|Past Questions from AP Euro Test
1. Compare and contrast the Renaissance with the Later Middle Ages 2. To what extent is the Renaissance truly a departure from the past? 3. To what extent did Renaissance humanism affect the view of the
4. Analyze the influence of humanism on Renaissance art. Select at
least three artists and analyze at least one work for each artist.
5. Analyze the impact of patronage on Renaissance art.
6. To what extent were women impacted by the Renaissance?
New Monarchies, Exploration, and 16th Century Society:
1. Who were the “New Monarchs”? How did they go about centralizing
power in their states? To what extent were they successful?
2. What were the causes and features of the Commercial Revolution?
How did the Commercial Revolution impact European society
politically, economically, and socially between1500-1700?
3. Analyze the role that knowledge, politics and technology played in
European exploration between 1450 and 1700.
4. Compare and contrast the European “Old Imperialism” in Africa and
Asia with the European domination of the New World between 1450
5. Analyze causes for the rise of the Spanish Empire and features of
Spain’s rule in the New World
6. Analyze the impact of the Columbian Exchange on European
7. Analyze factors that enabled Europeans to dominate world trade
between 1500 & 1700.
1. Analyze the causes of the Protestant Reformation
2. Compare and contrast the doctrines and practices of Lutheranism
and Calvinism with Catholic doctrines and practices.
3. To what extent did Renaissance humanism result in the
4. Compare and contrast the English Reformation with Luther’s
reformation in Germany.
5. Analyze the impact of the Protestant Reformation on European
politics and society in the 16th century. Be sure to consider
Germany, England, France and the Netherlands.
6. To what extent did the Catholic Church succeed in achieving its
goals during the Counter Reformation?
7. Analyze how Baroque art and architecture reflect the ideals of the
Wars of Religion
1. Analyze the impact that religion played in the Dutch Revolt, the
French Civil Wars, the Thirty Years’ War, and the English Civil War.
2. Analyze the extent to which the religious policies of the following
rulers were successful:
Philip II, Elizabeth I, Henry IV, James I, & Charles I, Oliver
3. To what degree did religion and politics play in the Thirty Years’
4. Analyze the impact of the Thirty Years’ War on European politics
5. To what extent did the wars of religion result in the decline of the
6. Analyze the causes of the English Civil War and the impact of
Puritan rule on English politics and society.
Absolutism in Western Europe
1. How did the political theories of Bodin and Bossuet play out in
France during the 17th century?
2. Analyze the extent to which absolutism developed in France under
Henry IV and Louis XIII.
3. Analyze the ways in which the absolutism of Louis XIV impacted the
bureaucracy, the nobility, the peasantry, economics and religious
issues in France.
4. To what extent did the balance of power remain intact in Europe
between 1600 and 1715?
5. Analyze the role of mercantilism in France in the 17th century
6. Analyze how the baroque reflected the ―Age of Absolutism.
Constitutionalism in Western Europe
1. Analyze the development of constitutionalism in England during the
2. To what extent were the Puritans successful in achieving their goals
in England between 1642 and 1660?
3. Analyze reasons for the failure of absolutism in England in the 17th
4. Analyze factors that led to the rise of the Dutch Republic and its
commercial success in the 17th century.
Absolutism in Eastern Europe
1. Analyze the causes for the decline of the Holy Roman Empire,
Ottoman Empire and Poland-Lithuania in Europe during the 17th
2. Analyze the military, political and social factors for the rise of
absolutism in Austria, Prussia and Russia in the 17th and 18th
3. Compare and contrast absolutism in eastern Europe with that of
France in western Europe.
Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment
1. How did the Scientific Revolution impact European society (e.g.
intellectually, religiously, economically)?
2. Analyze the extent to which the Enlightenment affected European
society with regard to religion, education, and economics.
3. Analyze the impact of the Enlightenment on politics in the 18th
4. To what extent is the term ―Enlightened Despot‖ appropriate when
describing the reigns of: Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great,
and Joseph II?
5. Analyze how the balance of power was maintained in Europe
between 1740 and 1786.
18th Century Economy and Society
1. Discuss the features of the Agricultural Revolution. How did the
Agricultural Revolution affect European society in the 18th century?
2. Analyze the causes of the population explosion in the 18th century?
What were some of the new social challenges posed by population
3. Analyze the importance of proto-industrialization on the
development of England’s economy in the 18th century.
4. Analyze the role that mercantilism played on the Atlantic economy.
5. What factors paved the way for the rise of the Dutch Republic as an
6. To what extent did the colonial wars of the 18th century impact the
European balance of power?
7. To what extent did demographic and social trends of the 18th
century impact the European family?
The French Revolution
1. Analyze the long-term and short-term causes of the French
2. Analyze the impact of Enlightenment ideas on the French
3. To what extent did the political, economic, social and religious goals
of the National Assembly (1789-1791) become a permanent feature
of the French Revolution by 1799?
4. To what extent did each of the following groups succeed in
achieving their goals during the French Revolution (1789-1799)?
Monarchy Clergy Aristocracy Bourgeoisie Urban working class
5. Compare and contrast the goals and actions of the leaders of the
National Assembly (1789-91) with those of the National Convention
1. To what extent was Napoleon an “Enlightened Despot”? Contrast
Napoleon’s rule with that of Frederick the Great, Catherine the
Great, and Joseph II.
2. To what extent did Napoleon maintain the ideals of the French
3. To what extent was the balance of power maintained in Europe by
4. To what extent did each of the following social groups succeed in
achieving their goals during the Napoleonic Era?
Clergy Aristocracy Bourgeoisie Urban working class Peasantry
The Industrial Revolution
1. Why was England the first country to industrialize?
2. Analyze the role proto-industrialization played in setting the stage
for the Industrial Revolution.
3. Compare and contrast the Industrial Revolution in England with the
industrial countries on the continent.
4. Analyze ways in which the Industrial Revolution altered the social
fabric of European society.
5. Analyze the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the following
groups: Women Children Middle Class Proletariat Peasantry
Ideologies and Revolutions
1. To what extent was the balance of power maintained in Europe
between 1815 and 1850?
2. To what extent did conservatism achieve its objectives in the years
between 1815 and 1850?
3. To what extent did liberals and nationalists achieve their goals in
Europe between 1815 and 1900?
4. Why was there no revolution in Britain in the period 1815-1848
while many revolutions occurred on the Continent?
5. Compare and contrast the ideals of the Romantic Era with those of
6. To what extent did Romanticism play a political and philosophical
role in Europe between 1800 and 1850?
19th Century Economy and Society
1. Compare and contrast the ―first‖ and ―second‖ industrial
2. Analyze ways in which urbanization impacted European society in
the 19th century.
3. How did the industrial revolution and urbanization impact Europe’s
4. Analyze the forces that caused the family to change in the 19th
Age of Realpolitik
1. Analyze why a conservative like Napoleon III would develop the
2. Compare and contrast the role that nationalism played in Italy,
Germany and Austria in the years between 1848 and 1871.
3. To what extent was Otto von Bismarck successful in achieving his
political goals by 1871?
4. How was the balance of power in Europe changed in the period
Age of Mass Politics
1. What was the “age of mass politics?” How were government policies
in western and central Europe impacted by mass politics during the
2. To what extent did liberalism achieve gains in each of the following
countries between 1871 and 1914? England France
3. To what extent were conservatives able to maintain power in the
period 1871- 1914?
4. Analyze the impact of socialism on European politics in the period
5. Analyze the ways in which female suffrage movements sought to
gain the franchise in England between 1890 and 1918.
1. Compare and contrast the “New Imperialism” of the late-nineteenth
and early twentieth centuries with the “Old Imperialism” of the
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
2. Analyze the causes of the “New Imperialism” between 1880 and
1914. What justifications did Europeans use for their acquisition of
3. Analyze the methods that the European imperial powers used to
acquire colonies in Africa and Asia between 1880 and 1914. Be able
to discuss the following countries:
Belgium Great Britain France Germany Italy
World War I
1. Analyze major causes of World War I.
2. Analyze political, economic and military factors for the Allied victory
in World War I.
3. Analyze ways in which World War I altered European society. 4.
How was the balance of power in Europe changed as a result of
World War I?
4. How was the balance of power in Europe changed as a result of
World War I?
The Russian Revolution
1. Why did liberalism not take root in Russia between 1815 and 1917
when it played a major role in western and central Europe?
2. Analyze the major causes of the Russian Revolution.
3. Why did the Bolsheviks, who were a small minority, ultimately
succeed in acquiring and maintaining power?
The Age of Anxiety
1. Analyze the ways in which World War I influenced European thought
in the years between 1918 and 1939.
2. How is the ―age of anxiety‖ reflected in philosophy, literature and
art in the period 1914-1950?
3. How did science and psychology in the late-nineteenth and early-
twentieth centuries challenge European assumptions of how the
universe and society functioned?
4. Contrast art and entertainment during the first half of the twentieth
century with art and entertainment in the last half of the nineteenth