Pearson Edexcel as and a level in History Scheme of work



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Pearson

Edexcel AS and A Level

in History



Scheme of work

Paper 3, Option 38.2: The making of modern China, 1860–1997



Introduction

This document provides a sample scheme of work for Paper 3, Option 38.2: The making of modern China, 1860–1997 that should be adapted by centres to fit their timetabling and staffing arrangements. It is meant as an example approach only and it not intended to be prescriptive.

The scheme assumes 19 teaching weeks for Paper 3. Centres may choose to teach Paper 3 in Year 12, to start Paper 3 at the end of Year 12, to teach Paper 3 at the start of Year 13 or to teach it after the coursework has been completed. The separate course planner document provides a range of examples of delivery options that can be used for planning alongside this document.

Two possible approaches to delivering Paper 3 are given below, one which starts with a broad overview of the topic and covers the themes, before returning to look at the aspects in depth; and one which does the aspects in depth first then returns to do an overview of the period using the themes.



Breadth then depth

This approach begins with a broad overview of the topic. It covers all the main themes first so that students can contextualise the later depth topics. It then returns and looks at the different aspects in depth.



Week

Topic

Content

Suggested resources

1

Introductions

Introduction to Paper 3, including explanation of the division into Breadth and Depth aspects, and reasons for studying China, 1860–1997.

Background/context for China 1860:



  • Definition of key terms;

  • China’s political system in 1860;

  • China’s economy in 1860;

  • China’s relationship with the outside world;

  • China’s geography.

Overview from Topic booklet for this option.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76 (Heinemann, 2006), introduction.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10 (Cambridge University Press, 1978), chapter 1 considers China in 1800.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China (W W Norton, 2001), chapter 7 discusses China at the beginning of the nineteenth century.



VIDEO: China Triumph and Turmoil (Channel 4, 2012). Episode 1: Emperors, examines Chinese history to 1949.

2

Breadth 1
The growth of industry

Introduction to Breadth themes.

Improved communications and the application of western technologies, 1860–1997 (key developments: the growth of railways, steam ships for coastal and river traffic in the later Qing Empire, telegraphy and road building in the 1930s, air transport in the later twentieth century).



Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76 (Heinemann, 2006), chapter 9 deals with the Great Leap Forward.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76 (Hodder, 2008), chapter 2.3 considers the first Five-Year Plan.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10 (1978), chapter 4 considers Anglo-Chinese relations 1820–42 and chapter 5 deals with the treaty system, 1842–60; Volume 14 (1987), chapters 2 and 3 consider Mao’s economic policy 1949–57.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 11 discusses modernisation in the last years of the Qing dynasty.



3

Breadth 1
continued

The growth of mining and manufacturing, 1860–1997. Key developments:

  • the growth of textile production in Shanghai in the later Qing Empire, developments in Manchuria under the Japanese in the 1930s, the first Five-Year Plan 1953–57.

4

Breadth 1
continued

The growth of mining and manufacturing, 1860–1997. Key developments (continued):

  • electrical power, technological innovation in the digital age.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 3 considers Mao’s economic policies during the Great Leap Forward.

Yves Chevrier, Mao and the Chinese Revolution, (Interlink, 2000), chapter 6 discusses the Great Leap Forward.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 14 (1987), chapters 7 and 8 examine the Great Leap Forward and its impact; Volume 15 (1991), chapter 6 gives a detailed account of Deng’s early economic reforms 1977–82.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 27 discusses China’s economic performance in the 1990s.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China (Blackwell, 2013), chapter 12 discusses China’s changing economic policies 1949–97.

VIDEO: Mao’s Great Famine (History Channel, 2012).

VIDEO: People’s Century (BBC, 1995). Episode 20 examines the Great Leap Forward.


5

Breadth 2 Ideologies and individuals behind economic growth

Ideas and ideologies as factors promoting change, 1860–1957. Key developments:

  • the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s and 70s, the cult of science and rejection of traditional values in the May Fourth Movement 1915–24, Marxism and the Soviet inspired cult of heavy industry in the early 1950s.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapter 4 deals with rival ideological visions of China.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 1 considers Mao’s ideology.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10 (1978), chapter 10 details the Self-Strengthening Movement.

David S Goodman, China and the West: Ideas and Activists (Manchester University Press, 1990), chapter 1 considers radicals within the Chinese intellectual tradition 1850–1950.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 12 (1983), chapter 8 deals with the May Fourth Movement and its impact.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 13, discusses intellectual currents in Republican China including the May Fourth Movement and the origins of Chinese Marxism.



6

Breadth 2
continued

Ideas and ideologies as factors promoting change, 1959–1997. Key developments (continued):

  • modifying soviet Marxism and ‘walking on two legs’ 1958, the embrace of capitalism in the 1980s and 90s.

The roles of individuals in promoting economic growth, 1860–1949:

  • Li Honghzhang, Sheng Xuanhuai, Sung Tzu-wen [TV Soong] (key developments: the establishment of the first modern bank in China 1897, the China Development Finance Corporation in the 1930s).

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 3 considers Mao’s economic policies during the Great Leap Forward.

Wang Gungwu, China and the World since 1949 (St Martin’s Press, 1977), chapter 2 deals with the pressure for change in China in the middle of the twentieth century.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 15 discusses TV Soong, and the ideology of the Guomindang.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 11 discusses Chinese intellectuals in the 1920s and 1930s.

Edmund S K Fung, The Intellectual Foundations of Chinese Modernity (Cambridge University Press, 2010), provides a comprehensive account of political thought in the Republican era.


7

Breadth 2
continued

The roles of individuals in promoting economic growth, 1949–1997 (continued):

  • Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaping (key developments: the Great Leap Forward 1958–61, the launch of the Four Modernisations 1978).

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 7 deals with Deng’s reforms relationship with the US.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 15, (1994), chapter 1 gives a detailed account of Mao’s thought.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, part 5 discusses the impact of Deng and the Four Modernisations.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 12 discusses the impact of Mao and Deng.

VIDEO: Mao Tse Tung: China's Peasant Emperor (History Channel, 1998).

VIDEO: China Triumph and Turmoil (Channel 4, 2012). Episode 2: Maostalgia, examines Mao’s legacy.



8

Depth 1
Opening up China to foreigners, 1860–70

Introduction to Depth aspects.

The significance of the Treaty of Tianjin 1860.



  • The significance of growing foreign trade;

  • the British in Shanghai and penetration of the Yangtze valley.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10 (1978), chapter 5 deals with the treaty system, 1842–60; Volume 10 (1978), chapter 11 deals with the impact of western missionaries to 1900.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 10 discusses China’s relations with European imperialism.

Martin Stuart-Fox, A Short History of China and South East Asia (Allen and Unwin, 2003), chapter 6 discusses the impact of trade with European nations.


9

Depth 1
continued

  • The impact of the spread of foreign language schools, teaching English and French;

  • growing awareness amongst the elite of other cultures and ideas;

  • the impact of missions and missionaries;

  • the Tianjin massacre of 1870 and its immediate consequences.

10

Depth 2
Defeat and humiliation,
1894–1901

The significance of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95:

  • causes and consequences;

  • the Treaty of Shimonoseki and the loss of Taiwan and Korea.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapter 2 deals with the fall of the Qing Dynasty.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 10 discusses the Sino-Japanese War and colonialism in China 1895–98.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 9 discusses China’s response to Western imperialism in the late nineteenth century.


11

Depth 2
continued

The impact of the Triple Intervention and concessions to France, Russia and Germany. The role of Britain and the granting of new concessions: Weihaiwei and Hong Kong's New Territories.

12

Depth 2
continued

    The significance of the Boxer Rebellion,
    1898–1900:

  • causes and the attitude of Empress Cixi;

  • events and consequences.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapters 10 and 11, discusses the rebellion and the fall of the Qing.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 10 discusses the Boxer Movement and the fall of the Qing dynasty.

Martin Stuart-Fox, A Short History of China and South East Asia, chapter 6 covers the last years of the Qing.

VIDEO: In Search of History: China's Boxer Rebellion (History Channel, 1997).

FILM: 55 days at Peking (1963). Hollywood depiction of the Boxer Rebellion.


13

Depth 3
The Japanese threat, 1931–41

  • The significance of the Manchurian Crisis of 1931–33;

  • Jiang Jieshi’s (Chiang Kai-shek) response;

  • the loss of Manchuria and conflict in Shanghai;

  • the treaty of Tanggu.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapter 5 deals with the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 15 discusses China’s relationship with Japan and the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 11 discusses China’s relationship with Japan and the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Richard T Phillips, China since 1911 (Macmillan, 1996), chapter 5 discusses the causes, course and impact of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Second World War.

VIDEO: Short pieces on the Second Sino-Japanese War: www.history.co.uk/search/site/china

FILM: The Last Emperor (1987). Contains sequences set in the Second Sino-Japanese War.

PODCAST: In our time: Second Sino-Japanese War (BBC, 2014).


14

Depth 3
continued

  • The reasons for all-out war 1937;

  • the Marco Polo Bridge Incident;

  • the fight for Shanghai August–November 1937.



  • The impact of war, 1937–39;

  • the seizure of the coast;

  • the rape of Nanjing;

  • the retreat to Chongqing.

  • The role and importance of the USA, 1940–41;

  • the significance of 7 December 1941 for China.

15

Depth 4
The Sino-Soviet split, 1958–69

The significance of Russian demands in 1958 and the clash of personalities between Khrushchev and Mao.

  • The breakdown of relations, 1959–60;

  • private insults, public disagreements.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapters 7 and 11 deal with different aspects of communism in China and China’s relationship with Russia.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 4 considers aspects of the Cultural Revolution. Chapters 6.1 and 6.2 deal with China’s relationship with the USSR.

Yves Chevrier, Mao and the Chinese Revolution, chapter 7 discusses the Sino-Soviet split, as do Michael Lynch, Mao (Routledge, 2004), chapter 7, and Wang Gungwu, China and the World since 1949 , chapters 5 and 6.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 14 (1987), chapter 11 gives a detailed account of Sino-Soviet relations 1958–64; Volume 15 (1991), chapter 3 gives a detailed account of Sino-Soviet relations 1965–75.

VIDEO: People’s Century (BBC, 1995). Episode 12 considers China in the Cold War.

FILM: The East Is Red (1965). A film of the Maoist opera, celebrating Mao’s role in the Chinese path to socialism.

FILM: Red Detachment of Women (1970). Film of the model ballet, depicting the triumph of communist women against capitalism.

FILM: The New China (1951). A Soviet documentary about communism in China.


16

Depth 4
continued

The reasons for, and importance of, Mao's growing fears of the Soviet Union, its intervention in Chinese affairs and the perceived Russian threats to his position, 1961–68.

The significance of military confrontation in 1969.



17

Depth 5 Reconciliation with old enemies and the return of Hong Kong, 1978–97

The significance of China's growing importance in world organisations:

  • the UN Security Council;

  • IMF and the World Bank;

  • increasing diplomatic ties throughout the world.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–6, chapters 11 and 12 deal with China’s relationship with the US.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 6.3 deals with China’s relationship with the US.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 15 (1991), chapter 5 discusses China’s relationship with America 1968–82.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 12 discusses China’s relationship with the west from 1969 and China’s growing role in international institutions.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, part 5 discusses relations between Deng’s China and the West.

Martin Stuart-Fox, A Short History of China and South East Asia, chapter 9 discusses China since Mao.

Joseph Fewsmith, China since Tiananmen From Deng Xiaoping to Hu Jintao (Cambridge University Press, 2008), chapter 2 discusses Deng’s reforms.

VIDEO: Richard Overy discusses China’s relationship with the West:


www.history.co.uk/search/site/china

VIDEO: China Triumph and Turmoil (Channel 4, 2012). Episode 3: Superpower, examines China’s rise.

FILM: Red Chinese Battle Plan (1968). American propaganda film, depicting the history of China and the perceived threat of Maoism.

FILM: Nixon (1995). Oliver Stone film, includes a sequence in which Nixon discusses politics with Mao.



18

Depth 5
continued

  • The significance of closer cooperation with Japan;

  • treaties, trade, diplomatic visits.

Significance of improved relations with the USA:

  • full diplomatic relations 1979, Deng's visit to the USA 1979 and Jiang Zemin’s 1997;

  • growing trade.

19

[half]


Depth 5
continued

The importance of the peaceful return of Hong Kong in July 1997: negotiations and terms.

Depth then breadth

This approach begins with the depth topics. With this approach, students gain a detailed understanding of those episodes before looking at the broad sweep of the themes over the period.



Week

Topic

Content

Suggested resources

1

Introductions

Introduction to Paper 3, including explanation of the division into Breadth and Depth aspects, and reasons for studying China, 1860–1997.

Background/context for China 1860:



  • Definition of key terms;

  • China’s political system in 1860;

  • China’s economy in 1860;

  • China’s relationship with the outside world;

  • China’s geography.

Overview from Topic booklet for this option.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76 (Heinemann, 2006), introduction.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10 (Cambridge University Press, 1978), chapter 1 considers China in 1800.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China (W W Norton, 2001), chapter 7 discusses China at the beginning of the nineteenth century.



VIDEO: China Triumph and Turmoil (Channel 4, 2012). Episode 1: Emperors, examines Chinese history to 1949.

2

Depth 1
Opening up China to foreigners, 1860–70

The significance of the Treaty of Tianjin 1860.

  • The significance of growing foreign trade;

  • the British in Shanghai and penetration of the Yangtze valley.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10 (1978), chapter 5 deals with the treaty system, 1842–60; Volume 10 (1978), chapter 11 deals with the impact of western missionaries to 1900.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China (Blackwell, 2013), chapter 10 discusses China’s relations with European imperialism.

Martin Stuart-Fox, A Short History of China and South East Asia (Allen and Unwin, 2003), chapter 6 discusses the impact of trade with European nations.


3

Depth 1
continued

  • The impact of the spread of foreign language schools, teaching English and French;

  • growing awareness amongst the elite of other cultures and ideas;

  • the impact of missions and missionaries;

  • the Tianjin massacre of 1870 and its immediate consequences.

4

Depth 2
Defeat and humiliation,
1894–1901

The significance of the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95:

  • causes and consequences;

  • the Treaty of Shimonoseki and the loss of Taiwan and Korea.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapter 2 deals with the fall of the Qing Dynasty.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 10 discusses the Sino-Japanese War and colonialism in China 1895–98.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 9 discusses China’s response to Western imperialism in the late nineteenth century.


5

Depth 2
continued

The impact of the Triple Intervention and concessions to France, Russia and Germany.

The role of Britain and the granting of new concessions: Weihaiwei and Hong Kong's New Territories.



6

Depth 2
continued

    The significance of the Boxer Rebellion,
    1898–1900:

  • causes and the attitude of Empress Cixi;

  • events and consequences.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapters 10 and 11, discusses the rebellion and the fall of the Qing.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 10 discusses the Boxer Movement and the fall of the Qing dynasty.

Martin Stuart-Fox, A Short History of China and South East Asia, chapter 6 covers the last years of the Qing.

VIDEO: In Search of History: China's Boxer Rebellion (History Channel, 1997).

FILM: 55 days at Peking (1963). Hollywood depiction of the Boxer Rebellion.


7

Depth 3
The Japanese threat, 1931–41


  • The significance of the Manchurian Crisis of 1931–33;

  • Jiang Jieshi’s (Chiang Kai-shek) response;

  • the loss of Manchuria and conflict in Shanghai;

  • the treaty of Tanggu.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapter 5 deals with the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 15 discusses China’s relationship with Japan and the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 11 discusses China’s relationship with Japan and the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Richard T Phillips, China since 1911 (Macmillan, 1996), chapter 5 discusses the causes, course and impact of the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Second World War.

VIDEO: Short pieces on the Second Sino-Japanese War: www.history.co.uk/search/site/china

FILM: The Last Emperor (1987). Contains sequences set in the Second Sino-Japanese War.

PODCAST: In our time: Second Sino-Japanese War (BBC, 2014).


8

Depth 3
continued


  • The reasons for all-out war 1937;

  • the Marco Polo Bridge Incident;

  • the fight for Shanghai August–November 1937.




  • The impact of war, 1937–39;

  • the seizure of the coast;

  • the rape of Nanjing;

  • the retreat to Chongqing.

  • The role and importance of the USA,
    1940–41;

  • the significance of 7 December 1941 for China.

9

Depth 4
The Sino-Soviet split, 1958–69

The significance of Russian demands in 1958 and the clash of personalities between Khrushchev and Mao.

  • The breakdown of relations, 1959–60;

  • private insults, public disagreements.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapters 7 and 11 deal with different aspects of communism in China and China’s relationship with Russia.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76 (Hodder, 2008), chapter 4 considers aspects of the Cultural Revolution. Chapters 6.1 and 6.2 deal with China’s relationship with the USSR.

Yves Chevrier, Mao and the Chinese Revolution (Interlink, 2000), chapter 7 discusses the Sino-Soviet split, as do Michael Lynch, Mao (Routledge, 2004), chapter 7, and Wang Gungwu, China and the World since 1949 , chapters 5 and 6.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 14 (1987), chapter 11 gives a detailed account of Sino-Soviet relations 1958–64; Volume 15 (1991), chapter 3 gives a detailed account of Sino-Soviet relations 1965–75.

VIDEO: People’s Century (BBC, 1995). Episode 12 considers China in the Cold War.

FILM: The East Is Red (1965). A film of the Maoist opera, celebrating Mao’s role in the Chinese path to socialism.

FILM: Red Detachment of Women (1970). Film of the model ballet, depicting the triumph of communist women against capitalism.

FILM: The New China (1951). A Soviet documentary about communism in China.


10

Depth 4
continued


The reasons for, and importance of, Mao's growing fears of the Soviet Union, its intervention in Chinese affairs and the perceived Russian threats to his position, 1961–68.

The significance of military confrontation in 1969.



11

Depth 5 Reconciliation with old enemies and the return of Hong Kong, 1978–97

The significance of China's growing importance in world organisations:

  • the UN Security Council;

  • IMF and the World Bank;

  • increasing diplomatic ties throughout the world.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–6, chapters 11 and 12 deal with China’s relationship with the US.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 6.3 deals with China’s relationship with the US.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 15 (1991), chapter 5 discusses China’s relationship with America 1968–82.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 12 discusses China’s relationship with the west from 1969 and China’s growing role in international institutions.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, part 5 discusses relations between Deng’s China and the West.

Martin Stuart-Fox, A Short History of China and South East Asia, chapter 9 discusses China since Mao.

Joseph Fewsmith, China since Tiananmen From Deng Xiaoping to Hu Jintao (Cambridge University Press, 2008), chapter 2 discusses Deng’s reforms.

VIDEO: Richard Overy discusses China’s relationship with the West:


www.history.co.uk/search/site/china

VIDEO: China Triumph and Turmoil (Channel 4, 2012). Episode 3: Superpower, examines China’s rise.

FILM: Red Chinese Battle Plan (1968). American propaganda film, depicting the history of China and the perceived threat of Maoism.

FILM: Nixon (1995). Oliver Stone film, includes a sequence in which Nixon discusses politics with Mao.



12

Depth 5
continued

  • The significance of closer cooperation with Japan;

  • treaties, trade, diplomatic visits.

Significance of improved relations with the USA:

  • full diplomatic relations 1979, Deng's visit to the USA 1979 and Jiang Zemin’s 1997;

  • growing trade.

13

Depth 5
continued

The importance of the peaceful return of Hong Kong in July 1997: negotiations and terms.

14

Breadth 1
The growth of industry

Introduction to Breadth themes.

Improved communications and the application of western technologies, 1860–1997 (key developments: the growth of railways, steam ships for coastal and river traffic in the later Qing Empire, telegraphy and road building in the 1930s, air transport in the later twentieth century).



Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapter 9 deals with the Great Leap Forward.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 2.3 considers the first Five-Year Plan.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 10 (1978), chapter 4 considers Anglo-Chinese relations 1820–42 and chapter 5 deals with the treaty system, 1842–60; Volume 14 (1987), chapters 2 and 3 consider Mao’s economic policy 1949–57.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 11 discusses modernisation in the last years of the Qing dynasty.



15

Breadth 1
continued

The growth of mining and manufacturing, 1860–1997. Key developments:

  • the growth of textile production in Shanghai in the later Qing Empire, developments in Manchuria under the Japanese in the 1930s, the first Five-Year Plan 1953–57.

16

Breadth 1
continued

The growth of mining and manufacturing, 1860–1997. Key developments (continued):

  • electrical power, technological innovation in the digital age.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 3 considers Mao’s economic policies during the Great Leap Forward.

Yves Chevrier, Mao and the Chinese Revolution, chapter 6 discusses the Great Leap Forward.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume 14 (1987), chapters 7 and 8 examine the Great Leap Forward and its impact; Volume 15 (1991), chapter 6 gives a detailed account of Deng’s early economic reforms 1977–82.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 27 discusses China’s economic performance in the 1990s.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 12 discusses China’s changing economic policies 1949–97.

VIDEO: Mao’s Great Famine (History Channel, 2012).

VIDEO: People’s Century (BBC, 1995). Episode 20 examines the Great Leap Forward.


17

Breadth 2
Ideologies and individuals behind economic growth

Ideas and ideologies as factors promoting change, 1860–1957. Key developments:

  • the Self-Strengthening Movement of the 1860s and 70s, the cult of science and rejection of traditional values in the May Fourth Movement 1915–24, Marxism and the Soviet inspired cult of heavy industry in the early 1950s.

Geoff Stewart, China 1900–76, chapter 4 deals with rival ideological visions of China.

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 1 considers Mao’s ideology.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 10 (1978), chapter 10 details the Self-Strengthening Movement.

David S Goodman, China and the West: Ideas and Activists (Manchester University Press, 1990), chapter 1 considers radicals within the Chinese intellectual tradition 1850–1950.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 12 (1983), chapter 8 deals with the May Fourth Movement and its impact.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 13, discusses intellectual currents in Republican China including the May Fourth Movement and the origins of Chinese Marxism.



18

Breadth 2
continued

Ideas and ideologies as factors promoting change, 1959–1997. Key developments (continued):

  • modifying soviet Marxism and ‘walking on two legs’ 1958, the embrace of capitalism in the 1980s and 90s.

The roles of individuals in promoting economic growth, 1860–1949:

  • Li Honghzhang, Sheng Xuanhuai, Sung Tzu-wen [TV Soong] (key developments: the establishment of the first modern bank in China 1897, the China Development Finance Corporation in the 1930s).

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 3 considers Mao’s economic policies during the Great Leap Forward.

Wang Gungwu, China and the World since 1949 (St Martin’s Press, 1977), chapter 2 deals with the pressure for change in China in the middle of the twentieth century.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, chapter 15 discusses TV Soong, and the ideology of the Guomindang.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 11 discusses Chinese intellectuals in the 1920s and 1930s.

Edmund S K Fung, The Intellectual Foundations of Chinese Modernity (Cambridge University Press, 2010), provides a comprehensive account of political thought in the Republican era.


19

Breadth 2
continued

The roles of individuals in promoting economic growth, 1949–1997 (continued):

  • Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaping (key developments: the Great Leap Forward 1958–61, the launch of the Four Modernisations 1978).

Michael Lynch, The People’s Republic of China 1949–76, chapter 7 deals with Deng’s reforms relationship with the US.

Denis Twitchett and John K Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China, Volume 15 (1994), chapter 1 gives a detailed account of Mao’s thought.

Jonathan D Spence, The Search for Modern China, part 5 discusses the impact of Deng and the Four Modernisations.

Morris Rossabi, A History of China, chapter 12 discusses the impact of Mao and Deng.

VIDEO: Mao Tse Tung: China's Peasant Emperor (History Channel, 1998).

VIDEO: China Triumph and Turmoil (Channel 4, 2012). Episode 2: Maostalgia, examines Mao’s legacy.










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