear weapons and, 135, 169, 188, 194, 196–200, 249International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 170, 194International Labor Organization, 208International Monetary Fund (IMF), 67, 70, 72, 90, 106, 108International Republican Institute (IRI), 68Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate (ISI), 241investment theory of politics, Ferguson’s, 32, 108, 208, 212“invisible hand” (Adam Smith), 81Iran, 127, 194IraqBaath party, 222Clinton sanctions against, 128, 129democracy and, 121–22economic problems, 127George W. Bush and, 23, 24, 42–44, 140, 141“good news” about, 130–33oil and, 140oil-for-peace program, 128–29“the right issue” and “more profound questions” regarding, 133–34U.S. military bases in, 62–63, 140–41“Iraq effect,” 28Iraq War, 41–42, 125–29, 235–37American public opinion and, 131–32compared with Nazi war crimes, 131compared with Vietnam War, 237ethnic cleansing and, 132refugees and displaced persons, 125–26See also Iraq, “good news” aboutIraqis“shared beliefs” and opinions, 130–31U.S. attitude toward, 133voice of, 133, 134Israelattack on Iraq’s nuclear reactor, 197democracy and, 157–58Iran and, 139North Korea and, 139Syria and, 139U.S. relations with, 139–40, 145See also specific topics Israel Lands Administration, 159Israel-Palestine problem“democracy promotion” and, 44Obama and, 177, 178, 181, 190–91, 195–96, 233, 249–58settlement expansion, 186–89, 253United Nations and, 195, 252–53See also specific topics Jackson, Robert, 131Jacobs, Lawrence, 47Japan, 15, 26, 48–49, 81Jefferson, Thomas, 17–18Jennings, Frances, 14Jerusalem, 224–25Jesus, 273–74Jewish National Fund (JNF), 158jihadis, 193–94, 241Johnson, Lyndon B., 55–56Johnson, Simon, 222Jones, James, 223–24Jordan, 125, 126Joya, Malalai, 246–48Karzai, Hamid, 242, 245, 257–58Katz, Yisrael, 187Kay, David, 197Kayani, Ashfaq Parvez, 240Kennan, George, 24–25, 28Kennedy, Anthony, 32, 33Kennedy, Edward M., 230Kennedy, John F., 49, 53, 123, 237Kennedy, Robert F., 50, 123Kerry, John F., 201–3, 221Keynes, John Maynard, 6, 82, 99Kfoury, Assaf, 145Khamenei, Ali, 197Kimmerling, Baruch, 161–62Kindelberger, Charles, 78Kinsley, Michael, 265Kirchner, Néstor, 70Kissinger, Henry, 116, 223Knox, Henry, 19Kohl, Helmut, 273, 279Kramer, Mark, 279Kranish, Michael, 109–10Krugman, Paul, 220Kurtzer, Dan, 224, 225labor, free circulation of, 29labor law, 217–19international, 208Lahood, Ray, 95Lanine, Nikolai, 248Latin AmericaChina’s relations with, 25choices facing, 102, 114–15democratization, 100, 105“Economic Charter for the Americas” imposed on, 25economic inequality in, 71–72, 114global conquest and, 4–6militarization, 62shift toward independence in, 71“social cleansing,” 61social justice, human rights, and, 38unity of Caribbean and, 103–18U.S. foreign policy and, 25, 37, 39–73, 116, 174See also specific countries Lebanon, 146–47, 153, 154, 2572008 election, 143George W. Bush and, 144Hezbollah and, 144, 146–47Israel’s 2006 invasion of, 146, 153, 250Obama and, 144, 250Levinson, Charles, 202Levy, Gideon, 202Lewis, Anthony, 124–25, 274–75Liberal Illiberalism, U.S., 40–42Liberia, 7Lieberman, Avigdor, 156limited liability, 30Lippmann, Walter, 47, 122, 136Lissakers, Karen, 72Livni, Tzipi, 157Llorens, Hugo, 67Lodge, Henry Cabot, 22Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio, 70Lynd, Staughton, 96Ma’aleh Adumim, 180, 188Madison, James, 18, 233Mafia doctrine, 55Maguire, Mairead Corrigan, 148Maliki, Nouri al-, 239Mandela, Nelson, 267MANTECH (manufacturing technology), 88Maoz, Zeev, 170Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 5Mauritius, 168Mayr, Ernst, 175McCain, John, 209, 212McCoy, Alfred, 203, 262McFaul, Michael, 65McGlynn, John, 174–75Medicare, 227Meir, Golda, 195Mercosur, 70Merkel, Angela, 270Meron, Theodor, 148Meshal, Khaled, 153Mexican-U.S. border, 28–29, 31, 270Mexico, 29, 31, 49, 60, 70, 90“American invasion” of, 160NAFTA and, 29, 35–36, 215–16, 270Ralph Waldo Emerson on, 17Walt Whitman on, 16Meyers, Steven Lee, 154Michael, B., 154military, U.S., 62–63military spending, 63–65, 84–85Mill, John Stuart, 267missile defense programs, 65, 86, 199. See also ballistic missile defense (BMD) programsMitchell, George, 251, 255, 256Monning, Bill, 66monopolies, 77, 86–90Monroe, James, 19Monroe Doctrine, 53, 54Morales, Evo, 59–60, 70–71, 115, 213Morgan, Edmund, 18–19Morgenson, Gretchen, 113Morgenthau, Hans, 21, 39–40Morris, Benny, 154Mubarak, Hosni, 191, 192Multi-National Force-Iraq, 130Nairn, Alan, 224, 260–61Najibullah, Mohammad, 245narcoterrorism, 57. See also “drug war”narcotrafficking, 78–79, 215–16, 267, 276. See also drug tradeNational Democratic Institute (NDI), 68“national interest,” 98National Peace Jirga, 242, 243national security. See security“national treatment,” right of, 31nationalism, 25Native Americans. See American Indians “natural growth exceptions” to policy opposing new settlements, 186natural resources, limited access to, 167Necessary Illusions (Chomsky), 313n15Negbi, Moshe, 155Negroponte, John, 264neoliberal globalization, financialization of economy in era of, 94neoliberal market fundamentalism, 105neoliberal market “reforms,” 100neoliberalism, 53, 70, 75, 79, 81–84central doctrine of, 93Chile and, 92vs. democracy, 91and development, 75–76See also financial liberalization Neoliberalismo y Globalización, viiNetanyahu, Binyamin, 178, 180, 186, 189, 201, 234New Deal, 38, 77“new initiative” for Middle East peace, 182, 201, 203New Nationalism, 25Nicaragua, 46, 2759/11 terrorist attacks, 26–28, 266–67“war on drugs” and, 57Nixon, Richard M., 37, 42, 61, 116Noble, David, 88Non-Aligned Movement, 135, 196Norris, John, 287n23North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 29, 35–36, 69, 69, 91, 215–16, 270North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 65, 171, 238, 248, 278East German territories and, 171, 173, 279–80expansion, 65, 136, 173–74, 223, 279–80Gorbachev and, 136, 171, 279“NATO response force,” 223–24“responsibility to protect” and, 185North Korea, 137–40Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 194–97Iran and, 135, 169, 196, 197, 199, 249, 250Israel and, 194, 195Obama and, 165–66, 194, 196, 197, 199, 249, 250Pakistan and, 240Reagan and, 240United States and, 136nuclear weapons, 166, 174Diego Garcia and, 168eliminating/ending the threat of, 136, 65–67India and, 194–95Iran and, 135, 169, 188, 194, 196–200, 249Iraq and, 128, 198Israel and, 194, 196, 197, 199, 249Lee Butler on, 165NATO and, 171no-first-use policy, 166, 171North Korea and, 137–39Obama and, 165–66, 194–96, 249Pakistan and, 169, 194, 196, 198, 210, 240, 249Russia and, 168, 171Saddam and, 127–28, 139, 197, 198See also ballistic missile defense (BMD) programs; missile defense programs; weapons of mass destructionnuclear weapons programs, U.S. allies with extensive, 249nuclear weapons–free zones (NWFZs), 63, 135, 167–69, 171, 173, 250. See also weapons of mass destruction free zoneNuremberg principles, 131Obama, Barack, 144, 170, 195, 203, 217, 218, 225, 251Afghanistan and, 238, 242, 247–49, 257al-Qaeda and, 239appointments and administration, 217, 219–23, 225Arab League proposal and, 252–54on Arab peace initiative, 251–52Arabs and, 191Bolivia and, 216“brand Obama,” 210, 214, 250Bush doctrine and, 239Cairo address to Muslim world, 177, 189–90on democracy and elections, 191, 192financial industry and, 217, 228–30“free market” policy extended by, 92Gaza and, 253, 256George Mitchell and, 251on Hamas, 254Hamid Karzai and, 242, 257health care and, 226–28, 231Honduras and, 67–68, 276international law and, 262Iran and, 249Iraq and, 234, 237–38Israeli settlements and, 187Israel-Palestine problem and, 177, 178, 181, 190–91, 195–96, 233, 249–58on Jordan, 256Justice Department, 263, 264labor law reform, 217, 218on Middle East peace, 254military commissions reinstated by, 264military spending and, 64Mubarak and, 191, 192“new initiative” for Middle East, 182, 201, 203Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and, 249Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and, 165–66, 194, 196, 197, 199, 250nuclear weapons and, 65–66, 165–66, 194–96, 249on “Palestinian state,” 178, 180, 182, 190–91presidential campaign, 65, 129, 210, 212–15, 233 (See also elections, 2008 U.S.)Reagan and, 210–11State Department talk, 251–52torture and, 261–64Venezuela and, 68Obama-Netanyahu-Abbas meetings, as turning point in U.S. Middle East policy, 177Ocampo, José Antonio, 82oil, Middle East, 55, 69oil industry, 112oil-for-peace program, 128–29Olmert, Ehud, 152, 156, 180, 188, 189, 203Olsen, Norman, 147Operation Gatekeeper, 29Operation Miracle, 70Organization of Islamic States, 178Orwell, George, 41 Oslo Accords, 179Page, Benjamin, 47Pakistan, 238, 240, 241, 246al-Qaeda and, 141nuclear weapons and, 169, 194, 196, 198, 210, 240, 249Obama and, 203, 210, 239, 248, 249Reagan and, 194, 210, 240–41Taliban and, 141, 242, 244, 246U.S. embassy in, 63, 203U.S. raids in, 239–40U.S. troops in, 141, 203, 248Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid (Carter), 254, 302n23Palestinian Authority Security Forces (PASF), 202Palestinianselections and self-determination, 52, 189, 203, 253options for, 159–63See also specific topics Palmerston, Lord, 80Panama, 56–57, 59, 134, 276Parker, Geoffrey, 4Pastor, Robert, 46, 152–53Patriot Act, 174Pearl Harbor, 26, 125.See also Japan Pelindaba, Treaty of, 168Pentagon, 88Peres, Shimon, 149, 178–79, 186, 234Peres-Shamir-Baker plan, 178–79Pérez, Louis, 50Perle, Richard, 223Petraeus, David, 126, 132, 134, 200, 240Philippines, 23“piracy,” 6plutonomies, 94Podesta, John, 219Pollin, Robert, 83“populism,” 56, 57Porath, Yehoshua, 154Porter, Bernard, 22poverty, 13. See also under Haitiprivatization, 90–92and democracy, 90propaganda, 298n22 protectionism, 6, 76–78, 80, 81, 89, 211. See also “free trade”Putin, Vladimir, 136–37, 172–73Qureshi, Shah Mehmood, 242Rashid, Ahmed, 241Rasul v. Rumsfeld, 263–64Reagan, Ronald, 62, 312n4Afghanistan and, 246characterizations of, 21–22“democracy enhancement” programs, 10free trade and, 12Haiti and, 10Nicaragua, domino theory, and, 56Obama on, 210, 211Pakistan, Zia-ul-Haq, and, 240–41and right-wing dictators and democracy in Central America, 45, 46torture and, 262as transformative figure, 210–11vision, 211–12realism and “realists,” 39, 47, 68“Red Scare,” 48Regev, Mark, 151Remnick, David, 153research and development (R&D), 85–86, 89–90, 94responsibility to protect (R2P), 20, 21, 50, 185, 186, 238, 277–78Ricardo, David, 81–82Rice, Condoleezza, 147Rice, Susan, 20, 21Riedel, Bruce, 241Roberts, John G., 31, 32Rocker, Rudolf, 97Romero, Oscar, 271Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 125Roosevelt, Theodore, 19–20Rose, David, 147Rosen, Nir, 126–27Rosnick, David, 232Ross, Dennis, 225Roy, Sara, 152, 182Rubin, James, 129Rubin, Robert, 219, 220Rumsfeld, Donald, 43, 44, 131, 241, 259, 260, 263, 266Russell, Bertrand, 166Russia, 136–37, 173, 277. See also Soviet satellitesSaddam Hussein, 41, 127, 128, 134, 139, 222, 237“salt water fallacy,” 22–23Santa Cruz, Hernán, 38Santiso, Javier, 92Sarotte, Mary Elise, 279, 280Schlesinger, Arthur, 49, 53, 122, 123, 125Schmitz, David, 37, 41Schneller, Otniel, 156–57Schoultz, Lars, 67, 261Schroeder, Gerhard, 86Schumer, Charles, 221Sciolino, Elaine, 135securityexpansion and, 27government policies and, 27–30Seib, Gerald, 133–34self-determination, 48. See also under PalestiniansSeptember 11, 2001. See 9/11 terrorist attackssettler-colonialism, 22Sewall, Sarah, 302n20Shalit, Gilad, 146, 256, 257Shamir, Yitzhak, 154Sharon, Ariel, 252Shelby, Richard, 232Simon, Steven, 235Simpson, Cam, 145Singh, Ajit, 91Sistani, Ayatollah, 236slavery, 78, 79, 81, 95Smith, Adam, 15, 16, 27, 29, 37, 77, 81maxim, 16, 30, 47, 94, 108, 278“social cleansing,” 61social democratic attitudes, 208–9Solow, Robert, 76South Africa, 163South America. See Latin AmericaSouth American Defense Council, 59South Korea, 72South Pacific NWFZ treaty, 168sovereignty, loss of, 75Soviet satellites, 271, 272, 275. See also East GermanySoviet Union, 90Spanish conquerors and colonies, 20–22“special interests,” 98Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA), 235–37, 239Steele, Jonathan, 129Stevens, John Paul, 33–34Stiglitz, Joseph, 86, 220Stimson, Henry, 118Story, Joseph, 19STRATCOM, 165–66structural adjustment, 106Suharto, 43Summers, Lawrence, 219–21Supreme Court, 34corporate personhood and, 31–35Syria, 139, 144, 239Iraq and, 125–26, 239Obama and, 239, 249U.S. raid of, 239Taiwan, 9Talabani, Jalal, 239Taliban, 141, 243, 246Afghanistan and, 141, 238, 242public opinion regarding, 141, 243tariffs. See “free trade”Taylor, Lance, 107technology, 87–89, 93terrorism, 26–29, 249war on, 42, 60–61, 267–68See also specific topics Texas, annexation of, 17Thailand, 90Thucydides, 37Tiedeman, Christopher, 30Timor Gap Treaty, 184–85Torricelli, Robert, 51–52Torture Convention, UN, 262torture memos, 259–68“trade,” concept of, 90trade liberalization, 76and third world, 80See also “free trade” Trujillo, Rafael, 47Turkey, 44Turner, Mark, 100“unholy trinity,” 72Union of South American Nations (UNASUR), 59–60, 104, 115United Nations (UN), 128–29, 163Charter, 136, 150, 195, 200, 250Committee on Disarmament, 167Human Development Index, 175Israel-Arab conflict and, 195, 252–53R2P and, 20, 185, 278Security Council, 129, 146, 148, 149, 169, 179, 195, 249, 278Resolution 242 (UN 242), 161, 179Resolution 687, 136, 170Resolution 1887, 195, 200Torture Convention, 262World Food Program, 12United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), 151United Statescharacterizations of, 21early history, 17–20Fourth Fleet, 57Liberal Illiberalism, 40–42mega-embassies, 63, 203“national identity,” 40“national purpose,” 39–40political ideals, 40–41, 46–47, 97, 122, 131–32 (See also “democracy promotion”; idealism)popular attitudes toward social democratic (welfare state) programs, 208–9“transcendent purpose,” 39See also specific topics Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR), 38, 99Uttar Pradesh, 213Valenzuela, Arturo, 68van Alstyne, R. W., 18van Creveld, Martin, 197Venezuela, 14, 66, 69, 98, 100, 103, 117.See also Chávez, Hugo Vietnam, 48Vietnam War, 61, 62, 122–25, 237, 312n15domino theory and, 55–56Vilnai, Matan, 156von Sponeck, Hans, 129Wade, Robert, 83Waldman, Michael, 32Wall Street, 113, 216, 220–22, 229Walzer, Michael, 157, 298n28war crimes, 131“war on drugs.” See “drug war”“war on terror.” See terrorism, war onWarner, John, 223Warren, Elizabeth, 110Washington, George, 17, 24weaponization of space, 65weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), 36, 41–42, 127–28. See also ballistic missile defense (BMD) programs; missile defense programs; nuclear weaponsweapons of mass destruction free zone (WMDFZ), 135, 136, 169, 170, 200–201. See also nuclear weapons–free zonesweapons sales and agreements, 63–64.See also military spending Weil, Jonathan, 222Weisbrot, Mark, 117Weiss, Leonard, 199West Bank, 148, 150, 189, 202Gaza’s separation from, 148, 149, 181–82Hamas and, 145Israel’s plan to bisect, 180, 181Obama and, 253restrictions imposed on Palestinians in, 186settlements in, 188, 189, 253Western hemisphere, European conquest of, 3–4White, Harry Dexter, 82White, Wayne, 197White, William, 111Wilson, Woodrow, 8, 23, 30, 34, 42, 48, 122Wilsonian idealism, 8, 10, 23, 45, 47, 48, 54, 122Winthrop, John, 21Wiranto, 224Wolf, Martin, 111Wolfowitz, Paul, 43World Bank, 72, 90, 186World Trade Organization (WTO), 72World War IIimpact on United States, 54, 85Japan and, 48–49Zardari, Asif Ali, 240Zelaya, Manuel, 66, 67, 117Zia-ul-Haq, Muhammad, 240–41Zunes, Stephen, 105, 239 Table of Contents

Preface


PART I: LATIN AMERICA

One Year 514: Globalization for Whom?Two Latin America and U.S. Foreign PolicyThree Democracy and Development: Their Enemies, Their HopesFour Latin American and Caribbean Unity PART II: NORTH AMERICA

Five “Good News,” Iraq and BeyondSix Free Elections, Good News and BadSeven Century’s ChallengesEight Turning Point?Nine Elections 2008: Hope Confronts the Real WorldTen Obama on Israel-PalestineEleven The Torture MemosTwelve 1989 and BeyondNotesIndex Table of Contents

Preface


PART I: LATIN AMERICA

One Year 514: Globalization for Whom?Two Latin America and U.S. Foreign PolicyThree Democracy and Development: Their Enemies, Their HopesFour Latin American and Caribbean Unity PART II: NORTH AMERICA



Five “Good News,” Iraq and BeyondSix Free Elections, Good News and BadSeven Century’s ChallengesEight Turning Point?Nine Elections 2008: Hope Confronts the Real WorldTen Obama on Israel-PalestineEleven The Torture MemosTwelve 1989 and BeyondNotesIndex
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