Part 3 – compliance requirements introduction



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OMB CIRCULAR A-87
COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS


Introduction

OMB Circular A-87 (A-87) establishes principles and standards for determining allowable direct and indirect costs for Federal awards. This section is organized into the following areas of allowable costs: State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs; State/Local Department or Agency Costs (Direct and Indirect); and State Public Assistance Agency Costs.



Cognizant Agency

A-87, Attachment A, paragraph B.6. defines “cognizant agency” as the Federal agency responsible for reviewing, negotiating, and approving cost allocation plans or indirect cost proposals developed under A-87 on behalf of all Federal agencies. OMB publishes a listing of cognizant agencies (Federal Register, 51 FR 552, January 6, 1986). This listing is available on the Internet at:



http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/financial/fin/fr-notice_cost_negotiation_010686.pdf. References to cognizant agency in this section should not be confused with the cognizant Federal agency for audit responsibilities, which is defined in OMB Circular A-133, Subpart D. §____.400(a).

Availability of Other Information

Additional information on cost allocation plans and indirect cost rates is found in the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) publications: A Guide for State, Local and Indian Tribal Governments (ASMB C-10); Review Guide for State and Local Governments State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans and Indirect Cost Rates; and the DCA Best Practices Manual for Reviewing Public Assistance Cost Allocation Plans which are available on the Internet at http://rates.psc.gov/fms/dca/asmb%20c-10.pdf and http://rates.psc.gov/fms/dca/PA%20BPM.pdf, respectively.



Allowable Costs – State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs

Most governmental entities provide services, such as accounting, purchasing, computer services, and fringe benefits, to operating agencies on a centralized basis. Since the Federal awards are performed within the individual operating agencies, there must be a process whereby these central service costs are identified and assigned to benefiting operating agency activities on a reasonable and consistent basis. The State/local-wide central service cost allocation plan (CAP) provides that process. (Refer to A-87, Attachment C, State/Local-Wide Central Service Cost Allocation Plans, for additional information and specific requirements.)

The allowable costs of central services that a governmental unit provides to its agencies may be allocated or billed to the user agencies. The State/local-wide central service CAP is the required documentation of the methods used by the governmental unit to identify and accumulate these costs, and to allocate them or develop billing rates based on them.

Allocated central service costs (referred to as Section I costs) are allocated to benefiting operating agencies on some reasonable basis. These costs are usually negotiated and approved for a future year on a “fixed-with-carry-forward” basis. Examples of such services might include general accounting, personnel administration, and purchasing. Section I costs assigned to an operating agency through the State/local-wide central service CAP are typically included in the agency’s indirect cost pool.

Billed central service costs (referred to as Section II costs) are billed to benefiting agencies and/or programs on an individual fee-for-service or similar basis. The billed rates are usually based on the estimated costs for providing the services. An adjustment will be made at least annually for the difference between the revenue generated by each billed service and the actual allowable costs. Examples of such billed services include computer services, transportation services, self- insurance, and fringe benefits. Section II costs billed to an operating agency may be charged as direct costs to the agency’s Federal awards or included in its indirect cost pool.

1. Compliance Requirements – State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs

a. Basic Guidelines

(1) The basic guidelines affecting allowability of costs (direct and indirect) are identified in A-87, Attachment A, paragraph C.

(2) To be allowable under Federal awards, costs must meet the following general criteria (A-87, Attachment A, paragraph C.1):

(a) Be necessary and reasonable for the performance and administration of Federal awards. (Refer to A-87, Attachment A, paragraph C.2 for additional information on reasonableness of costs.)

(b) Be allocable to Federal awards under the provisions of A-87. (Refer to A-87, Attachment A, paragraph C.3 for additional information on allocable costs.)

(c) Be authorized or not prohibited under State or local laws or regulations.

(d) Conform to any limitations or exclusions set forth in A-87, Federal laws, terms and conditions of the Federal award, or other governing regulations as to types or amounts of cost items.

(e) Be consistent with policies, regulations, and procedures that apply uniformly to both Federal awards and other activities of the governmental unit.

(f) Be accorded consistent treatment. A cost may not be assigned to a Federal award as a direct cost if any other cost incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances has been allocated to the Federal award as an indirect cost.

(g) Be determined in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, except as otherwise provided in A-87.

(h) Not be included as a cost or used to meet cost sharing or matching requirements of any other Federal award, except as specifically provided by Federal law or regulation.

(i) Be net of all applicable credits. (Refer to A-87, Attachment A, paragraph C.4 for additional information on applicable credits.)

(j) Be adequately documented.

b. Selected Items of Cost

(1) Sections 1 through 43 of A-87, Attachment B, provide the principles to be applied in establishing the allowability or unallowability of certain items of cost. (For a listing of costs, refer to Exhibit 1 of this part of the Supplement.) These principles apply whether a cost is treated as direct or indirect. Failure to mention a particular item of cost in this section of A-87 is not intended to imply that it is either allowable or unallowable; rather, determination of allowability in each case should be based on the treatment or standards provided for similar or related items of cost.

(2) A cost is allowable for Federal reimbursement only to the extent of benefits received by Federal awards and its conformance with the general policies and principles stated in A-87, Attachment A.

c. Submission Requirements

(1) Submission requirements are identified in A-87, Attachment C,
paragraph D.

(2) A State is required to submit a State-wide central service CAP to HHS for each year in which it claims central service costs under Federal awards.

(3) A local government that has been designated as a “major local government” by OMB is required to submit a central service CAP to its cognizant agency annually. This listing is posted on the OMB website at (http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/management). All other local governments claiming central service costs must develop a CAP in accordance with the requirements described in A-87 and maintain the plan and related supporting documentation for audit. Local governments are not required to submit the plan for Federal approval unless they are specifically requested to do so by the cognizant agency. If a local government receives funds as a subrecipient only, the primary recipient will be responsible for negotiating and/or monitoring the local government’s plan.

(4) All central service CAPs will be prepared and, when required, submitted within the 6 months prior to the beginning of the governmental unit’s fiscal years in which it proposes to claim central service costs. Extensions may be granted by the cognizant agency.

d. Documentation Requirements

(1) The central service CAP must include all central service costs that will be claimed (either as an allocated or a billed cost) under Federal awards. Costs of central services omitted from the CAP will not be reimbursed.

(2) The documentation requirements for all central service CAPs are contained in A 87, Attachment C, paragraph E. All plans and related documentation used as a basis for claiming costs under Federal awards must be retained for audit in accordance with the record retention requirements contained in the A-102 Common Rule.

e. Required Certification – No proposal to establish a central service CAP, whether submitted to a Federal cognizant agency or maintained on file by the governmental unit, shall be accepted and approved unless such costs have been certified by the governmental unit using the Certificate of Cost Allocation Plan as set forth in A-87, Attachment C.

f. Allocated Central Service Costs (Section I Costs) – A carry-forward adjustment is not permitted for a central service activity that was not included in the previously approved plan or for unallowable costs that must be reimbursed immediately
(A-87, Attachment C, paragraph G.3).

g. Billed Central Service Costs (Section II Costs)

(1) Internal service funds for central service activities are allowed a working capital reserve of up to 60 days cash expenses for normal operating purposes (A- 87, Attachment C, paragraph G.2). A working capital reserve exceeding 60 days may be approved by the cognizant Federal agency in exceptional cases.

(2) Adjustments of billed central services are required when there is a difference between the revenue generated by each billed service and the actual allowable costs (A-87, Attachment C, paragraph G.4). The adjustments will be made through one of the following methods:

(a) A cash refund to the Federal Government for the Federal share of the adjustment, if revenue exceeds costs,

(b) Credits to the amounts charged to the individual programs,

(c) Adjustments to future billing rates, or

(d) Adjustments to allocated central service costs (Section I) if the total amount of the adjustment for a particular service does not exceed $500,000.

(3) Whenever funds are transferred from a self-insurance reserve to other accounts (e.g., general fund), refunds shall be made to the Federal Government for its share of funds transferred, including earned or imputed interest from the date of transfer (A-87, Attachment B, paragraph 22).

2. Audit Objectives – State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs

a. Obtain an understanding of internal control over the compliance requirements for central service costs, assess risk, and test internal control as required by OMB Circular A-133 §___.500(c).

b. Determine whether the governmental unit complied with the provisions of A-87 as follows:

(1) Direct charges to Federal awards were for allowable costs.

(2) Charges to cost pools allocated to Federal awards through the central service CAPs were for allowable costs.

(3) The methods of allocating the costs are in accordance with the applicable cost principles, and produce an equitable and consistent distribution of costs, which benefit from the central service costs being allocated (e.g., cost allocation bases include all activities, including all State departments and agencies and, if appropriate, non-State organizations which receive services).

(4) Cost allocations were in accordance with central service CAPs approved by the cognizant agency or, in cases where such plans are not subject to approval, in accordance with the plan on file.

3. Suggested Internal Control Audit Procedures – State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs

a. Using the guidance provided in Part 6 – Internal Control for allowable costs/cost principles, perform procedures to obtain an understanding of internal control sufficient to plan the audit to support a low assessed level of control risk for the program.

b. Plan the testing of internal control to support a low assessed level of control risk for allowable costs/cost principles and perform the testing of internal control as planned. If internal control over some or all of the compliance requirements is likely to be ineffective, see the alternative procedures in §___.500(c)(3) of OMB Circular A-133, including assessing the control risk at the maximum and considering whether additional compliance tests and reporting are required because of ineffective internal control.

c. Consider the results of the testing of internal control in assessing the risk of non-compliance. Use this as the basis for determining the nature, timing, and extent (e.g., number of transactions to be selected) of substantive tests of compliance.



4. Suggested Compliance Audit Procedures – State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs

a. Consider the results of the testing of internal control in assessing the risk of noncompliance. Use this as the basis for determining the nature, timing, and extent (e.g., number of transactions to be selected) of substantive tests of compliance.

(1) In reviewing the State/local-wide central service costs, the auditor may not need to test all central service costs (allocated or billed) every year; for example, the auditor in obtaining sufficient evidence for the opinion may consider testing each central service at least every 5 years, and perform additional testing for central services with operating budgets of $5 million or more.

(2) If the local governmental entity is not required to submit the central service CAP and related supporting documentation, the auditor should consider the risk of the reduced level of oversight in designing the nature, timing and extent of compliance testing.

b. General Audit Procedures for State/Local-Wide Central Service CAPs – The following procedures apply to direct charges to Federal awards as well as charges to cost pools that are allocated wholly or partially to Federal awards or used in formulating indirect cost rates used for recovering indirect costs under Federal awards.

(1) Test a sample of transactions for conformance with:

(a) The criteria contained in the “Basic Guidelines” section of A-87, Attachment A, paragraph C.

(b) The principles to establish allowability or unallowability of certain items of cost (A-87, Attachment B).

(2) If the auditor identifies unallowable costs, the auditor should be aware that directly associated costs might have been charged. Directly associated costs are costs incurred solely as a result of incurring another cost, and would have not been incurred if the other cost had not been incurred. When an unallowable cost is incurred, directly associated costs are also unallowable. For example, occupancy costs related to unallowable general costs of government are also unallowable.

c. Special Audit Procedures for State/Local-Wide Central Service CAPs

(1) Verify that the central service CAP includes the required documentation in accordance with A-87, Attachment C, paragraph E.

(2) Testing of the State/Local-Wide Central Service CAPs – Allocated Section I Costs

(a) If new allocated central service costs were added, review the justification for including the item as Section I costs to ascertain if the costs are allowable (e.g., if costs benefit Federal awards).

(b) Identify the central service costs that incurred a significant increase in actual costs from the prior year’s costs. Test a sample of transactions to verify the allowability of the costs.

(c) Determine whether the bases used to allocate costs are appropriate, i.e., costs are allocated in accordance with relative benefits received.

(d) Determine whether the proposed bases include all activities that benefit from the central service costs being allocated, including all users that receive the services. For example, the State-wide central service CAP should allocate costs to all benefiting State departments and agencies, and, where appropriate, non-State organizations, such as local government agencies.

(e) Perform an analysis of the allocation bases by selecting agencies with significant Federal awards to determine if the percentage of costs allocated to these agencies has increased from the prior year. For those selected agencies with significant allocation percentage increases, determine that the data included in the bases are current and accurate.

(f) Verify that carry-forward adjustments are properly computed in accordance with A-87, Attachment C, paragraph G.3.

(3) Testing of the State/Local-Wide Central Service CAPs – Billed Section II Costs

(a) For billed central service activities accounted for in separate funds (e.g., internal service funds), ascertain if:

(i) Retained earnings/fund balances (including reserves) are computed in accordance with the applicable cost principles;

(ii) Working capital reserves are not excessive in amount (generally not greater than 60 days for cash expenses for normal operations incurred for the period exclusive of depreciation, capital costs, and debt principal costs); and

(iii) Adjustments were made when there is a difference between the revenue generated by each billed service and the actual allowable costs.

Note: A 60-day working capital reserve is not automatic. Refer to the HHS publication, A Guide for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments (ASMB C-10) for guidelines.

(b) Test to ensure that all users of services are billed in a consistent manner. For example, examine selected billings to determine if all users (including users outside the governmental unit) are charged the same rate for the same service.

(c) Test that billing rates exclude unallowable costs, in accordance with applicable cost principles and Federal statutes.

(d) Test, where billed central service activities are funded through general revenue appropriations, that the billing rates (or charges) are developed based on actual costs and were adjusted to eliminate profits.

(e) For self-insurance and pension funds, ascertain if independent actuarial studies appropriate for such activities are performed at least biennially and that current period costs were allocated based on an appropriate study that is not over two years old.

(f) Determine if refunds were made to the Federal Government for its share of funds transferred from the self-insurance reserve to other accounts, including imputed or earned interest from the date of the transfer.

Allowable Costs – State/Local Department or Agency Costs – Direct and Indirect

The individual State/local departments or agencies (also known as operating agencies) are responsible for the performance or administration of Federal awards. In order to receive cost reimbursement under Federal awards, the department or agency usually submits claims asserting that allowable and eligible costs (direct and indirect) have been incurred in accordance with


A-87.

While direct costs are those that can be identified specifically with a particular final cost objective, the indirect costs are those that have been incurred for common or joint purposes, and not readily assignable to the cost objectives specifically benefited without effort disproportionate to the results achieved. Indirect costs are normally charged to Federal awards by the use of an indirect cost rate.

The indirect cost rate proposal (ICRP) provides the documentation prepared by a State/local department or agency, to substantiate its request for the establishment of an indirect cost rate. The indirect costs include: (1) costs originating in the department or agency carrying out Federal awards, and (2) costs of central governmental services distributed through the State/local-wide central service CAP that are not otherwise treated as direct costs. The ICRPs are based on the most current financial data and are used to either establish predetermined, fixed, or provisional indirect cost rates or to finalize provisional rates (for rate definitions refer to A-87, Attachment E, paragraph B).

1. Compliance Requirements – State/Local Department or Agency Costs – Direct and Indirect

a. Basic Guidelines – Refer to the previous section, “Allowable Costs – State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs, 1.a – Compliance Requirements-Basic Guidelines,” for the guidelines affecting the allowability of costs (direct and indirect) under Federal awards.

b. Selected Items of Cost – Refer to the previous section, “Allowable Costs - State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs, 1.b - Compliance Requirements-Selected Items of Cost,” for the principles to establish allowability or unallowability of certain items of cost. These principles apply whether a cost is treated as direct or indirect.

c. Allocation of Indirect Costs and Determination of Indirect Cost Rates

(1) The specific methods for allocating indirect costs and computing indirect cost rates are as follows:

(a) Simplified Method – This method is applicable where a governmental unit’s department or agency has only one major function, or where all its major functions benefit from the indirect cost to approximately the same degree. The allocation of indirect costs and the computation of an indirect cost rate may be accomplished through simplified allocation procedures described in the circular (A-87, Attachment E, paragraph C.2).

(b) Multiple Allocation Base Method – This method is applicable where a governmental unit’s department or agency has several major functions that benefit from its indirect costs in varying degrees. The allocation of indirect costs may require the accumulation of such costs into separate groupings which are then allocated individually to benefiting functions by means of a base which best measures the relative degree of benefit. (For detailed information, refer to A-87, Attachment E, paragraph C.3.)

(c) Special Indirect Cost Rates – In some instances, a single indirect cost rate for all activities of a department or agency may not be appropriate. Different factors may substantially affect the indirect costs applicable to a particular program or group of programs, e.g., the physical location of the work, the nature of the facilities, or level of administrative support required. (For the requirements for a separate indirect cost rate, refer to A-87, Attachment E, paragraph C.4.)

(d) Cost Allocation Plans – In certain cases, the cognizant agency may require a State or local governmental unit’s department or agency to prepare a CAP instead of an ICRP. These are infrequently occurring cases in which the nature of the department or agency’s Federal awards makes impracticable the use of a rate to recover indirect costs. A CAP required in such cases consists of narrative descriptions of the methods the department or agency uses to allocate indirect costs to programs, awards, or other cost objectives. Like an ICRP, the CAP must be either submitted to the cognizant agency for review, negotiation and approval, or retained on file for inspection during audits.

d. Submission Requirements

(1) Submission requirements are identified in A-87, Attachment E, paragraph D.1. All departments or agencies of a governmental unit claiming indirect costs under Federal awards must prepare an ICRP and related documentation to support those costs.

(2) A State/local department or agency for which a cognizant Federal agency has been assigned by OMB must submit its ICRP to its cognizant agency. Smaller local government departments or agencies which are not required to submit a proposal to the cognizant Federal agency must develop an ICRP in accordance with the requirements of A-87, and maintain the proposal and related supporting documentation for audit. Where a local government receives funds as a subrecipient only, the primary recipient will be responsible for negotiating and/or monitoring the subrecipient’s plan.

(3) Each Indian tribal government desiring reimbursement of indirect costs must submit its ICRP to its cognizant agency, which generally is the Department of the Interior.

(4) ICRPs must be developed (and, when required, submitted) within 6 months after the close of the governmental unit’s fiscal year.

e. Documentation and Certification Requirements

The documentation and certification requirements for ICRPs are included in A 87, Attachment E, paragraphs D.2 and 3, respectively. The proposal and related documentation must be retained for audit in accordance with the record retention requirements contained in the A-102 Common Rule.



2. Audit Objectives – State/Local Department or Agency Costs – Direct and Indirect

a. Obtain an understanding of internal control over the compliance requirements for State/local department or agency costs, assess risk, and test internal control as required by OMB Circular A-133 §___.500(c).

b. Determine whether the governmental unit complied with the provisions of A-87 as follows:

(1) Direct charges to Federal awards were for allowable costs.

(2) Charges to cost pools used in calculating indirect cost rates were for allowable costs.

(3) The methods for allocating the costs are in accordance with the applicable cost principles, and produce an equitable and consistent distribution of costs (e.g., all activities that benefit from the indirect cost, including unallowable activities, must receive an appropriate allocation of indirect costs).

(4) Indirect cost rates were applied in accordance with approved indirect cost rate agreements (ICRA), or special award provisions or limitations, if different from those stated in negotiated rate agreements.

(5) For local departments or agencies that do not have to submit an ICRP to the cognizant Federal agency, indirect cost rates were applied in accordance with the ICRP maintained on file.



3. Suggested Internal Control Audit Procedures – State/Local Department or Agency Costs- Direct and Indirect

Refer to the previous section, “Allowable Costs - State/Local-Wide Central Service Costs,” items 3.a through 3.c, for suggested internal control audit procedures.



4. Suggested Compliance Audit Procedures – State/Local Department or Agency Costs – Direct and Indirect

a. Consider the results of the testing of internal control in assessing the risk of noncompliance. Use this as the basis for determining the nature, timing, and extent (e.g., number of transactions to be selected) of substantive tests of compliance. If the local department or agency is not required to submit an ICRP and related supporting documentation, the auditor should consider the risk of the reduced level of oversight in designing the nature, timing, and extent of compliance testing.

b. General Audit Procedures (Direct and Indirect Costs) – The following procedures apply to direct charges to Federal awards as well as charges to cost pools that are allocated wholly or partially to Federal awards or used in formulating indirect cost rates used for recovering indirect costs from Federal awards.

(1) Test a sample of transactions for conformance with:

(a) The criteria contained in the “Basic Guidelines” section of A-87, Attachment A, paragraph C.

(b) The principles to establish allowability or unallowability of certain items of cost (A-87, Attachment B).

(2) If the auditor identifies unallowable costs, the auditor should be aware that directly associated costs might have been charged. Directly associated costs are costs incurred solely as a result of incurring another cost, and would have not been incurred if the other cost had not been incurred. When an unallowable cost is incurred, directly associated costs are also unallowable. For example, occupancy costs related to unallowable general costs of government are also unallowable.

c. Special Audit Procedures for State/Local Department or Agency ICRPs

(1) Verify that the ICRP includes the required documentation in accordance with A-87, Attachment E, paragraph D.

(2) Testing of the ICRP – There may be a timing consideration when the audit is completed before the ICRP is completed. In this instance, the auditor should consider performing interim testing of the costs charged to the cost pools and the allocation bases (e.g., determine from management the cost pools that management expects to include in the ICRP and test the costs for compliance with A-87). Should there be audit exceptions, corrective action may be taken earlier to minimize questioned costs. In the next year’s audit, the auditor should complete testing and verify management’s representations against the completed ICRP.

(a) When the ICRA is the basis for indirect cost charged to a major program, the auditor is required to obtain appropriate assurance that the costs collected in the cost pools and allocation methods are in compliance with the applicable cost principles. The following procedures are some acceptable options the auditor may use to obtain this assurance:

(i) Indirect Cost Pool – Test the indirect cost pool to ascertain if it includes only allowable costs in accordance with A-87.

(A) Test to ensure that unallowable costs are identified and eliminated from the indirect cost pool (e.g., capital expenditures, general costs of government).

(B) Identify significant changes in expense categories between the prior ICRP and the current ICRP. Test a sample of transactions to verify the allowability of the costs.

(C) Trace the central service costs that are included in the indirect cost pool to the approved State/local-wide central service CAP or to plans on file when submission is not required.

(ii) Direct Cost Base – Test the methods of allocating the costs to ascertain if they are in accordance with the applicable provisions of A-87 and produce an equitable distribution of costs.

(A) Determine that the proposed base(s) includes all activities that benefit from the indirect costs being allocated.

(B) If the direct cost base is not limited to direct salaries and wages, determine that distorting items are excluded from the base. Examples of distorting items include capital expenditures, flow-through funds (such as benefit payments), and subaward costs in excess of $25,000 per subaward.

(C) Determine the appropriateness of the allocation base (e.g., salaries and wages, modified total direct costs).

(iii) Other Procedures

(A) Examine the employee time report system results (where and if used) to ascertain if they are accurate, and are based on the actual effort devoted to the various functional and programmatic activities to which the salary and wage costs are charged. (Refer to A-87, Attachment B, paragraph 8.h for additional information on support of salaries and wages.)

(B) For an ICRP using the multiple allocation base method, test statistical data (e.g., square footage, audit hours, salaries and wages) to ascertain if the proposed allocation or rate bases are reasonable, updated as necessary, and do not contain any material omissions.

(3) Testing of Charges Based Upon the ICRA – Perform the following procedures to test the application of charges to Federal awards based upon an ICRA:

(a) Obtain and read the current ICRA and determine the terms in effect.

(b) Select a sample of claims for reimbursement and verify that the rates used are in accordance with the rate agreement, that rates were applied to the appropriate bases, and that the amounts claimed were the product of applying the rate to the applicable base. Verify that the costs included in the base(s) are consistent with the costs that were included in the base year (e.g., if the allocation base is total direct costs, verify that current-year direct costs do not include costs items that were treated as indirect costs in the base year).

(4) Other Procedures – No Negotiated ICRA

(a) If an indirect cost rate has not been negotiated by a cognizant Federal agency, as required, the auditor should determine whether documentation exists to support the costs. Where the auditee has documentation, the suggested general audit procedures (direct and indirect costs under paragraph 4.b of this section) should be performed to determine the appropriateness of the indirect cost charges to awards.

(b) If an indirect cost rate has not been negotiated by a cognizant agency, as required, and documentation to support the indirect costs does not exist, the auditor should question the costs based on a lack of supporting documentation.


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