Susan B. Anthony -A supporter of both the temperance and abolitionist movements, Anthony is best known for joining with Elizabeth Cady Stanton to fight for women's rights. An active supporter of women’s suffrage, Anthony would often deliver speeches written by Stanton while Stanton was busy with her young children. She continued to be a leader in the women's suffrage movement until her death in 1906.
Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education-Supreme Court decision in which the court ruled that public schools could integrate through busing.
sweatshops -makeshift factories set up by private contractors in small apartments or unused buildings. Since factories often needed more production than they had room to produce, they would hire these contractors and then, pay them based on how much they produced, Often poorly lit, poorly ventilated, and unsafe, sweatshops relied on poor workers (usually immigrants) who worked long hours for little pay,
technological advances that impacted western farming -John Deere's steel plow allowed farmers to plant crops in the Midwest and plains by enabling them to cut through the tough prairie sod. Windmills proved crucial because they allowed farmers to harness the wind's power to pump water to the surface. Barbed wire made it possible for farmers to cheaply and efficiently fence in their land and livestock. Finally, railroads created a way for farmers to import needed equipment from the east, while shipping their own products to different parts of the country. As a result, they could afford to farm out West without being isolated from the nation's larger markets,
temperance movement -movement that originally wanted to limit, and eventually advocated eliminating, alcohol
temperance movement -social movement aimed at restricting and eventually banning alcohol
tenements -overcrowded apartments that housed several families of immigrants Of poor laborers.
tenements -small, low-income apartments lived in and often shared by more than one family.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) -Established in 1933, the TVA built hydroelectric dams to create jobs and bring cheap electricity to parts of the South that had previously been without power. The southern Appalachians were historically one of the poorest areas in the nation. With the help of the TVA, this region prospered as never before. .
terrorists -criminals who destroy property and kill innocent civilians in the name of a political or social cause.
Tet Offensive -a major coordinated attack launched by the North Vietnamese and Vietcong against the United States and South Vietnamese forces during the Vietnam War. Although the Vietcong and North Vietnamese forces were eventually turned back, they won a psychological victory. The Tet Offensive showed that the Communists could launch a coordinated attack and led many people in the United States to question how the government was handling the war and whether U.S. troops should be there at all.
the Alamo -an old mission in Texas where a small group of Texans took their stand against the Mexican leader, Santa Anna, after Texas declared independence. Despite the Texans' brave resistance, Santa Anna's forces were too strong, Every Texan who fought at the Alamo perished in the battle or was executed after his capture (among them, the famed Davy Crockett of Tennessee). Their stand, however, helped Texas eventually win its freedom,
the Dutch -Europeans from the Netherlands who founded New Amsterdam.
the Enlightenment -a time that featured revolutionary ideas in philosophy and political thought. During this time, a number of philosophers introduced concepts that later helped form American ideas about government.
the Great Communicator -nickname given Ronald Reagan due to his wit and ability to effectively communicate with common men and women.
the Great Migration -mass migration beginning during WWI, in which many African Americans began leaving the South in growing numbers to pursue better economic opportunities in northern cities, in hopes of escaping southern racism.
The Jungle -novel written by Upton Sinclair that horrified readers as it uncovered the truth about the U.S. meatpacking industry. Its impact helped lead to the creation of a federal meat-inspection program.
the Philippines-island nation in the Pacific Ocean that sparked controversy in the United States after the Spanish-American War. Many in the United States wanted to annex the territory while others felt it should be independent. After a two-year war against Filipino rebels, the Philippines became an "unorganized territory" of the United States. Later, in 1946, the Philippines officially became an independent nation.
Theodore Roosevelt -As assistant secretary of the Navy he favored expansion. He resigned his position in Washington to lead the Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War. He eventually became vice president and then president after McKinley was assassinated. As president, he secured the building of the Panama Canal and served during much of the Progressive Era.
Thirteenth Amendment -Constitutional amendment that ended slavery throughout the United States.
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson -Confederate general and right-hand man to Robert E. Lee. Noted for his ability to use geography to his advantage, he swiftly navigated the Shenandoah Valley, which stretched from the Allegheny Mountains in northern Virginia north towards Washington, D.C. One of his most brilliant moves came at the Battle of Chancellorsville, when he successfully marched his troops over twelve miles undetected and attacked the unsuspecting Union forces. Jackson was such an effective leader that many believe the South would have won the war, had he lived to fight at Gettysburg.
Thomas Edison -influential U.S. inventor who developed the phonograph, the motion-picture camera, the electric light bulb, and came up with the innovation idea of central power companies that provided electrical power to large numbers of customers.
Thomas Hooker and Connecticut --leader who disagreed with church leaders in Massachusetts and established Connecticut.
Thomas Jefferson -drafted the Declaration of Independence. He was a leader among the Antifederalists and eventually the Republican Party. Served as secretary of state under President George Washington. Was elected the third president of the United States in 1800.
Thomas Paine -author of Common Sense.
Three-fifths Compromise -stated that each slave would count as "three-fifths of a person."
Tin Pan Alley -part of New York City that became an important center of the music industry during the post-WWI years.
tobacco -cash crop discovered by John Rolfe which became important to Jamestown and probably saved the colony. Tobacco's profitability led to many more colonists coming to Virginia.
town meetings -meetings in colonial New England where local, tax-paying citizens would meet to discuss and vote on Issues.
Trail of Tears -the Cherokee's march west to Oklahoma after being forcibly removed from their land in north Georgia and the western Carolinas.
transatlantic Trade -trade between the colonies and Great Britain.
transcontinental railroad -railroad line formed by an eastern railway company and a western railway company which linked the nation from east to west.
Treaty of Paris (1763) -treaty ending the French and Indian War that resulted in Great Britain winning control of France's claims in Canada and east of the Mississippi River and Florida.
Treaty of Paris (1783) -treaty ending the American Revolution.
Treaty of Versailles -treaty ending WWI. It imposed harsh conditions on Germany, established the League of Nations, and was never ratified by the U.S. Senate, Eugene Debs -Socialist leader in the United States who ran for president several times and was eventually sentenced to prison for violating the Espionage and Sedition Acts,
Triangle Shirtwaist factoryfire -event that especially contributed to the call for better workplace safety. It involved a fire that broke out at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City. Many of the exit doors to the factory were locked to prevent employees from stealing. The fire killed 146 people and led to increased demands for safer workingconditions.
troop surge of 2007 -increase in the number of U.S. troops in Iraq proposed by President Bush in 2007 in an effort to help the new Iraqi government resist terrorists and prevent civil war.
Truman Doctrine -policy put forth by President Truman after WWII which stated that the United States would not hesitate to intervene and aid nations overseas to resist Communism.
Truman's decision to integrate the U.S. military -In 1948, President Truman signed legislation integrating the U.S. military. His support of such actions split the Democratic Party over the issue of integration in 1948.
trust -a business arrangement under which a number of companies unite into one system, in effect destroying competition and creating a monopoly.
two-party system -political system in which two opposing parties struggle against one another for political power,
U.S.-Mexican War -War fought between the United States and Mexico in the 1840s that resulted in the United States taking possession of California and much of the Southwest.
U-2 incident -incident that involved a U.S. U-2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet Union. At first, the U.S. government denied conducting any such spy missions. However, when the Soviets produced evidence, Eisenhower had to acknowledge the Soviet report as accurate. The president accepted responsibility, but refused to apologize for spying on the U.S.S.R., thereby infuriating Khrushchev further.
U-boats -submarines used by the Germans to attack ships during WWI. Their attacks on U.S. ships helped bring the United States into the war,
Ulysses S. Grant -Initially an effective general in the Union's western battles, he eventually assumed command of the entire Union army in 1864. He defeated the South and accepted Robert E. Lee's surrender at Appomattox Courthouse. He went on to become the eighteenth president of the United States.
underconsumption -when consumers don't consume enough in relation to how many goods have been produced and are available.
Union advantages (population, railroads, industry) -The North had a much larger population. As a result, the Union army had more men, and the Union had more labor to produce war supplies and keep the economy running during the conflict. The North also possessed more railroads. Railroads allowed the Union to move supplies more efficiently and quickly than the Confederates in most cases. Finally, the Northern economy had much more industry. Its factories allowed the Union to produce weapons, ammunition, clothes, blankets, and other supplies much more easily and in greater number than the South.
United Farm Workers -organization founded in 1962 and led by Cesar Chavez. It imitated many of the methods used by the civil rights movement as it supported the rights of migrant farm workers, many of which were poor Hispanic immigrants.
United States Constitution -national body of laws adopted in 1787 that gave more power to the national government and replaced the Articles of Confederation.
universal suffrage -Jackson and his followers' belief that all white men should be free to vote, not just those who owned property.
unrestricted submarine warfare -Germany's practice of attacking all ships regardless of whether or not they were passenger ships or ships belonging to nations Germany was already at war with, This policy eventually led to the United States declaring war on Germany in WWI.
Upton Sinclair -famous muckraker who published a novel called The Jungle in 1906.
urban growth -increase in the size and population of U.S. cities.
urban slums -poor, inner-city neighborhoods consisting of tenements, pollution, overpopulation, and unsanitary conditions.
Valley Forge -place where Washington's army endured a harsh winter, where many of its soldiers proved too sick to serve and a number of them even died. However, it also ended up being a valuable time of training that left the Continental Army better prepared to meet the British in battle, once the warm weather returned.
Vicksburg -In the late spring of 1863, the town of Vicksburg, Mississippi was the last Confederate obstacle to total Union control of the Mississippi River. Ignoring advice to withdraw, General Ulysses S. Grant laid siege to Vicksburg for almost two months. By the time the town finally surrendered, residents had been reduced to eating horses, mules, dogs, and even rats.
victory gardens -gardens in which citizens grew their own food in order to make sure enough food was available to feed U.S. troops fighting in the war,
Vietcong -South Vietnamese Communist rebels who aided the North Vietnamese against the South Vietnamese government and U.S. troops during the Vietnam War.
Vietnam -small Southeast Asian country colonized by the French during the 1800s. Eventually, nationalists wanted independence from France and the country became divided between a Communist government in the North and a United States-backed government in the South. Ultimately, the nation became the sight of an intense civil war that involved U.S. troops and eventually resulted in the Communists taking over the entire country.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 -legislation passed by Congress in 1965 which authorized the president to suspend literacy tests for voter registration and to send federal officials to register voters in the event that county officials failed to do so. This new law led to a huge increase in African American voter registration, as well as an increase in the number of African American candidates elected to public office.
W.E.B. DuBois -was the first black Ph.D. graduate from Harvard University. DuBois adamantly rejected justifications for segregation. He argued that blacks should pursue occupations in the humanities and in white-collar fields. Unlike some other African American leaders, DuBois believed that blacks must be politically, legally, and socially active in order to obtain true equality. He helped organize a group of black intellectuals known as the Niagara movement and was instrumental in founding the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Wagner Act -Officially known as the National Labor Relations Act, this law was passed in 1935 and created a board to monitor unfair management practices such as firing workers who joined unions. It protected the right of workers in the private sector to organize unions, engage in collective bargaining, and go on strike. The act demonstrated a strong shift by the federal government towards supporting the interests of workers and made Roosevelt extremely popular among laborers and union leaders.
Wagner Act's impact on unions -The Wagner Act helped organized labor by strengthening unions. It also contributed to unions becoming consistent supporters of the Democratic Party.
war bond drives -efforts to promote the sale of bonds to support the U.S. war effort.
war in Iraq -war launched by a U.S.-led coalition on nations in 2003 that invaded Iraq and brought down the government of Sad dam Hussein, It was launched by the president and supported by Congress based on the belief that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction and ties to al Qaeda. However, the absence of such weapons and lack of evidence tying Saddam to al Qaeda have led to intense criticism and controversy over the war and whether or not U.S. troops should stay in Iraq or leave.
War of 1812 -War fought between the United States and Great Britain in the early 1800s.
War on Terror -war launched by the Bush administration against Islamic terrorism in response to the 9/11 attacks.
War Production Board (WPB) -government board responsible for redirecting raw materials and resources from the production of civilian consumer goods to the production of materials needed for waging war against Germany and Japan,
Warren Supreme Court -Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl Warren in the 1950s and '60s which was noted for using its authority to bring about social change in the United States.
Washington's challenges in building an army -Not only was he fighting one of the most powerful military forces in history, but he also had to form an army out of a band of undisciplined farmers, frontiersmen, and volunteers, Many of his men enlisted for only short periods and planned on returning home to harvest their crops and be with their families after a few weeks of service, Washington was constantly short of men and had to beg soldiers to remain longer than they were obligated. In addition, he normally found himself short of supplies and money.
Washington's proclamation of neutrality -Washington's proclamation that the United States would not take sides in the war between Great Britain and France,
Watergate scandal-scandal in which supporters of the president were caught breaking into Democratic national headquarters. Although the president was not involved in planning the break-in he was involved in the cover-up. The scandal eventually forced President Nixon to resign in order to avoid impeachment.
Whiskey Rebellion -uprising of Pennsylvania farmers who refused to pay the whiskey tax and resorted to violence. It ended when President Washington organized a military force that marched into Pennsylvania and halted the resistance. While the event showed that the new government had the power to enforce its laws, it also led many farmers and frontiersmen to see Hamilton's form of government as tyrannical. More of them flocked to Thomas Jefferson as a defender of states' rights and a champion of their cause.
William Lloyd Garrison -white abolitionist who founded an influential anti-slavery newspaper called The Liberator in 1831 and helped establish the American Anti-Slavery Society.
William T. Sherman -Union general who took command of the western forces after Grant decided to remain with troops in the East. His capture of Atlanta in 1864 signaled to both the North and the South that the war was all but won for the Union and helped Lincoln win re-election in 1864. He is most remembered for his "march to the sea," in which he burned and destroyed Southern cities and railways in an effort to disrupt the Confederate war effort and trap Lee between himself and General Grant.
Wilmot Proviso -condition proposed by Pennsylvania Congressman, David Wilmot. It advocated banning slavery from any land purchased from Mexico. Northerners embraced the idea, but southerners denounced it. Congress eventually voted down the Wilmot Proviso, but the debate it stirred exposed the serious sectional divisions over slavery still existing in the country.
Winston Churchill -prime minister of Great Britain during WWII.
women's movement -movement which rejected traditional gender roles and advocated equality between men and women.
women's rights movement -social movement of the mid-I800s that sought to improve the status of women and promote equality. Some members even advocated that women be given the right to vote.
women's suffrage movement -progressive movement that sought to win women the right to vote,
women's suffrage -the right of women to vote.
Woodrow Wilson -President of the United States who favored neutrality, but eventually led the United States into and during WW!. He proposed the League of Nations and Fourteen Points after the war, but was unable to convince the United States to sign the Treaty of Versailles and join the League.
working conditions in cities -Whole families tended to work because wages were low and no one person could earn enough to support a whole household. Men, women, and children worked in mills and factories; usually at least twelve hours/day, six days/week. Work conditions tended to be dangerous and monotonous with long hours and very little pay.
World War I -war that broke out in Europe in 1914 and eventually involved the world's major powers.
World War Il-war that began in the 1930, and ended in 1945 that involved all of the world's major powers and was fought in Europe, Africa, and Asia.
Wounded Knee _. The last major armed conflict between U.S. troops and Native Americans which occurred in 1891. It resulted in the death of Chief Sitting Bull, over a hundred Native American men, women, and children, and the defeat of Native American resistance.
writ of habeas corpus -the guarantee that a person cannot be imprisoned without being brought before a judge. President Lincoln suspended this right at times during the Civil War to protect the Union.
XYZ Affair -event in which French delegates insulted the United States by refusing to allow its representatives to meet with French leaders until the United States extended a bribe and the promise of a U.S. loan to France. It resulted in the United States breaking off relations with France for a time.
Yorktown -site of Cornwallis' surrender to Washington, which effectively ended the Revolutionary War.
Zimmerman telegram -German telegram sent to embassy officials in Mexico directing them to ask Mexico to attack the United States if it declared war on Germany. In return, Germany promised to help Mexico win back land the United States had acquired as a result of the Mexican-American War. It helped increase anti-German sentiment in the United States.