Passing the Georgia EOCT in US History Workbook Glossary
John D. Rockefeller -business giant who made it big in the oil industry and founded Standard Oil. the nation's first trust.
1968 -year which saw social and political revolutions take place around the world.
A, Philip Randolph -civil rights activist of the 1940s who proposed a march on Washington, D.C. to protest racial discrimination in the military. His efforts led to President Roosevelt's support of the Fair Employment Act.
abolitionist movement -social movement of the 1800s aimed at ending slavery.
abolitionists --social reformers who wanted to end slavery,
Abraham Lincoln -first Republican president in history. Because he opposed the expansion of slavery into new territories, southerners resented his election. His victory in 1860 led to South Carolina's, and eventually various other southern states', decision to secede. He led the Union through the Civil War.
Adolf Hitler -totalitarian leader who rose to power in Germany and whose military aggression led to the start of WWII in Europe.
affirmative action -a policy aimed at increasing minority representation in the workplace, educational institutions, social settings and so on by imposing guidelines requiring the hiring or acceptance of minority candidates, or by actively pursuing the recruitment of such candidates,
Afghanistan -nation where Osama bin Laden and al Qaeda enjoyed protection prior to the War on Terror.
African Americans out West -large numbers of African Americans made their way west following the Civil War. A large number of cowboys in the 1800s were actually African Americans who moved west after the abolition of slavery. Many African Americans also served out west as soldiers in the United States army.
Al Gore -former vice president of the United States who is currently one of the world's best-known advocates for the modern-day environmentalist movement.
Al Gore -vice president under Bill Clinton, he was the Democratic nominee for president who narrowly lost the 2000 election.
al Qaeda -the most formidable and best-known Islamic terrorist group.
Alexander Hamilton -major leader of the Federalist party who served as President Washington's secretary of the treasury and introduced an economic plan for dealing with the nation's economic crisis during Washington's first term,
Alien and Sedition Acts -laws passed by Federalists that allowed the government to both arrest, detain, or remove foreigners deemed untrustworthy and limit free speech and expression. These acts tended to help the Federalists because immigrants who had been in the country for only a short time were usually poorer and often drawn to the Republicans who represented the "common man." Under these laws, such people could not vote in elections.
Allied powers -nations which fought against the Axis powers (i.e., the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union).
American Federation of Labor --early influential labor union which focused on such issues as wages, working hours, and working conditions.
American System -plan proposed by Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky which was meant to improve the nation's infrastructure, promote U.S. businesses, and unite the country.
Andrew Jackson -a war hero who had defeated the British at New Orleans in 1814 and forced concessions from the Spanish that ultimately led to Florida becoming a U.S. territory in 1819. In 1828 he became the first "common man" president. He instituted a brand of politics known as Jacksonian Democracy, believed that all white men should be free to vote, instituted a policy of rewarding his political supporters with government positions, favored laissez-faire economics, and held to a strict interpretation of the Constitution. He fought a fierce battle with John C. Calhoun and South Carolina over tariffs, and inspired such division in government that the two-party system ultimately returned,
Andrew Johnson -a southerner and one-time slave owner who had remained loyal to the Union and became president after Lincoln was assassinated. He proved sympathetic to the South and pursued his own plan of Presidential Reconstruction.
annexation of Texas -Texas was finally annexed and became a state in 1845, after initially not being allowed to join the Union because northern states did not want it admitted as a slave territory.
Antietam -the bloodiest single-day battle of the war. It halted Lee's first attempt to invade the North and gave Lincoln the victory he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
Antifederalists -those who opposed the Federalists, did not support ratification of the Constitution, and held to a "strict interpretation" of the Constitution,
antiwar movement -social/political movement of the 1960s and early '70s that consisted largely of college students and was aimed at ending the war in Vietnam.
Appomattox Courthouse -site where General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant, effectively ending the Civil War.
Archduke Ferdinand -the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; his assassination sparked the beginning of WWI.
armistice -an agreement to stop fighting. An armistice stopped the fighting in WWI until the official treaty ending the war was signed.
Articles of Confederation -first national body of laws adopted by the United States following its declaration of independence. It proved ineffective because it did not give enough power to the national government.
assassinations of Dr, King and Robert Kennedy-In April 1968, an assassin gunned down Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee, leaving others to carry the banner of civil rights in his place. Later that summer, Democratic presidential hopeful Robert Kennedy was also assassinated after winning the California primary. Because of his open support for civil rights, many citizens had considered Kennedy to be their greatest hope for steering the nation in a positive direction. In the midst of all the chaos and violence, the nation moved ahead with concern and a sense of uncertainty.
Atlanta Campaign -General Sherman's military campaign to take Atlanta.
Atlanta -southern city praised for its peaceful implementation of school segregation during the '50s and' 60s.
Atlantic slave trade -trade that involved European nations bringing black slaves from Africa and selling them in the Americas. social mobility -ability of someone to move from one social status to another through hard work, etc.
atomic bomb -nuclear bomb more powerful than any weapon previously invented. The United States dropped two bombs on Japan, ultimately forcing Japan's unconditional surrender.
Axis powers -Germany, Italy, and Japan.
baby boom -term that refers to the period after WWII, in which the United States experienced a rapid population increase.
Bacon's Rebellion -rebellion of small farmers, indentured servants, and some slaves in western Virginia led by an aristocrat named Nathanael Bacon. It involved Bacon's army fighting Native Americans for land and eventually burning Jamestown to the ground when the governor failed to support their actions. The rebellion ultimately faded after Bacon's death, but not until it demonstrated that Virginians wanted a government that represented more than just wealthy few and alerted the colony's ruling class to the discontent existing in Virginia's lower class and the need to deal with shortages of land.
Barry Goldwater -Republican candidate for president in 1964 whose candidacy marked the rise of the conservative movement and ended the days of the "solid South."
Bataan death march -march of US and Filipino prisoners of war by the Japanese that occurred after the Japanese conquered the Philippines at the beginning of WWII Many prisoners died along the way, and those responsible for the death march were later tried and executed for war crimes after the war.
Battle of Britain -battle fought between the British and German air forces in the skies over England in 1940. It resulted in great destruction in cities like London; however, Churchill's inspirational leadership, combined with the bravery of the British Royal Air Force allowed the British to be victorious and turn back Hitler's plans for invading Great Britain,
Battle of Midway -key battle in the Pacific won by the United States and which marked a turning point in the Pacific war.
Bay of Pigs -CIA operation meant to remove Castro from power in Cuba. It involved an invasion which turned out to be a terrible failure and a huge embarrassment for the Kennedy administration.
Benito Mussolini -totalitarian leader who rose to power in Italy. He was an ally of Adolf Hitler during WWII.
Benjamin Franklinand the French Alliance -the Continental Congress sent Benjamin Franklin to Paris to try to convince the French to form an open alliance with the United States. After the American victory at Saratoga, the French finally agreed. France promised money, troops, and the support of the French navy. Following the U.S.-French treaty, Great Britain and France were soon at war with each other in Europe as well, forcing the British to fight on two continents .
Benjamin Franklin -great inventor, scientist, ambassador, writer, and U.S. founding father who was also an example of individualism and social mobility in the colonies.
Berlin Wall-wall constructed by Communist East Germany to keep people from fleeing to West Berlin.
Bill Clinton -defeated Bush in 1992 to become the first Democratic president since Jimmy Carter. Under his presidency, the economy improved; however, his presidency was often dogged by scandal, he had a hard time dealing with a Republican-led Congress, and he is only the second president in history ever to be impeached after he was caught lying to a grand jury.
Bill of Rights -the first ten amendments (additions) to the Constitution. Its purpose is to protect citizens' rights and maintain limited government.
black codes -laws that limited the rights of freed blacks so much that African Americans continued living much like slaves.
Black Exodus -term referring to the mass migration of African Americans from the South to the western territories following emancipation.
Black Power -a philosophy that held that blacks should take great pride in their African heritage and be willing to use violence, if necessary, to attain and protect their civil rights.
Black Tuesday -October 29, 1929, the day the stock market crashed.lt is generally acknowledged as the beginning of the Great Depression.
Brown v. Board of Education - Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that segregation in public schools is unconstitutional because conditions in segregated schools are not equal. It reversed the decision made years before in Plessey v. Ferguson.
budget battle -A huge showdown between Clinton and Gingrich's Republican-led Congress finally occurred in 1995 over proposed budget cuts. When the two sides could not compromise, the federal government temporarily shut down and ceased services to millions of people. It was the spring of '96 before the two sides reached an agreement. The budget battle turned out to be a plus for Clinton. Prior to it, Clinton's popularity had been fading. Fortunately for the president, however, most people blamed Congress for the government shutdown, The following November, Clinton easily won a second term in the White House.
buying stock on speculation -high-risk investments people made in the stock market during the 1920s in hopes of making large returns on their money. Such investments eventually contributed to the start of the Great Depression.
buying stock on the margin - practice that eventually contributed to the Great Depression in which investors purchased stocks for only a portion of what they cost. They then borrowed the difference and paid interest on the loan. Many believed that the stock market was doing so well that they could still make money, even while paying such interest.
California gold rush -occurred in 1849 after gold was discovered in California and resulted in a rapid population boom that led to California becoming a state in 1850.
Camp David Accords -peace agreement between Egypt and Israel, brokered by President Carter and for which President Carter received much praise.
cattle ranching -important western industry of the 1800s that involved raising and herding cattle, Ranching contributed to the decline of the buffalo, greatly affected Native Americans, and made cowboys legendary figures of the old West.
Cesar Chavez -founder of the UFW and an advocate for Hispanic migrant workers, he imitated many of the methods of Dr. King and went to great lengths to improve the conditions under which migrant workers toiled, including personally conducting hunger strikes.
changing attitudes towards government -Through scandals, wars, economic problems, and now, a war on terror, citizens question their government and hold it accountable more than ever before. Most people now recognize that the days of citizens blindly believing what their leaders tell them are forever a part of the United States' past.
checks and balances -powers given to each branch that allow each branch to check the powers of the other two,
child labor -children working. In the early twentieth century this often meant children, as young as five years old, working long hours for little pay,
China's Communist Revolution -revolution led by Mao Tse-tung in 1949 in which China's Communist Party overthrew the Nationalists to take over the country.
Chinese Exclusion Act -An 1892 law which prohibited further immigration from China to the United States for ten years. Eventually, the act was extended and remained in effect until 1943. '
Chinese Exclusion Act -law which prohibited Chinese immigrants from legally coming to the United States and was not repealed until 1943.
Civil Rights Act of 1964 -an act passed by Congress which prohibited segregation in public accommodations (hotels, restaurants, theaters) and discrimination in education and employment.
Clinton's impeachment - Clinton became only the second president in U.S. history to be impeached after he lied to a grand jury about his relationship with a White House intern named Monica Lewinsky. Clinton's presidency survived after he was acquitted by the Senate, but the humiliation of the Lewinsky scandal remained throughout the rest of his time in office.
cold war -term which referred to the tension between the United States and the Soviet Union that dominated both nations' foreign policies and which many feared would lead to actual war.
committees of correspondence -colonial groups dedicated to organizing resistance against British laws and made sure that colonists remained discontent with British rule.
Common Sense-pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that won many colonists to the cause of independence.
Communism --a system in which people in society cooperate and own property mutually, thereby making governments unnecessary. It is preceded by a socialist form of government.
Compromise of 1850 -political compromise that admitted California to the Union as a free state and declared the unorganized western territories free as well. The Utah and New Mexico territories, however, were allowed to decide the issue by popular sovereignty. Attached to the compromise was the Fugitive Slave Law.
concentration camps -prison camps where millions of Jews and other people deemed "unfit to live" by the Nazis were sent to die and/or be used as slave labor during WWII.
conservatism -political philosophy which gained support in the '60s and that believes government should not try to regulate too much. Conservatives would rather keep taxes low and have a government that does as little as possible. They believe in personal freedoms and property rights rather than government trying to control how society operates.
containment policy -U.S. policy during the Cold War which acknowledged that Eastern Europe was lost to Communism, while maintaining that the United States would focus its efforts on "containing" Communism to where it already existed, without letting it spread to other nations.
Convention of 1800 -meeting in which France and the United States were able to negotiate some of their differences, reopen trade, and re-establish diplomatic relations, The convention also formally ended the US-French alliance that had existed since the Revolution, making the United States officially neutral
CORE -Congress of Racial Equality. It was an organization founded in 1942 and is devoted to social change through nonviolent action. It is perhaps most noted for organizing the famed "freedom rides" of the 1960s .
court-packing scheme -plan put forth by Roosevelt to enlarge the size of the Supreme Court which would allow him to "pack" the Court with justices favorable to his programs. When fierce opposition to the measure arose- Roosevelt was forced to withdraw his request. However- his boldness in even attempting such a move helped encourage the Court to reverse its position on a few New Deal policies.
crossing of the Delaware River -bold move taken by Washington's army on Christmas night 1776, which allowed them to surprise the Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey, and win a much-needed victory.
Cuba -Spanish colony close to the United States. When Cubans rebelled in the late 18005, it led to a war between Spain and the United States.
Cuban Missile Crisis -standoff between the U.S. and U.S.S.R. over the issue of Soviet missiles that had been placed in Cuba. The United States authorized a blockade to prevent any more missiles, and the two nations almost went to war. Eventually, the Soviets agreed to remove the missiles, in exchange for a U.S. pledge not to invade Cuba. In addition, the United States also offered the Soviets a secret assurance that it would eventually remove U.S. missiles stationed in Turkey as well.
Cuban Revolution -Cuba's Communist revolution that brought Fidel Castro to power in the 1950s.
cultural pluralism -presence of many different cultures within one society.
Daniel Shays' Rebellion -rebellion of farmers in Massachusetts which arose in protest to state taxes in the midst of a national financial crisis, it demonstrated the need to revise the Articles of Confederation,
D-Day --invasion of Western Europe launched by the Allies on June 6, 1944 that eventually led to Germany's surrender.
December 7, 1941 -date on which the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor.
Declaration of Independence -document adopted in July 1776 by delegates to the Second Continental Congress that officially proclaimed the colonies' independence from Great Britain.
Democratic National Convention of' 1968 -political convention where the Democratic Party nominated its candidates for president and vice president for the' 68 election. Large numbers of radicals and protesters descended on the city where the convention was held and, eventually, massive demonstrations got out of hand after convention delegates voted against a Vietnam peace resolution and it became clear that Johnson's vice president, Hubert Humphrey, would be nominated for president. Police began clubbing those involved in the rally, while television cameras caught most of the violence.
Department of Homeland Security -federal department established after 9/11 for the purpose of protecting the nation against further terrorist attacks.
detente policy -Policy introduced by Nixon that used diplomacy rather than intimidation to ease tensions that existed between the United States and Communist nations.
direct relief -when the government provides economic relief.
doctrine of nullification -idea that states can ignore federal laws they believe are unconstitutional.
doctrine of nullification -the belief that states have the right to nullify (ignore or cancel) any federal law they believe is unconstitutional.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. -the acknowledged leader of the civil rights movement, who was an extremely gifted man who believed in nonviolent protest. He led the Montgomery bus boycott, was president of the SCLC, wrote the famed "Letter from Birmingham Jail,”- delivered a famous speech at the March on Washington, won the Nobel Peace Prize, and was eventually assassinated in April 1968.
draft -a policy in which the government selects certain individuals for military service rather than waiting for them to enlist. Lincoln's draft was particularly unpopular among the poor and immigrants. They resented that wealthy citizens could avoid military service in exchange for paying three hundred dollars or by hiring a substitute to serve in their place. In July 1863, draft riots broke out in New York City, killing more than one hundred people and resulting in the lynching of at least eleven African Americans by immigrants and poorer whites who blamed blacks for the war.
Dred Scott case -U.S. Supreme Court case in which a slave, Dred Scott, sued for his freedom. The Court ruled that Scott had no right to sue because, as a slave, he was not a citizen, It also declared that a slave owner could not be deprived of his "property" without due process of law. The decision struck down the Missouri Compromise because it declared that it was a violation of the Fifth Amendment to declare slaves free of their owners without due process of law even if that slave had entered a free state. The decision outraged both abolitionists and those who favored popular sovereignty.
drought -lack of rain that results in not enough water for farming.
Dust Bowl - a series of storms that hit the Midwest during the early '305, causing enormous clouds of dust to be created by the high winds. These black clouds would blanket farms, and even entire cities, as they destroyed areas and left them uninhabitable. The ruthless storms displaced hundreds of thousands of farmers, forcing them to become homeless migrants.
Dwight D. Eisenhower -U.S. general who planned and commanded Allied forces during D-Day and the Allied march to Berlin which followed.
Dwight Eisenhower -WWII hero who became president after Harry S. Truman. He was concerned about the spread of Communism and Soviet aggression and was prepared to fight Communism, He was also concerned about the fate of the world, given the existence of powerful nuclear weapons. He introduced the Eisenhower Doctrine, which stated that the United States would not hesitate to aid any country in the Middle East that asked for help resisting Communist aggression.