Participants in 2013 Consolidated Appeal

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Strategy and proposed activities
I. Protection/registration

The relocation exercise is the principal protection activity which will take the refugee population to a safer settlement further away from the Malian border (in order to meet the UNHCR standard of 50 km minimum) as well as to facilitate the provision of assistance. Additionally, UNHCR will assure the safety of its refugees in the camps. Therefore, a number of mechanisms in cooperation with local authorities and the refugees themselves will be established and an atmosphere of peace and civility is sought to prevail in the camps. Moreover, UNHCR focuses on the prevention of SGBV and the assistance to those who have become victims to SGBV.

The following protection activities will be undertaken:

Ensure the civilian and humanitarian character of refugee camps.

Register new arrivals and update available data.

Continue working with local authorities to ensure safety of refugees and humanitarian workers and preserve civilian characters of refugee camps.

Train police and immigration officers on human rights, basic refugee law, identifying, preventing and responding to survivors of violence/SGBV.

Set up mechanism to prevent and solve in peaceful manner conflict between refugees and host communities or between refugees themselves.

Provide adult refugees, including all women and unaccompanied children with identity cards.

Provide judicial assistance.

Set up protection monitoring at the border to gather information on protection incidents.

Protection monitoring, the dissemination of the refugee law, capacity building of humanitarian actors as to improve the overall asylum system.

Output Indicators

Standard: 100% of survivors are assisted.

10% of UNHCR staff and partners trained on SGBV.

10% of refugees trained on SGBV.

Standard operating procedures are elaborated and disseminated.

10% of survivors or victims received legal assistance.

Existence of multi-sectoral and inter agency SGVB prevention and response enabled and sustained.

100% of refugees are registered and profiled.

II. Child protection

Protection evaluations found that some children are not living with their biological parents but with “tutors” or traditional marabou. Also, the lack of education for children in the camps has represented a serious protection problem as children are left with no recreational activity and are subject to child labour in the camps. Most have lost their school year in Mali and found themselves with no educational activities in Burkina Faso. Finally, the lack of activities for refugees who are living in camps along the borders could expose them to recruitment.

The main aim concerning child protection is therefore to:

Provide universal access to primary education for all refugee children.

Raise awareness to parents on the importance of education for their kids.

Provide child-friendly spaces in camps.

Provide birth registration to all new-born refugees in Burkina Faso.

Output Indicators

15 additional schools constructed in refugee’s camp in the Sahel and well equipped.

4,500 children representing 50% of children aged from 6-11 years old are enrolled in primary school in the camps.

100% of children enrolled in school including girls received school supplies.

III. Camp management and site planning

The operation had to adapt in terms of camp management as the refugees settled according to clans, scattered over a wide geographic space and did not want to be organized by blocks as is common in other refugee operations. Despite these challenges, UNHCR and partners created six official refugee sites in Burkina Faso as well as several spontaneous sites. Currently, the operation is re-locating the refugees from the sites in the Sahel towards Goudebou, a new and improved site on the outskirts of Dori, which is a safe distance of more than 50km from the Malian border. The strategy is to re-locate, on a voluntarily basis, all refugees located in the camps of Oudalan (Fererio, Gandafabou, Deou, Gountouré Gnegne and Tin Hedja) to Goudebou, and to re-locate all refugees in Damba to Mentao (40,000 refugees, 80% of the total refugee population). This will provide increased protection to the refugees as the proximity to the border might jeopardize the civilian character of the camp as well as security to the refugee’s physical integrity. This also means that the operation must invest significantly in logistics and infrastructure in the beginning of 2013.

The main objective for Camp Coordination and Camp Management in 2013 is to:

Develop the new sites (construction of family shelter and other infrastructures) as well as to implement measures to ensure safe transfer of women and other vulnerable groups whilst providing appropriate transportation means.

Identification of new sites for new refugee influxes from Mali.

Family and community group unity becomes a basis for development of camp and implementation of settlement arrangements.

Civilian and humanitarian character of reception centres and refugee camps, through a separation of combatants from civilians, to be implemented with support of the Government of Burkina Faso and ICRC.7

Address the issue of urgent basic needs, through provision of essential non-food items, to be distributed at the camp level which includes rendering of special assistance to the people with specific needs.

Physical security and international protection of asylum seekers from Mali through granting them with prima-facie refugee status.

Registration and the provision of arriving refugees with individual identity documents, in order to enable proper monitoring of people of concern and protection of their human rights, as well as to facilitate further access to humanitarian aid. Strengthen refugee leader committees through equal participation of women.

Through participatory assessments, consider the priorities and needs of men, women, children, people living with a disability, etc., of all age groups, and ensure that those are taken into consideration in the design and management of the camps.

Output Indicators

80% (40,000 people) are relocated in the safe camps far away (more than 50 km) from the border with Mali.

Six main refugee’s camps in Sahel protected by police.

Two additional refugee’s camps identified and available for hosting supplementary number of refugees.

100% of refugee’s households (10,000 families) have access to appropriate shelter in the camp.

Women represent 50% of refugee leaders committees.

IV. Food

Since their arrival to Burkina Faso refugees receive food assistance provided by WFP and its partners. The provision of food assistance will remain a priority for UNHCR in 2013. To this end, refugees will continue to receive a monthly food ration consisting of cereals, pulses, oil, salt and Supercreal which will cover their nutritional and food needs of 2,100 kcal per day per person.

Food assistance activities:

Mobilize representative refugee food distribution committees.

Ensure the equal participation of women in all food related activities.

Build distribution centres in the camps with special provisions to accommodate lactating and pregnant women, people living with a disability, elderly and other vulnerable groups during the food distribution process.

Provide full rations to all refugees throughout the year.

Cover food distribution and transportation fees from early delivery points to final delivery points.

Undertake systematic post-distribution monitoring evaluations.

Conduct joint monitoring and evaluation mission as well in depth food security assessments and nutritional evaluations.

Output Indicators

Each refugee’s camp has distribution committee with 50% participation of women.

Six distribution centres established in refugee’s camps.

750 tons of food transported each month from WFP warehouse and distributed to refugees in the camps.

V. Health and nutrition

Primary health care is available in all the official camps but the services need to be improved, and more importantly, extended to the new camps. WASH and Shelter are currently meeting the minimal standards, but as for health additional funding is required to meet the needs of new arrivals, as well as in the new locations.

Strengthen health facilities to ensure that refugees have access to primary health care, including reproductive health services.

Establishment of a sound referral system of emergency medical evacuation.

Establishment of mechanism to address nutritional issues, including nutritional status assessments.Set up services for the prevention, testing and treatment of HIV/AIDS.

Output Indicators

Four health centres established in four refugee’s camps and properly equipped.

Each health centre in the camp has mechanism to address reproductive health, nutrition and HIV/AIDS issues.


Challenges already existed from the start in attaining certain humanitarian standards in the provision of water in the amount of 15 litres/person/day in camps (emergency standards). Now, the operation has moved to 20 litres/person/day and challenges still persist in camps such as Gandafabou and Damba, which are located deep in the Sahel region of Burkina Faso where water resources are scarce. Efforts have not been sufficient as out of all of the boreholes that were prepared, 25% ended up being negative (with high quantity of Nitrate in the water and considered not good for consumption, or no water at all after 70 – 80 meters).

Construction of 10 boreholes for the benefits of host communities surrounding the refugee camps.

Reinforcing services in the camp for the safe water supply and storage in the refugee camps.

Hygiene promotion in the camps.

Provision of sanitary materials for women and those of reproductive age and monthly distribution of soap to refugees.

Output Indicators

30 wells rehabilitated and maintained.

33 new additional wells constructed.

Each refugee has access to 20 litres/day of potable water.

VII. Livestock assistance:

Refugees have travelled with a large number of livestock (mainly ruminants and camels). FAO estimates 50,000 animals have been brought by the refugees and are presently in Burkina Faso. This significant number of livestock has arrived in the country in the context of a lack of natural pasture and water for local livestock following insufficient rainfall during the 2011 rainy season. This situation has increased the pressure on the availability of animal feed resources, including agro-industrial byproducts as well as on human food and water resources. Low levels of milk and meat production (the main food of the refugees and the local populations) have resulted from high morbidity and mortality rates in livestock.

Since the arrival of refugees, FAO has assisted 20,590 animals (including host community animals) through the provision of animal feed and livestock vaccines as well as veterinary drugs.

As mentioned under the Agricultural response plan, there is a need to continue refugees support as follows:

Provide small ruminants (goats – one male and two females per beneficiary) to those who lost all their livestock, and to their host vulnerable households in order to improve their resilience.

Supply balanced small ruminants feed to Malian household refugees and Burkinabé host communities’ needed for their animal feeding.

Provide veterinary drugs and vaccines for refugees and Burkinabé host communities’ livestock for vaccination and treatment campaign against animal diseases.

Destock weak ruminants of selected beneficiaries including raising awareness of refugees and host communities, women and men for animal destocking.

VIII. Environment:

The strategy for the Environment Sector is to collect and distribute firewood to refugee households to prevent women from depleting the scarce vegetation in the vicinity of the camps and having to cover long distances and risk becoming victims of violence. Additionally, alternative stoves (solar energy-based) will be explored as way of minimizing the refugee impact on the environment.

The aim can be summarised as:

Timely availability of required resources, in order to minimize negative impact of the refugee population on the environment.

Output Indicators

10,000 refugee households received firewood monthly.

100% of households provided with energy equipment.

IX. Shelter/infrastructure

Refugees were not used to the tents and plastic sheeting that were initially provided by UNHCR as they were very different from the traditional shelter types normally used by this refugee group and they therefore adapted them according to their custom. This caused problems as the shelters seem to be too small for the large households and not resistant to the weather conditions of the Sahel. Additionally, the refugees preferred to settle in a dispersed manner and group themselves according to “clans,” thus defying planning parameters and a planned camp layout approach. This created challenges with regard to service delivery (e.g. maintaining maximum distances to latrines, water points, health centres, local schools, etc.). Additionally, the inhospitable Sahel climate and sun combined with heavy winds and rains have destroyed many of the shelters. Because of this, new shelters had to be designed that were culturally adequate and resistant to the climate.


Provide refugees with emergency traditional shelters, which are adequate for their needs and culture.

Construct the following infrastructures in all permanent camps: distributions centres, community centres, construction of education infrastructures where local schools are further than 2 km from the camp.

Output Indicators

Distribution centres constructed in all permanent camps.

Community centres constructed in all permanent camps.

Table of refugee numbers per location

Refugees in Burkina Faso per Province

UNHCR Data as of 31 Sept. 2012


Refugee Numbers











Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH)

Sector lead agency

United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF)

Direction Générale des Ressources en Eau

Direction Générale de l’Assainissement

Action Contre la Faim (ACF), Plan Burkina Faso

Catholic Relief Services (CRS)

Funds required

$8,580,409 for 7 projects

Contact information

Ruben Um Bayiha,

People in need and target beneficiaries

Category of people in need

Number of people in need

Beneficiaries targeted in cluster’s CAP projects (end-year target)







Vulnerable households














Explanation of number of beneficiaries targeted

Like many other countries in the Sahel region, Burkina Faso is experiencing a food crisis since 2011, which has been exacerbated since January 2012 by the influx of Malian refugees following the recent instability in the north of Mali, as a result of clashes between armed groups and the Malian army. While the country is still facing the effects of the nutritional crisis and the cholera outbreak in most refugee affected areas in the north of the country, recent discussions at the United Nations Security Council with the possibility of a coordinated attack against the rebel groups in Northern Mali will most likely result in many more Malians crossing the border to seek refuge in Burkina Faso.

The uncertainty surrounding the occupation of the northern regions of Mali and the very likely military intervention from the CEDEAO will spark an increase in population displacements in the north of Burkina Faso and will obviously worsen the nutritional situation of children in many parts of the country. In that situation, the risk of avoidable water borne diseases and especially the risk of an outspread of the cholera outbreak among the refugees and the host communities, currently estimated at 35,000 and 31,000 respectively, is very high. The WASH infrastructure in the current refugee camps, host communities and health centres would definitely not cope with this increase in population, thus WASH services (facilities and hygiene mobilization programmes) need to be strengthened not only for the refugees, but also for the host communities which are in most cases at the same level of needs, if not greater. Areas and numbers of beneficiaries to be assisted will be selected based upon needs determined by the various partners and specified in the selected projects.

How the sector response plan will contribute to the strategic objectives

The WASH sector response plan aims not only at continuing to respond to the current cholera outbreak, to provide WASH services to health centres in support to nutrition rehabilitation interventions and to the refugees and host communities, but also to prepare to respond to the humanitarian needs of the influx of new refugees and host communities as well as the potential worsening of the nutritional status of the children in the country. The sector strategy for humanitarian aid in 2013 is built around four main pillars aimed at ensuring timely and coordinated WASH interventions in support of the response to:

the Sahel nutritional crisis;

the Malian refugees’ crisis and it’s collateral effects on the host communities;

the cholera outbreak; and

potential natural disasters in the country, mainly floods.

Moreover, the response plan aims to build the capacity of the Government and partners in WASH emergency preparedness and response, specifically in the areas of displacement of populations (internally and externally), cholera outbreaks and WASH-in-Nutrition. All projects submitted through this response plan will be aligned with these four main pillars.

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