Earl Warren -served as chief justice of the Supreme Court from 1953 until 1969 and oversaw a number of key Supreme Court decisions which led to social change.
Earth Day -annual event first celebrated in 1970 which is meant to encourage concern for the environment and draw attention to environmental issues.
education reform -social movement of the mid-1800s that sought to improve and better regulate public education.
effects of the arms race on Soviet economy -Eventually, the Soviet economy could not sustain Reagan's escalation of the arms race, forcing Gorbachev to introduce policies that eventually led to the downfall of Soviet Communism.
Eighteenth Amendment -constitutional amendment which prohibited the making, selling or transporting of any alcoholic beverage in the United States. Commonly referred to as "Prohibition," this amendment later proved to be a failure and was repealed.
Eisenhower Doctrine -doctrine issued by President Eisenhower which stated that the United States would not hesitate to aid any country in the Middle East that asked for help resisting Communist aggression,
Eleanor Roosevelt -one of the most impactful 'first ladies in U.S. history. She presented herself as a friend to common citizens and was extremely socially active. Due to her visibility, activism, and occasional willingness to take stands even the president wouldn't, Eleanor Roosevelt revolutionized the role of first lady and became a formidable historical figure alongside her husband.
election of 1860 -presidential election in which the Democratic Party split over the issue of slavery, enabling Republican Abraham Lincoln to win the election. Lincoln's election so infuriated southerners that a number of state's seceded, eventually leading to the Civil War.
electric light bulb -invention by Thomas Edison that greatly transformed how people lived and worked. Before electric light bulbs, people were limited to working only during daylight hours, or by the dim light of oil-burning lamps. Light bulbs provided much more light than oil lamps and meant that people could work and do more after dark. Factories and businesses could stay open longer and produce more.
electric trolleys -new means of urban leisure and entertainment.
Eli Whitney -Key U.S. inventor of the Industrial Revolution, He revolutionized the South's economy with the invention of his cotton gin and greatly impacted the northern economy with his innovation concept of interchangeable parts,
Elizabeth Cady Stanton -major figure of the early women's rights movement. She helped organize the first women's rights convention, known as the Seneca Falls Conference, in 1848, Stanton's boldness shocked many when she used the occasion to call for women's suffrage.
Ellis Island -tiny island near the Statue of Liberty in New York, it became a well-known reception center for immigrants arriving by ship.
Emancipation Proclamation -This proclamation was issued by President Lincoln in 1863 and freed the slaves in the Confederate States, while maintaining slavery in the Border States loyal to the Union. With this executive order, Lincoln hoped to give the war a moral focus beyond just saving the Union. He also hoped to undermine the South's reliance on slave labor and ensure the support of England and France --both of which had already abolished slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation also encouraged free African Americans to serve in the Union Army.
Emilio Aguinaldo -Filipino leader who launched a resistance movement against the United States after the Spanish-American War. His resistance movement lasted more than two years before he was finally captured in 1901.
end of the cold war -Gorbachev realized that the hurting Soviet economy could not sustain an arms race with the United States any longer. For this reason, he initiated glasnost and perestroika. These changes, along with the economic collapse of Communist nations in Eastern Europe, paved the way for the fall of Communism in the Soviet Union and its satellite nations. On November 9, 1989, the East German government announced that people could travel freely to West Berlin. Except for a failed coup that was meant to remove Gorbachev and reverse his policies, the cold war was essentially over. Although he was no longer in office at the time, many credited Ronald Reagan with bringing about the end of the cold war.
environmentalist movement -movement inspired largely by Rachel Carson that is concerned with preserving the earth's resources and species of life. It often focuses on combating ways in which human beings "negatively affect" the environment.
EPA -The Environmental Protection Agency. It is a federal agency established for the purpose of enforcing laws aimed at maintaining a safe and clean environment.
Erie Canal-canal constructed in the 1820s that provided a new shipping route from Lake Erie to the Hudson River. It helped make New York a dominant commercial center by expanding its markets and also sped up western migration by allowing people to travel much more cheaply and easily. Along with Robert Fulton's invention of the steam powered boat, the Erie Canal greatly enhanced the economy of New York City and the northeastern United States.
Espionage and Sedition Acts -laws passed by Congress during WW!. These acts made it illegal to interfere with the draft, obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds, or make statements considered disloyal to, or critical of, the government, the Constitution, or the U.S. military.
ethnic ghettos -neighborhoods where immigrants from a certain region or country tended to live together due to their common culture, language, and heritage.
evil empire -term Ronald Reagan used to describe the Soviet Union.
Fair Employment Act -law which prohibited discrimination in the national defense industry and was the first federal law against employment discrimination.
fall of Berlin -the German capital fell in April 1945, signaling the end of the war in Europe.
fall of Saigon -the fall of the South Vietnamese capital to the Communists in 1975 which signaled the end of the Vietnam War.
Federalist Papers -essays that were written to persuade New York's legislature to ratify the Constitution by easing fears that the document left the government susceptible to anyone faction seizing too much power.
Federalists -political faction and eventually a political party that favored a strong central government, supported ratification of the Constitution, and held to a '''loose interpretation" of the Constitution.
Fidel Castro -leader of the Cuban Revolution which established a Communist government in Cuba.
Fifteenth Amendment - Constitutional amendment guaranteeing African Americans the right to vote.
First Great Awakening -a religious movement that featured passionate preaching from evangelists who believed that colonists needed to be called back to a "sincere Christian commitment." It helped establish separation of church and state as a valued colonial principle.
first hundred days -first one hundred days of Roosevelt's presidency, in which he pushed many of his New Deal programs through Congress.
First New Deal -the first wave of Roosevelt's New Deal program introduced within the first hundred days of his inauguration.
Florida -state that decided the 2000 presidential election by supplying who ever won the state with enough electoral points to win a majority in the Electoral College.
Fort Sumter -Union fort in Charleston, SC where the first shots of the Civil War were fired after Confederate forces fired on Union soldiers. The attack forced the Union to abandon the fort, but also gave Lincoln the public support he needed to go to war with the South.
Fourteen Points -peace proposal put forth by Woodrow Wilson following WWI.
Fourteenth Amendment -Constitutional amendment that made freed African Americans citizens of the states in which they lived as well as citizens of the United States.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt -elected president in 1932, he was president during much of the Great Depression. He believed that the country needed the government to provide direct relief and was willing to engage in deficit spending to help get the U.S. economy moving in the right direction. To do this, Roosevelt introduced new legislation and a number of programs known collectively as the New Deal
Frederick Douglass -African American abolitionist who, after escaping slavery in Maryland, educated himself and became the most prominent African American speaker for the abolition of slavery.
Freedmen's Bureau -As the first federal relief agency in U.S. history, the Freedmen's Bureau provided clothes, medical attention, food, education, and even land to African Americans coming out of slavery. Lacking support, it eventually ended in 1869. However, during its brief time, it helped many slaves make the transition to freedom throughout the South.
freedom rides -integrated bus trips in which civil rights advocates (both black and white) traveled south on buses to test Supreme Court rulings requiring the integration of buses. One famous ride turned violent in Alabama. These rides helped draw national attention to civil rights and created additional support for the movement.
French and Indian War -war between the British and French (and their Native American allies) that was fought for control of eastern North America. The British eventually won.
Fugitive Slave Law -This law was part of the Compromise of 1850 and required that northern states forcibly return escaped slaves to their owners in the South. Because the law was unpopular in the North, however, many northern citizens refused to obey it.
Gadsden Purchase -agreement with Mexico that gave the United States parts of present-day New Mexico and Arizona in exchange for $10 million, The acquisition of these territories all but completed the continental expansion envisioned by those who believed in manifest destiny,
George H.W. Bush -served as vice president under Reagan and succeeded Reagan as president in 1989. He won great popularity as president for leading the nation to victory in the Persian Gulf War, but lost the 1992 election after the economy took a downturn,
George W. Bush -the son of former president, George H.W. Bush, he narrowly defeated Al Gore to become president in 2000.
George Wallace -governor of Alabama, who opposed integration and attempted to prevent black students from gaining admittance to the University of Alabama.
George Washington - commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolution and first president of the United States.
Gerald Ford -became president after Richard Nixon. He is the only man in history to serve as both vice president and president, without being elected to cither office. He continued to battle stagflation and eventually lost the 1976 election to Jimmy Carter.
Gettysburg Address -famous speech delivered by President Lincoln at a ceremony dedicating a cemetery on the site of the battlefield. Although a relatively short speech, it was a powerful affirmation of Lincoln's desire to see the Union survive and the nation reunited.
Gettysburg -Fought just outside Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, the battle of Gettysburg was a key turning point in the war. Without Jackson to assist him, Lee's forces proved less aggressive than usual and failed to win valuable high ground early in the battle. Union forces under the command of General George Meade defeated Lee's army and ended any hope the South had of successfully invading the North. With more than 51,000 soldiers killed, wounded, or missing, Gettysburg was the bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War.
GI Bill-legislation passed by Congress after WWII that provided military veterans with benefits such as job priority, money for furthering their education, training, and loans for purchasing homes and property. Because of the support it provided, the nation witnessed a social revolution.
grandfather clauses -laws designed to help poor and less-educated whites still vote by exempting them from literacy tests and poll taxes if their ancestors had voted or served in the Confederate military.
Great Compromise -established a legislative branch with two houses. One house, called the House of Representatives, would be elected directly by the people and each state granted a certain number of seats based on population. The other house, called the Senate, would be elected by state legislatures with each state having two senators, regardless of population; together, the two houses would comprise Congress,
Great Depression -worst economic crisis in U.S. history that led to massive unemployment and left many U.S. citizens without jobs or money.
Grimke sisters -Sarah and Angelina Grimke were members of a prominent slave holding family in South Carolina who became abolitionists and won national acclaim for their passionate anti-slavery speeches.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution -resolution passed by Congress which gave the president the authority to "take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States…" In effect, it gave Johnson the power to take military actions in Vietnam without having to get approval from Congress.
Half-way Covenant -covenant adopted by the Puritan church that established partial membership in the church for the children and grandchildren of full members regardless of any conversion experience. Church leaders hoped it would lead to younger Puritans eventually seeing the value in full church membership, thereby forsaking secularism in favor of Puritan teachings.
Hamilton's economic plan -economic plan proposed by Alexander Hamilton that proposed the federal government take on state debts that were largely due to the war, placed a tax on whiskey, support tariffs, and establish a national bank,
Harlem Renaissance - artistic and literary movement that arose within the African American community during the 1920s in which black intellectuals produced works of art and literature portraying the daily lives of working-class African Americans.
Harry S. Truman -became president of the United States following the death of Franklin Roosevelt. He was president when WWII ended and authorized use of the atomic bomb against Japan.
Harry S. Truman -became the nation's thirty-third president following the death of Franklin Roosevelt and became a supporter of civil rights.
health care system -system of health-care professionals and medical treatment in the United States. Providing government-sponsored, affordable health care for U.S. citizens was a major goal of the Clinton administration.
Henry Ford's impact on the automobile and production -He was not the first to invent the automobile, but Ford was the first to perfect and successfully market it. From 1907 until 1926, Ford built half the automobiles in the world (16,750,000 ears). He also introduced and perfected the method of mass production and introduced an innovative and more efficient assembly line.
Herbert Hoover -president when the Great Depression began. He was ultimately blamed for the crisis and lost the 1932 election to Franklin Roosevelt.
Holocaust -the systematic extermination of millions of Jews and others deemed "unfit to live" by the Nazis during WWII.
Hoovervilles -villages of homemade shacks set up by the homeless and unemployed during the Great Depression. They were named after the president most blamed for the crisis.
House of Burgesses -the first elected legislative body in the colonies. It was the house of Virginia's legislature elected by the people.
HUAC -Congress' House Un-American Activities Committee which was responsible for rooting out Communists in the federal government during the second Red Scare.
Huey P. Long-U.S. senator from Louisiana and critic of FDR who advocated a redistribution of wealth and a guaranteed income of $2000 per year for every U.S. family. He also proposed legislation that would limit the income of any U.S. citizen to one million dollars per year, with the government taking the rest in taxes. Long gathered a large following and many believed he would run for president in 1936; however; he was assassinated in 1935.
Hull House -settlement house established by Jane Addams in Chicago for the purpose of helping the poor and immigrants.
Ida Tarbell-muckraker who revealed the abuses of the Standard Oil trust.
immigration _. process of people from other countries coming to live permanently in the United States.
impact of computers and cellular phones -computers have greatly impacted communications, making it easier and faster to communicate and gather information than ever before. As a result, globalization, business, employment, and politics have all been greatly impacted.
impact of more immigrants coming from Eastern and Southern Europe rather than Western Europe -As feelings of nativism grew, anti-immigrant groups began to form. Nativism often meant that foreign immigrants were the victims of violence and discrimination. Eventually, the government reacted to nativist concerns by attempting to pass legislation restricting immigration. A number of such efforts failed when they were vetoed by U.S. presidents. Legislation was passed, however, restricting immigration from China. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the United States,
impact of movies -The fashions and lifestyles portrayed in the movies helped define a national culture. People all over the nation wanted to wear the clothes they saw in the movies, drive the cars they saw on screen, and take part in the fads popularized by Hollywood. As a result, movie stars became national icons.
impact of Northwest Ordinance on new states, slavery, and education-' The Northwest Ordinance made slavery illegal in the new territory and showed that the question of slavery would be a major issue as the nation expanded west. It also established the guidelines under which new states could be admitted to the Union. Finally, acquisition of the Northwest Territory impacted education. As the nation grew and the population became more spread out, leaders and citizens wanted to make sure that the country maintained a sense of unity and "national values" (i.e., individualism and patriotism). They used public education as a tool to encourage such principles.
impact of radio -as the first source of mass communication and entertainment available to people in their own homes, radio united the nation and mold a national culture like never before as people across the country enjoyed the same shows and heard the same news reports. It also transformed politics by giving leaders direct access to larger numbers of people.
impact of railroads on the West, the steel industry, and big business -Railroads made western migration possible by allowing farmers, ranchers, and other settlers access to eastern markets and resources. They also made it easier for people to move west and populate territories at a rapid rate. Also, since railroads were much larger and faster than wagons, they became a practical and economical way to ship large, heavy products over land. As a result, resources necessary for manufacturing things like steel could be transported to the factories where they were produced, while finished goods could reach the people and places that demanded them more easily. In this way, railroads impacted the steel industry by making it a practical and affordable product to use in the development and expansion of cities. Because of their ability to carry goods and resources great distances in a timely fashion, railroads became a major contributor to the growth of big business.
impact of television coverage of the civil rights movement and Vietnam -As the civil rights movement of the 1950s and '60s progressed, television coverage of the violence often inflicted on African Americans demanding their civil rights played a major role in winning support for the cause. Likewise, televised images from Vietnam made it the firstwar ever "fought in people's living rooms." In other words, the fact that people could actually see the death and destruction every night on their own TVs contributed to the war's controversy as it allowed people to form their own opinions about what they were witnessing.
impact of television -for the first time, people could watch entertaining shows, news reports, advertisements, etc. from the comfort of their own homes without having to go out to a theater. Television stars became nationally admired figures, and weekly shows like I Love Lucy became a regular part of people's week-to-week schedule. TV also impacted politics. Politicians now had to worry about how they looked on screen.
imperialism -the belief that the United States should expand its territory.
inalienable rights -natural rights that the government cannot take away.
indentured servants -people who agreed to work for a landowner for up to seven years in exchange for that landowner paying for their trip to North America. After seven years they were supposed to become landowners themselves.
Indian Removal-U.S. government policy that forced Native Americans off lands it wanted for white settlement.
individualism -a belief in the worth and potential of each individual despite what class a person is born into. It is closely associated with a belief that each individual is able to achieve success if they work hard, and so on.
Industrial Revolution -a time during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when advances in technology led to massive economic changes.
infrastructure -what provides the framework and connections for holding something together (canals, railroads, and roads, for example).
initiative -political reform that allows citizens of a state to force a vote on a certain issue without having to wait for public officials to bring it up. If enough citizens signed a petition and/or made their voices heard, then the legislature could be compelled to address a particular concern.
interchangeable parts -innovation of Eli Whitney's which allowed for more efficient production and helped industrialize the northern economy. It allowed parts to be replaced rather than whole products.
internment camps -government camps to which German, Italian, and Japanese citizens/residents in the United States were relocated to during the war for fear that they might aid the nation's enemies. General
Intolerable Acts -harsh laws passed by Great Britain after the Boston Tea Party which closed Boston Harbor, placed a military governor over Massachusetts, and expanded the Canadian border, taking land away from certain colonies.