Participants in 2013 Consolidated Appeal

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Progress towards Objective 1:

Erratic and sparse rainfall led to poor harvests for the 2011/12 season across the region, which increased food prices. The cereal deficit was estimated at 154,462 mt. Results from a WFP/Government Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA April 2012), conducted across 10 regions, indicated that 3.5 million people were food-insecure, of whom 1.5 million were severely food-insecure.

The Government launched its Response Plan, “Plan Opérationnel de Soutien aux Populations Vulnérables aux Crises Alimentaires,” in December 2011. A revised draft was issued in April 2012, indicating a requirement of approximately $224 million to cover identified needs in food assistance, nutrition, farming and livestock. The plan encompassed four phases:

Phase 1 (January to March): mitigation actions to be implemented in 99 communes for 994,936 expected vulnerable people.

Phase 2 (April to June): mitigation and response actions to be implemented in 185 communes at risk for 2,065,738 expected vulnerable people.

Phase 3 (July to September): response actions to be implemented in 198 communes expected to be at risk targeting 2,850,000 beneficiaries.

Phase 4 (September to December): recovery and rehabilitation actions.

At the regional level, the United Nations’ Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs’ Regional Office for West and Central Africa (ROWCA) facilitated the development of a region-wide strategy paper titled “Response Plan for a Food Security and Nutrition Crisis in the Sahel” (15 December 2011, revised 7 February 2012), under the leadership of the regional Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC). The paper was prepared by the Regional Food Security and Nutrition Working Group. It includes country-specific details, including for Burkina Faso. Based on this strategy, humanitarian partners at the regional and national levels began preparations for the response. A Regional Humanitarian Coordinator was also appointed in April 2012 to oversee the response to the crisis at the regional level.



Food Assistance

2,275,500 food-insecure people (415,633 households) were supported by the sector in ten regions affected by the food crisis. More specifically, 1,057,000 people were assisted through food distributions (24 500 metric tons / MT), 818,000 people through cash transfers (8 billion CFA francs, = $15,810, 277) and the remaining 1,875,000 through other means.

Partners’ interventions were in line with the Government’s Response Plan. (The cereal deficit was estimated at 154,000 tons. As of June this year, 43.94% of food-assistance needs were covered in line with the mid-term review of the Government response plan.) Data on partners’ intervention was consolidated and analysed through the compilation of the sector’s matrix, “Who does what where,” and through mapping interventions.

Six coordination meetings were held in partnership with the Conseil National de Sécurite Alimentaire (CNSA).


44,543 households were supported in food crop production (provision of food crop seeds complemented with technical training) in five most affected regions.

Support to animal husbandry was provided in the form of 3,615 tons of animal feed, veterinary drugs and vaccines in order to improve their health status and avoid animal disease and deaths.

Institutional support was provided to CNSA (recruitment of additional staff, support to functioning).


In recent years, Burkina Faso has faced high morbidity and mortality owing to epidemic diseases (including meningitis, cholera and measles). In 2012, the country simultaneously faced a meningitis outbreak resulting in 5,300 suspected cases that included 553 deaths (case fatality rate of 10%) and a measles outbreak resulting in 7,607 suspected cases that included 30 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.39%).

In addition to strengthening disease surveillance and case management during outbreaks, a reactive immunization campaign was conducted in three health districts (Gourcy, Séguénéga and Tougan) with “polysaccharidic tetravalent” vaccine ACYW135 acquired through the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control and administered to 284,218 children (aged 2 to 14 years).

In response to the measles outbreak with 7,607 reported suspected cases that included 30 deaths (case fatality rate of 0.39%), an immunization campaign was conducted among the refugees in 8 districts (Gorom, Djibo, Nongremassom and Diapaga, Nouna, Tougan, Gourcy and Houndé).

A national health emergency preparedness and response plan was developed by the Ministry of Health with support from WHO, UNICEF and MSF.


22,500 WASH kits were procured and are being distributed to families attending SAM screening and/or treatment.

35 boreholes being rehabilitated in health centres and schools.

Child Protection

1,234 health workers, caregivers and community based animators trained in psycho-social assistance in emergencies in the context of the nutrition crisis.

23 trainers trained in psycho-social assistance in emergencies.

7,071 refugee children assisted through psycho-social assistance, recreational activities and sensitisation sessions on child protection in emergency issues such as child labour, child marriage, child recruitment by armed groups and armed forces, and family separation.

921 children (468 boys and 453 girls) identified as unaccompanied and separated by UNHCR during the phase 2 census in all official refugee sites and in the course of verification.

28 children victims of child rights violations provided with holistic assistance (psycho-social, medical, protection).

82 governmental and non-governmental implementing partners trained in child protection in emergency, unaccompanied and separated children identification and family reunification, risks and impact of child recruitment, and other grave child rights violations and prevention methods.


Several inter-sector coordination meetings were organized.

A “who does what and where” matrix was produced.

The Humanitarian Forum was set up. It gathers national NGOs, civil society representatives and the Red Cross Movement and provides a platform for information exchange and coordination strengthening. OCHA ensures linkages between the Humanitarian Forum and inter-sector coordination.

The inter-agency contingency planning task force was set up following an inter-sector meeting with designated members from each sector/UN agency.

An ad hoc task force for the floods was set up which includes Government bodies. The inter-sector coordination team organizes ad hoc meetings in case of emergency.

Strategic objective #2

Provide life-saving assistance to children under age 5 with moderate or severe acute malnutrition (MAM or SAM) through integrated management of acute malnutrition and through the provision of health-integrated packages to children under age 5 and pregnant or lactating women in the affected areas.

Progress towards Objective 2:

UNICEF figures indicate that 100,000 children under age 5 suffer from GAM, with a prevalence rate of 10.2 (above the global threshold of 10%).

The current trend indicates an improvement of care provided to children suffering acute malnutrition in terms of coverage and quality of the services. Nutrition activities included the treatment and prevention of acute malnutrition for children under age 5 and pregnant and lactating women (PLW). Moreover, by creating a Directorate for Food and Nutritional Quality of Food within the Ministry of Agriculture and Water and a Directorate of Nutrition within the Ministry of Health, the Government showed commitment to ensuring an adequate response to malnutrition-related issues.

An MOU was signed in early September 2012 between UNICEF and WFP to increase the coverage of treatment of acute malnutrition; reduce chronic malnutrition among children under age 5 through food fortification and IYCF activities; monitor the nutrition situation; and improve agencies’ coordination of monitoring and evaluation activities. UNICEF and WFP will conduct complementary activities in the same geographical areas to tackle acute malnutrition. They will also conduct joint field-monitoring missions and an annual review of shared programmes.



201,408 children with MAM (WFP)

450,000 children suffering from MAM (Government)

Treatment of 164,674 children with MAM, out of the planned 201,408 with a 91% recovery rate (between January and September 2012), in seven regions.

Carried out two joint monitoring and evaluation missions.

MAM supplies were provided to 7 out of 13 regions.

Development and implementation of a monthly reporting system (July 2012) to collect and share regular information on the assistance provided with the Ministry of Health.

Trained health workers, community health workers and nutrition focal points.

253,285 (WFP) BF

428,000 beneficiaries, assisted in 7 regions.2

Post-distribution monitoring carried out to evaluate programme’s success.

Trained health workers and community health workers.

26,750 pregnant and lactating women (CAP)

57,403 beneficiaries reached, in seven regions.

Trained health and community health workers.

Pregnant women were immunized.

100,000 children with SAM (Government)

75,000 SAM children have received care between January and September 2012.

Three joint missions for the monitoring of the response to the nutritional crisis were undertaken in April, July and October 2012 (four planned missions, one every quarter).

The availability of ready-to-use therapeutic foods and drugs for treatment of SAM in the 13 regions of the country was ensured for the caseload reached.

A monthly reporting system was put in place in July 2012 within the Ministry of Health to collect and share regular information on the provided assistance

Following the plan to scale up the management of SAM, 5,368 community health workers and 949 health agents were trained on SAM management in Nord, Centre Nord and Sahel. Thirteen nutrition focal points were trained on managing the reporting system in all 13 regions.

Training of 23 trainers on first-aid psycho-social assistance to children and mothers affected by SAM.

1,032 community health workers and nutrition focal points trained on first aid psycho-social assistance to children and mothers affected by SAM.

Strategic objective #3

Provide multi-sectoral support to refugees and host communities

Progress towards Objective 3:

The ongoing food and nutrition crisis in West Africa’s Sahel region has been exacerbated by political violence in northern Mali which started in early 2012. According to UNHCR, 35,859 Malian refugees (9,087 families) were registered in Burkina Faso as of 31 October 2012. Most have arrived in the Sahel region in the drought-affected provinces of Oudalan and Soum, where they received multi-sectoral assistance, as outlined in the table below.

Since February 2012, weekly meetings have been organized in Ouagadougou under the leadership of UNHCR and the Commission Nationale pour les Réfugiés (National Commission for Refugees / CONAREF) and with other Government counterparts, United Nations (UN) agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), donors and the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. This regular interaction has identified gaps by sector and prevented the duplication of activities. A web portal for disseminating and sharing information has been created and is regularly updated (

Since the relief operation for refugees began, UNHCR and partners focused their activities on life-saving priorities in order to provide assistance and protection to Malian refugees in Burkina Faso. The five priority sectors were food, water and sanitation, health, shelter and protection. Today, refugees are settled in six official refugee sites identified by the Burkina Faso Government; in other spontaneous sites located in the northern Sahel region of the country; and in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, which are the two most populous cities. A Registration Level II exercise started on 26 July 2012 and lasted for two months. It gave the operation more-refined data and ensured that the refugee population is better known and their needs understood in order to provide better protection (legal, security and socioeconomic).

The operation is preparing the two new sites of Goudebou (near Dori) and Sanioniogo (near Ouagaoudoug) as permanent sites for 2013. This represents an important activity in terms of protection, as currently about 71% of the total Malian refugee population is located near the border with Mali (less than 50km). The proximity to the border represents a potential threat to refugees: it could become a place of forced recruitment and put refugees at risk if an armed intervention occurs in northern Mali. To date, the relocation operation from two camps in the Sahel (Deou and Fererio) towards Goudebou settled 1,625 refugees (380 families) in this new camp.

Core activities



Lessons learnt

1. Site Management

Site management and coordination refined and

Four official sites accommodate refugees which are coordinated by UNHCR and managed by a UNHCR IP. Coordination between partners working on the sites was improved.

Basic needs of refugees were covered including water. Distribution of firewood to women decreased the SGBV risks and environmental impact.

Some official camps are located too close to the borders and in areas where the provision of water is difficult (especially Gandafabou).

Provision of assistance and protection is facilitated if refugees are transferred through transit centres along the border where i) emergency aid is provided, ii) armed elements can be separated from the refugee population, iii) refugees can be registered and people with specific needs be identified.
Operation had to adapt structures to better respond to refugees’ cultural structures.

2. Protection

2.1 Registration

2.1.1) 35,859 refugees registered and profiled.

2.1.2) Continuous registration established and data on refugee populations continuously updated.

2.1.3) Profiling of the refugees done:

51% Males | 48.9% Female

Refugees with specific needs identified, such as women at risk (6.09%), single parents (3.16%), separated and unaccompanied children (2.52%), children at risk (3.80%), elder people at risk (1.26%) and disabled people (0.64%).

2.2 Sexual or gender-based violence (SGBV)

2.2.1) Confidential reporting system partially established.

2.2.2) Medical referral system established in all official camps.

2.2.3) Community participation in the prevention and response to SGBV partially established.

2.2.4) Standard operating procedures for the fight against GBV established.
2.3 Child Protection

2.3.1) Standard operating procedures not established for best interest determination of the child.

2.3.2) Child protection monitoring partially established. Setting up of monitoring and reporting mechanism in progress.

2.3.3) Partial establishment of special measures for the protection of children not accompanied or separated. Identification and documentation on-going.

2.3.4) Child-friendly spaces established in the four official sites with psycho-social assistance services befitting 14.500 children.

No adequate mechanism in place to address secual or gender-based violence (SGBV).

Standard operating procedures have not been established for best interest determination of the child.

Child protection is only partially monitored.
Identification of unaccompanied or separated children is limited.

Focuses on child protection should have been a priority from the onset of the operation.
Slow mobilization of resources to ensure the implementation of protection-related activities.
Delays in deploying protection specialists have had an impact on the efficient coordination between implementing partners and on the establishment of standard operating procedure.

3. Shelter

3.1 Shelter Infrastructure established, improved and maintained.

3.1.1) Emergency shelters distributed and traditional shelters built.

The UNHCR tents distributed were not culturally adapted to refugees’ needs.

Instead of providing emergency tents automatically, efforts should have been made to understand refugees’ needs for shelter from the start.

4. Food Assistance

4.1 Food Security

4.1.1) 100% of beneficiaries receiving food assistance. 51% of beneficiaries receiving a full food basket (quantity of MT distributed vs. full food basket). Therefore, 75% of refugees receiving adequate food assistance.

Food Assistance:

35,859 refugees assisted through the distribution of 2,492.82 MT of food in line with the 2,100 kcal/pp./day set by international nutritional requirements and standards.

Need for greater coordination to avoid spontaneous food distributions.

Lack of needs assessment and response analysis frameworks.

Need for post-distribution monitoring to ensure fair distribution during the early stage of the emergency.

5. Nutrition

5.1. Nutrition and well-being improved

Distribution of fortified foods (corn-soya blend) for children.

Screening of children.

90 children assisted and treated for acute malnutrition.

6. Health

6.1 Health status of the refugee population improved

6.1.1) Access to primary health care established in all camps. At the start of the operations, there were 6 basic health centre tents in Damba, 6 tents in Mentao South, 1 tent in Mentao North.

Access to basic health care is currently at approximately 85%, as the health centres are not open on certain days (such as weekends and holidays) and are not accessible to all.

6.1.2) Despite emergency conditions, 84% of all deliveries were assisted by health professionals.

6.1.3) 62.92% of children were vaccinated for measles.

6.1.4) Awareness-raising campaigns taking place for epidemic diseases were organized in all the camps.

High incidence of malaria in the camps (over 60% in some camps).
Lack of ambulances for emergency referrals.
Dispersed refugees in a wide geographic region (Sahel) pose challenges in terms of health assistance.

Refugees not used to continuous medical treatment and to some forms of medication, therefore need for awareness-building.

7. NFIs

7.1 Population has sufficient basic and domestic items

All registered refugees received NFIs. (30,621 blankets; 12,463 buckets; 10,341 jerry cans; 10,395 kitchen sets; 25,959 sleeping mats; 22,063 mosquito nets; 6,254 4X5 plastic sheeting; 76,184 soaps; and 11,737 hygienic kits for women.

8. Water

8.1 Water supply increased or maintained

8.1.1) Water management committees (WMCs) in Mentao (3), in Damba (1) and in Fererio (5).

8.1.2) Post-emergency standards for water provision have been reached for all official camps, Fererio 36 litres/ person/ day, Mentao 58.71 litres/ person/ day, Damba 70.47litres/ person/ day, except for Gandafabou where the level is still at 6.56 litres/ person/ day.

8.1.3) Water trucking provided between Fererio and Gandafabou in order to provide 10 m3 of water per person per day.

WMCs not established in all camps,

9. Sanitation

9.1 Population lives in satisfactory conditions of sanitation and hygiene

9.1.1 ) Post-emergency sanitation standards are almost met in all the camps.

9.1.2) Hygiene has been promoted in the four refugee camps in a community participatory way (with refugee sensitizers) by two partner NGOs.

9.1.3) Solid waste management undertaken in all four official camps. Each refugee block has a trash disposal that is then placed in a hole, managed by the WMC.

Sensitization for good practices in hygiene and sanitation.

10. Education

10.1 Optimal access to primary education

10.1.1) 1,454 (764 boys and 690 girls) refugee children took part in summer courses. Courses for the 2012-2013 cycle have started in most camps for 14,473 pupils of school age identified on both official (10,011) and non-official sites.

Secondary school education is not yet provided. Literacy programme expected to start by end of November.

Recruitment of teachers has been a challenge.

11. Environment

11.1 Population has sufficient access to energy

11.1.1) Energy-saving practices promoted with UNHCR’s implementing partner Caritas/OCADES who will be distributing firewood to the households as well as introducing Eco-Stoves for the refugees.

Difficult to raise awareness of refugees to new technology.

Environmental projects are key to promoting sound community co-habitation practices with host communities.

12. Agriculture

12.1 Malian refugees livestock productivity maintained

12.1.1) At least 2,907 household livestock received agro-industrial by-products, heath care and prophylaxes.

12.1.2) Provided 2,250 goat genitors to vulnerable Malian refugees in order to recapitalize livestock.

Review of humanitarian funding

Humanitarian agencies appealed for $126.1 million in the 2012 Consolidated Appeal for Burkina Faso for eight months.3 The appeal is funded at 68%, with $85 million received as of 15 November 2012. The overall food security and nutrition requirements ($86.9 million) were funded at 80%, while the refugee component ($30.5 million) was funded at 12% (not counting regionally-earmarked funds). A total of $59 million of humanitarian funding was recorded outside of the appeal framework, mainly for the food assistance and nutrition crisis. (As much of this was contributed before the CAP was published, it is likely that some of the recipient organizations are actually applying it to their CAP projects; more follow-up is needed on financial reporting.)

Out of the 29 appealing organizations, 21 NGOs were included in the appeal and are funded on average at 21.8%. (That figure is according to reports from official donors. It seems likely that NGOs raised and used significant private funds for their Sahel response in 2012 including Burkina Faso; such reports may be forthcoming and would raise the 2012 funding percentage.)

Funding coverage varied greatly across sectors. Four sectors are currently funded at more than 50%, with Nutrition funded at 100%, Food Assistance at 92%, Child Protection at 71%, Nutrition funded at 100% and WASH at 143%. Other sectors, received less than 35% of funding, such as Agriculture (26%) and the Multi-sector assistance for refugees (34%), as reported to the Financial Tracking Service on 15 November 2012.

  1. Needs analysis

Burkina Faso has chronically high levels of food insecurity and malnutrition, which were exacerbated by the food and nutrition crisis in 2012. In addition, in early 2012, the conflict in northern Mali led to an influx of refugees into Burkina Faso, resulting in considerable humanitarian consequences in the agriculture, food assistance, early recovery, health, education, nutrition and WASH sectors.

The current needs analysis is based primarily on the WFP/Government-led Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA), conducted in September 2012, and the UNHCR Level II registration exercise completed in September 2012 (see Annex II for the needs assessments list).

3.1 Food security and nutrition situation

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