oil embargo -period in the early '70s in which OPEC nations refused to sell oil to the United States.
Oliver North -Marine colonel who had played a key role in the Iran-Contra affair and who took most of the blame for the scandal.
Operation Enduring Freedom -U.S.-led invasion of Afghanistan that overthrew the Taliban in an effort to find and bring to justice Osama bin Laden.
Oregon -Their Northwest Territory of the continental United States that was jointly occupied by Great Britain and the United States. Beginning in 1843, thousands of U.S. settlers moved to Oregon seeking a better life. President Polk approached Britain, arguing that the United States had rightful claim to the territory. The United States accepted a treaty declaring the 49th parallel as the official boundary and, in 1846, Oregon became a U.S. territory.
Osama bin Laden -leader of al Qaeda and mastermind of the 9111 terrorist attacks.
overproduction -producing more goods than consumers can buy, thereby causing a fall in prices.
Panama Canal-canal built by the United States in Panama which allowed U.S. ships to travel back and forth between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans without having to go around South America,
Paris Peace Accords -agreement reached between the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and leaders of the Vietcong which ended U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and which was supposed to divide Vietnam into a Communist nation in the North and a pro-U.S. government in the South. Instead, war soon resumed, with the Communists conquering the entire country.
PATRIOT Act -law passed by Congress which increased the authority of U.S. law enforcement agencies and allowed them greater latitude in what measures they used to obtain information. Although the law came to be criticized by some as infringing too much on civil liberties- it was renewed by Congress and the president in March 2006.
Pearl Harbor -site of the surprise attack launched by the Japanese against the United States in December 1941, which finally brought the United States into WWII.
Pentagon Papers -a study ordered by former secretary of defense Robert McNamara that documented the history of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, parts of which were published in the New York Times, creating further outrage and opposition to the war.
Persian Gulf War -war fought in 1991 in which the United States led a U.N. coalition of nations in driving Saddam Hussein's Iraqi forces out of the nation of Kuwait.
Philippines -island nation in the South Pacific invaded and conquered by Japan in 1941. Although he initially had to flee when the Japanese invaded, Douglas MacArthur eventually returned with a U.S. force that liberated the islands.
phonograph -invention by Thomas Edison that recorded sound.
plantation system ,-economic system that relies on the production of cash crops by huge farms owned by wealthy landowners. It made the South very dependent on slavery.
Platt Amendment -This amendment to the Cuban constitution put limits on what the Cuban government could do, gave the United States two naval bases in Cuba, and allowed for U.S. intervention in the region whenever the United States believed it was necessary.
Plessy v. _Ferguson -U.S. Supreme Court decision that established segregation laws as constitutional so long as facilities are equal. Established what became known as the doctrine of "separate but equal"
poll taxes -special taxes passed in the South after Reconstruction to prevent blacks from voting by requiring them to pay money to vote.
popular sovereignty -the will of the majority. In the case of slavery, it meant that the people in certain states and territories would vote on whether or not to allow slavery.
postwar African American education -Often with the help of the Freedmen's Bureau and/or churches, the southern African American community established the first black schools. African American soldiers who had received some education during the war often served as teachers. Students included both children and adults. Some people also tried to provide blacks with advanced education.
Powhatan -chief who led a confederation of Native Americans in Virginia. After initially going to war with the colonists, he eventually negotiated an uneasy peace with them.
presidential election of 2000 -Decided by a mere 537 votes in the swing state of Florida, the election of 2000 is to date the closest election in U.S. history, and one of the few in which the winner in the electoral college failed to win the popular vote. George W. Bush was finally declared the winner after the Supreme Court stopped any future recounts in the state of Florida, thereby giving Bush the state's 25 electoral votes and a majority in the Electoral College.
Presidential Reconstruction allowed power to remain in the hands of many of the same people who had led the Confederacy during the Civil War.
Proclamation of 1763 -proclamation made by King George III which forbade colonists from moving into territory west of the Appalachian Mountains. It outraged many colonists.
progressive concerns with living conditions -progressives were concerned and wanted to improve the living conditions of the urban poor and immigrants.
Progressive Era -period in U.S. history in which reformers called for political, social, and economic change.
progressives -those who supported reforms during the Progressive Era.
Pullman Strike -An 1894 strike led by Eugene Debs which involved railway workers. It began when George Pullman fired several labor representatives- and the union responded with a strike and boycott of Pullman railway cars. The strike eventually ended when the federal government responded with a court injunction against the union, and President Cleveland sent in federal troops to make sure that it was enforced.
Puritans -religious group that settled New England in hopes of establishing their own community built on "pure biblical teachings" rather than Anglican traditions. They were often not tolerant of others' religious beliefs and had great impact on the region of New England.
Quakers -religious group that did not recognize class differences, promoted equality of the sexes, practiced pacifism, and sought to deal fairly with Native Americans. They founded the colony of Pennsylvania.
Quebec -France's first successful colony in North America which rested along the shores of the St. Lawrence River and gave the French an excellent settlement for carrying out their fur trade and establishing more settlements along the river.
Rachel Carson -scientist/writer whose book Silent Spring helped inspire the modern environmentalist movement.
Radical Reconstruction -stricter form of Reconstruction backed by the Republican Congress that eventually won out over Presidential Reconstruction. It required southern states to submit to military rule, hold new constitutional conventions, grant African Americans equal rights and the right to vote, and ratify the Fourteenth Amendment.
Radical Republicans -members of Congress and the Republican Party who favored a much tougher stance with the former Confederate states, They believed that Johnson's approach did not do enough because it failed to offer African Americans full citizenship rights. They also believed that Congress, not the president, should oversee Reconstruction and that the majority of each state's voting population should have to pledge allegiance to the United States. They backed Radical Reconstruction,
rationing --efforts by the government to limit citizens' access to certain goods in order to assure that enough remained to support the war effort.
Reaganomics -term given to Reagan's economic policies by his critics early in his presidency when it appeared they were not working.
reasons for U.S. expansion -Many business leaders and politicians believed that U.S. expansion was important because it would provide the country with more economic markets and greater potential for economic growth. Others felt the United States needed to expand in order to maintain its national security. Still, others believed it was part of the country's destiny and crucial to maintaining a nationalist spirit.
reasons settlers moved west -Some reasons were religion, gold, land.
recall-political reform that gives citizens the power to hold special elections to remove corrupt officials from office before their terms were up,
Red Scare - fear of Communism that was common in the United States after WWII.
Red Scare-fear of Communism that swept across the United States following WWI
referendum -political reform that requires public officials to be elected by popular vote, rather than by patty bosses or state legislatures,
Regents of UC v. Bakke -Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that, while race could be used as a consideration in admission, the institution of racial quotas is a violation of the Fourteenth Amendment's equal protections clause. The case did not strike down affirmative action, but it did set a precedent that quotas cannot be used in the interest of increasing minority representation.
religious dissent -disagreement with the Anglican Church that led many New England colonists to come to the New World in search of religious freedom and to escape religious persecution.
Republican Party -political party formed in 1854 from a coalition of northern Democrats who opposed slavery, Whigs, and Free Soilers. The party opposed the extension of slavery into new territories and nominated Abraham Lincoln for president in 1860.
Republican-led Congress -The Republicans won control of both the House and the Senate in 1994, forcing President Clinton to work with a Congress controlled by the opposing party. This eventually led to formidable showdown between Clinton and Gingrich's Republican-led Congress, when the two sides could not agree on a national budget.
Republicans -political party that arose in opposition to the Federalists. Their leader was Thomas Jefferson. For this reason, they are sometimes referred to as "Jeffersonian Republicans." Republicans favored stronger slate governments and a weaker national government. For this reason, many of them originally opposed the Constitution because they feared it made the national government too strong. In addition, the Republicans tended to favor the interests of small farmers and debtors, rather than those of business.
reservations -" land set aside by the federal government for the Native Americans. Sitting Bull -Sioux chief killed at Wounded Knee,
restrictions on immigration -limits placed on who could immigrate to the United States in the years following WW I, Congress passed a temporary limit to the number of immigrants who could come to the United States in 1924 and permanent bans beginning in 1929, Racist in nature, many of these laws were designed to allow more immigrants from western Europe into the country than from eastern Europe or the Far East. Many of these restrictions were fueled by fears about Communism.
Rhode Island -New England colony founded by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson.
Richard Nixon -president after Lyndon Johnson whose greatest accomplishments were in foreign policy. He introduced detente, became the first president to publicly acknowledge the Communist government of China, and negotiated the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) with the Soviet Union. At home, he attempted to turn back the tide of civil rights legislation and give more power back to the states. He also faced stagflation and other economic challenges. He eventually became the only U.S. president in history to resign, due to the Watergate Scandal.
Robert E. Lee -Assumed command of the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia after General Joseph Johnston was injured. Despite winning several impressive victories during the course of the war, he did not have nearly enough men to sustain the war effort past early 1865. He eventually surrendered to General Grant.
Roe v. Wade -controversial Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that state laws restricting a woman's right to an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy are unconstitutional (A concurrent ruling, Doe v. Bolton, in conjunction with Roe, currently grants women the right to end the life of the fetus through all nine months of pregnancy for any reason, including just prior to birth.)
Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson -religious dissenters who left Massachusetts over disagreement with Puritan church leaders and who played key roles in founding Rhode Island.
role of African American churches -As one of the few institutions truly owned and controlled by African Americans, black churches became the centers for African American social and political life. Within these churches, African Americans could discuss issues relevant to the black community and organize strategies to meet the needs of freed blacks.
role of African Americans in politics during Reconstruction -Reconstruction allowed African Americans access to the political process. Some six hundred African Americans served in southern state legislatures, a few were elected to offices as high as lieutenant-governor, and one even served as acting governor of Louisiana when the white governor was charged with corruption. On a national level, a few blacks represented southern states in Congress.
role of Irish and Chinese immigrants re: railroads -These immigrants played a major role in opening the West to U.S. expansion often working under dangerous conditions as they provided much of the labor that built the nation's western railroads.
Ronald Reagan -A strong supporter of Barry Goldwater in 1964, Reagan emerged as the conservative right's next great hero in the mid-'60s. He served two terms as governor of California before being elected president in 1980. He was a conservative who believed in limited government, low taxes, and a strong military. His policies created a record national debt and are credited, by many, as bringing about the end of the cold war. Although his presidency was somewhat tainted by the Iran-Contra affair, he is remembered by many as one of the nation's greatest presidents.
Roosevelt's Corollary -statement issued by Theodore Roosevelt which expanded upon the Monroe Doctrine, It stated that the United States had the right to intervene in the region, if a nation had trouble paying its debts. Roosevelt wanted to make sure that imperialist nations did not use debt collection as an excuse to occupy territories in the Caribbean or Latin America.
Rosie the Riveter -nickname and symbol representing the thousands of U.S. women who went to work in U.S. industries to take the place of men who were fighting in the armed forces.
Saddam Hussein -leader of Iraq who invaded Kuwait in 1990, lost the Persian Gulf War in '91, and was eventually removed from power once a U.S.-led coalition invaded Iraq in 2003.
Salem witch trials -dark period in Puritan history in which several people in Salem, Massachusetts were tried as witches and executed.
Samuel Gompers -early leader of the AFL.
SCLC -the Southern Christian Leaders Conference. It was an organization that sought to unite leaders from the black community during the civil rights movement Early on, the SCLC tended to rely on voter registration and education within the black community as its major method for pursuing civil right'. The SCLC believed that if it could educate average African American citizens and get the right candidates elected to public office, it could successfully bring about the end of segregation and inequality. However, following their participation in the Albany movement, a number of SCLC leaders began to appreciate the value of mass demonstrations and public protests as well.
secede -to leave the Union.
second inaugural address -inauguration speech given by President Lincoln in 1865 after he won re-election to the "White House. In it, he expressed both his conviction that slavery was evil and his hope of reuniting the nation once the war was over. Rather than basking in the glory of what everyone knew would soon be a Union victory and the end of the Confederacy, Lincoln expressed his sorrow that so many on both sides had suffered and communicated a vision for rebuilding the South rather than punishing it.
second Middle Passage ,-domestic slave trade that involved the migration of African American slaves from the Upper South to the Deep South and western territories/states. It often tore loved ones apart and meant that husbands, wives, children, siblings, parents, and best friends never saw each other again.
Second New Deal-second wave of FDR's New Deal programs introduced towards the end of his first term as president.
sectionalism -regional differences that divide different parts of the country.
sectionalism -the economic, social, cultural, and political differences that exist between different parts of the country.
segregation --separation of people based on race.
Selective Service Act -U.S. act passed by Congress during WWI authorizing a draft of young men for military service.
Seneca Falls Conference -the first women '8 rights convention, held in 1848.
separation of powers .-divides authority to govern between different branches of government.
September 11, 2001-date of the terrorist attacks that forever changed life in the United States and eventually led to the War on Terror. That morning, people across the country watched in shock as terrorists flew hijacked commercial airliners into the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. The attack killed thousands as the twin towers of the Trade Center came crashing down, and the Pentagon burst into 'flames. Meanwhile, another hijacked plane crashed in a field in Pennsylvania, killing everyone on board. It went down when the passengers revolted and prevented the airliner from reaching its intended target (believed to be either the Capitol or the White House).
Seventeenth Amendment -constitutional amendment which established that U.S. senators would be elected directly by the people, rather than by state legislatures.
sharecropping and tenant farming -forms of farming that subjected freed blacks to labor conditions similar to slavery and kept them working on land owned by southern whites.
significance of the Pacific in U.S. expansion -Both political leaders and businessmen in the United States wanted to trade with China and other nations in Southeast Asia. They saw the Pacific Ocean as the pathway to these markets.
Silent Spring ..-book written by Rachel Carson that helped inspire the modern environmentalist movement.
sit-ins -nonviolent protests in which blacks sat in segregated places until they were served or arrested.
Sixteenth Amendment -this amendment established an income tax and increased the federal government's revenue and eliminated the need to tax according to the proportions of state populations,
slave trade compromise -Northerners and delegates from the Upper South (Maryland and Virginia) who opposed the slave trade agreed to allow it to continue for twenty years, after which time Congress could impose regulations. This was important to delegates from the Deep South, who insisted that their economy could not survive without the slave trade.
slavery -a system in which people are owned like property; it became even more important in Virginia after Bacon's Rebellion.
slavery -system in which African Americans were bought, sold, and owned like property.
SNCC -Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. It was a student organization which devoted itself to the use of non-violent protests to demand civil rights for African Americans.
Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty -groups that formed to help enforce colonial boycotts against British goods in response to the Stamp Act. The Sons of Liberty used violence and intimidation to enforce the boycotts while the Daughters of Liberty used their skills to weave fabric and other products that were usually bought from Britain.
soup kitchens and breadlines -provided food for the poor during the Great Depression.
South Carolina nullification crisis -Crisis that arose in 1832 when South Carolina threatened to invoke the doctrine of nullification and secede from the Union if offensive tariffs were not repealed. Enraged, President Jackson threatened to hang Calhoun personally and prepared to call up federal troops if necessary to force South Carolina's compliance. Fortunately, Senator Henry Clay proposed a compromise that both sides could accept, ending the crisis.
Southern Colonies -British colonies consisting of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia.
space race -competition with the Soviet Union to gain the upper hand in space travel and technology
Spanish-American War -war fought between the United States and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than three months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the United States annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
spoils system -policy instituted by President Jackson of rewarding political supporters with government positions.
Sputnik -a Soviet satellite which was the first artificial satellite to orbit the earth. Its launch revealed the superiority of Soviet technology and greatly concerned the United States. Realizing that this same technology could be used to launch nuclear missiles, the United States eagerly entered the space race.
stagflation -rare economic occurrence in which inflation and unemployment rise at the same time,
Stamp Act -British tax on printed material in the colonies that outraged colonists, resulted in boycotts against British goods, and eventually helped lead to colonial calls for independence.
Standard Oil-oil company founded by John D. Rockefeller that monopolized the oil industry as it served as the nation's first trust.
staple crops -crops that are in large demand and provide the bulk of a region's income.
states' rights -belief that the federal government should restrict itself to powers specifically stated in the Constitution, and that all else should be left to the states.
Students for a Democratic Society -student political movement that launched large protests against the Vietnam War and supported a number of social causes, such as civil rights. It demanded that the government take radical steps to deal with poverty, inequality, and to end the war in Vietnam. Eventually, the movement faded as it failed to spread very far beyond college campuses, However, the awareness and unrest it created helped create pressure to end the Vietnam War and get U.S. troops home as quietly as possible.