6 - HAR ETZION (Virtual Beit HaMidrash)
A) INTRODUCTION TO PARSHAT HASHEVUAH
THE CREATION OF MAN
Bereishit describes the beginning of our world. It tells the story of creation from a spiritual vantagepoint. Rather than describing the inception of the world from a geological or biological perspective, the Biblical description of creation directs the reader with a spiritual sensitivity, not towards relating HOW things came into being and the mechanics of the creative act, but rather what is the MEANING of their being. To this end we shall look into the Biblical account of the creation of man in an attempt to glean some insight into the spiritual nature of man and his role on this earth.
ADAM AND ADAMA
The creation of humankind is a complex process and is described in a mysterious way in the Torah. In Chapter 2, we see the creation of man described in the following manner:
"The Lord formed man (ADAM) from the dust of the earth (ADAMA) and He blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being."
One wonders as to the reason that we are given this information. The 'formula' for other animals is denied to us. It is only when we arrive at the creation of man that we are given his basic elements: Earth-adama, and the breath of God. Man is both physical and spiritual, earthly and godly.
But man is called Adam. What is established here is an interesting connection: Adam and Adama - man and earth. They are the same word, the same root. Just by virtue of his name, it would appear that of the elements that form man, it is Adama rather than the godly element, which would seem to be the primary ingredient.
The 'earthy' make-up of man and the adam-adama inter- relationship is highlighted again later in Bereishit. In the final verse of our parasha God decides to destroy mankind. There we are told:
"The Lord saw how great was man's wickedness ... and the Lord said "I will blot out (emcheh) men (adam) who I created, from upon the face of the earth (adama)... for I regret that I made them." (6:5-7)
Once again we find the adam-adama pair. In addition, an unusual phrase is used in the verse. The word used here to denote destruction is 'emcheh.' This is a phrase usually meaning eradication or blotting out and indeed, that is the traditional translation of this verse. But Rashi chooses to read this verse within a deeper context. This phrase can also be translated as 'to dissolve.' RASHI, noting this added meaning, comments (6:7):
"EMCHEH ET HA-ADAM: I will dissolve mankind - He is but dust. I will bring upon him water (the flood) and he will simply dissolve."
Here, in an almost crude way Rashi stresses the earthly composition of man. If man is made from earth, he must surely share its properties. Pour water on him and he will cease to exist.
So far, we have noted the emphasis upon earth in the description of man's creation and existence, but what meaning may be found to this Biblical description? What does the Torah wish to teach us about man by describing his very coming into being in this way?
THE DUST OF MAN
Rashi draws our attention to the origin of the earth from which Adam was formed. He brings two very different midrashic explanations:
"DUST FROM THE ADAMA: He gathered his (Adam's) dust from the four corners of the globe so that in whatever place he may die, the ground will absorb him in burial. AN ALTERNATIVE READING: God took his dust from the place of which it is said, "You shall make an altar of earth (adama) to Me" (Shemot 20:21)… I only wish that he may gain atonement...."
Let us examine the images that Rashi presents to us here. It is difficult to understand what these colorful interpretations are trying to suggest. What do we mean when we talk about the raw materials for man coming from the entire globe? Apparently, we are suggesting that man somehow encompasses the entire world. This first interpretation of Rashi's is expanded upon by the Netziv (Rabbi Naftali Zvi Berlin - Volozhin 1817-1893) in his commentary, HaEmek Davar.
"God gathered earth, a little from here and a little from there, unlike the way that he created animal and beast. Human existence differs greatly from that of the animal kingdom. Animals will live only in a specific climate, each according to their specific nature. Each animal is born and thrives in a particular climate. Man is different, living throughout the world, in hot and cold climate, adapting diet and nutrition in accordance with the local conditions. This is the result of God gathering the materials for man from all over the globe. In addition... certain lands breed certain temperaments ... but man has no defined temperament due to his diverse origin."
So the unique aspect of man is his adaptability. His versatile, portable, robust nature is encapsulated in this image. Man lives everywhere in the world. There is nowhere where man is a stranger. Because man is a creation of all places, he is at home in all places.
EARTH FROM JERUSALEM.
But what of the second midrash? The second midrash plays on the word 'adama,' knowing that the altar in the Temple is described using that selfsame word: "mizbeach adama." On this basis the midrash proposes that man's origin lies in a single spot - the site of the future Temple in Jerusalem. Why? Why does man need to be created from this hallowed place?
According to Rashi, this particular ingredient is vital to grant man the future opportunity of atonement and forgiveness. In this very daring reading, the midrash notes an inherent 'flaw' within the blueprint of man: the inevitable tendency towards sin, a devastating imperfection. Man, if he is to exist as man, is going to sin, and thus the very fact of his existence necessitates atonement. This is true to the extent that forgiveness precedes his very creation and is part of every fiber of his being.
But why does Rashi need to offer two interpretations? These interpretations would appear to be very different if not conflicting. Let him side with one of them!
INFINITY AND HUMILITY
Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, in a powerful essay, demonstrates why Rashi needed to bring both of these explanations. Apparently, each interpretation offers us another side of the human condition:
"Man was created of cosmic dust. God gathered the dust, of which man was fashioned from all parts of the earth, indeed, from all the uncharted lanes of creation. Man belongs everywhere. He is no stranger to any part of the universe. The native son of the sleepy little town is, at the same time, a son of parts distant and unknown.... Man is cosmic through his intellectual involvement. His intellectual curiosity is of cosmic, universal dimensions. He wants to know, not only about the things that are close to him as for example, the flowering bush in his backyard, but also things far removed from him, things and events millions of light years away.
...Let us examine the other interpretation of the verse in Genesis: man was created from the dust of a single spot. Man is committed to one locus. The creator assigned him a single spot he calls home. Man is not cosmic, he is here-minded. He is a rooted being, not cosmopolitan but provincial, a villager who belongs to the soil that fed him as a child and to the little world into which he was born.
...Both cosmos-conscious man and origin-conscious man quest for God, although they are not always aware of this quest... Cosmic man finds God (if ready for Him) in the vastness and boundlessness of the cosmic drama, in the heavenly galaxies billions of light years away. Home- bound, origin-minded man finds God in the limitedness and narrowness of finitude, in the smallness of the modest home into which man was born and to which he willy-nilly returns. He discovers God in the origin, in the source, in the center of the burning bush. Either infinity cannot contain God, or God, if He so wills it, addresses man from the dimensionlessness of a point. What is the center of a bush if not a point! And out of that point, God spoke to Moses." (Majesty and Humility pp. 27-31)
What Rabbi Soloveitchik demonstrates here is two dramatically different dynamics of relating to God, two conceptions of the man-God relationship. And they are both contained within this double-edged comment of Rashi. If man is dust, Rashi has shown us the two dimensions of dust creating two very different souls.
Rav Soloveitchik continues:
"...cosmic man beholds the vision of God in infinity, in the endlessness of the DISTANCE which separates him from God, while origin-minded man experiences God in His CLOSENESS to man.
As a rule, in times of joy and elation, one finds God's footsteps in the majesty and grandeur of the cosmos, in its vastness and its stupendous dynamics. When man is drunk with life, when he feels that living is a dignified affair, then man beholds God in infinity. In moments of ecstasy God addresses Himself to man through the twinkling stars and the roar of distant heavens.
...However, with the arrival of the dark night of the soul, in moments of agony and black despair, when living becomes ugly and absurd, plainly nauseating, when man loses his sense of beauty and majesty, God addresses him, not from infinity but from the infinitesimal, not from the vast stretches of the universe but from a single spot in the darkness that surrounds suffering man ... in such moments humilitas Dei which resides in the humblest and tiniest of places, addresses itself to man." (Majesty and Humility pp. 31-33)
Rav Soloveitchik then, tells us that these two midrashim do not simply represent two different models of man which can be found in different people; some conforming to one type and others, to the other type. Rather, he proposes that BOTH models are present within each and every one of us 'surfacing' at different moments along with varying moods. The make-up of man is indeed all encompassing, spanning the entire world and at the very same time, rooted and humble. Rashi, by citing both texts, tells us much about the complexity of man and the intricacies of the religious personality.
A SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
Let is return however, to our ADAM-ADAMA pairing. The man-earth union is not only restricted to the account of man's creation and destruction. It is a theme that runs like a thread through Parashat Bereishit, and beyond. We will soon see that it acts as a barometer of human sin in an untainted world. Let us examine this connection.
THE CURSE OF THE ADAMA
As we read through our parasha, we begin to notice that every new sin is accompanied by an associated blow to the earth itself, or maybe more precisely, to the man-earth relationship.
After Adam sins, eating from the tree of knowledge, God issues a curse. The curse is directed not at Adam but at the Adama!
"Cursed be the ground because of you; By your toil shall you eat of it all the days of your life. Thorns and thistles shall it sprout for you, but your food shall be grasses of the field. By the sweat of your brow shall you get bread to eat until you return to the ground from which you were taken. For dust you are and to dust you shall return." (Genesis 3:17-19)
What we witness here is a dual curse. Adam is now going to be forced to work the land, in sweat and difficulty. In the Garden of Eden he could simply pick fruits from the tree. Now he will have to contend with thorns, thistles and back- breaking labor. In addition we should note that Adam's curse was accompanied by a concomitant order of exile. Adam and Eve were driven from the Garden of Eden "to till the soil (adama) from which he was taken." (3:23)
Both curses - that of agricultural hardship and that of exile - indicate a straining of relations, an estrangement, between Adam and the earth that formed him. He is now in conflict with the earth that gave shape to his very body. Ironically, this tension will exist in life only. After death, Adam returns to dust.
THE CURSE OF CAIN
Cain kills Abel. The first homicide. The Torah is strangely silent and unclear about the motives of the crime, but the message of human responsibility sounds loud and clear throughout the story. This episode, once again, contains strong traces of the 'adama' motif. God's accusation to Cain indicates that not only has he sinned but that he has also defiled the 'adama.' His punishment reflects a new stage of degeneration of the man-earth relationship:
"Then God said, "What have you done? Hark, Your brother's blood cries out to me from the ground (adama)! Therefore you shall be more cursed than the ground which opened up its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand. If you till the soil (adama) it shall no longer yield its strength to you. You shall become a ceaseless wanderer on the earth." (4:10-12)
Here once again, sin is punished in a dual dimension. First, the difficulty of agricultural labor and second, a sense of exile - not being allowed to stay in the place one is in, and in Cain's case, an inability to remain in ANY place for a reasonable time period.
NOACH AND THE FLOOD
Each sin has been accompanied by a deterioration in the adam-adama connection. It would seem that there is a growing tension, an animosity between earth and man. The earth will not comply with the man, will not submit to the human controlling hand. It resists cultivation. Man in turn, has to work increasingly hard to grow the food he needs to live. It is perhaps not surprising then that Noach (meaning comfort and rest - see Ibn Ezra), born soon after the death of Adam, is named with a prayer:
"May this one provide us relief (yeNaCHamenu) from our work and the toil of our hands out of the soil (adama) which the Lord placed under curse." (5:30)
The hope is that with the death of Adam, who caused the initial curse, agricultural labor would become a less arduous process.
This was not to be the case. Mankind continues to sin and we have already seen the end result above: "I will blot out men (adam) who I created, from upon the face of the earth (adama)... for I regret that I made them" (6:5-7). The flood comes to destroy both adam and adama. Rashi comments (6:13): "Three handbreadth depth of topsoil, the depth of a plough, were dissolved and destroyed (in the flood)."
The earth itself is destroyed along with man.
"Noah came out, together with his sons, his wife ... and every animal.... The Lord said to himself: "NEVER AGAIN WILL I CURSE THE EARTH (ADAMA) BECAUSE OF MAN (HA-ADAM) since the devisings of man's mind are evil from his youth; nor will I ever destroy every living being as I have done." (8:18-21)
In the aftermath of the flood, the adam-adama relationship is broken. God promises that the land itself will no more be affected by the sins of man. Man has a propensity to sin that is potentially devastating. Man will continue to sin since "the devisings of man's mind are evil" and if the earth is to be linked to man the earth will continually fall in a downward spiral. Rather than let this happen, God decides to discontinue this sensitive relationship.
But we now find that there are some questions that are just begging to be asked. Why does the ground become cursed for man's sins? Why is there a linkage between the earth and every transgression of man? And why is the entire inter- relationship dismissed after the flood?
We can suggest an answer on many levels. At the most basic, man is 'descended' from earth. There is a connection between the creation and that, which formed and crafted that creation. In the same way as a parent suffers at the shame or difficulties of a child, the earth is the 'parent' of Adam! (See Bereishit Rabba 31:7) The earth is eternally connected to man and that connection means that with every sin of man, the earth falls accordingly. Despite the truth in this suggestion, we are far from explaining why this would stop after Noach.
BETRAYING ONE'S PURPOSE
Maybe we can propose a different angle on this problem. We want to suggest that the earth is there as a warning to man. It tells man when he is following God's path and when he is failing.
Man's starting point is both the earth and God. In the ideal state of being, man is true to his origins. He lives up to the expectations that are made of him. Man exists in harmony with the foundation of his creation. Man then is in harmony with the and God.
But as man sins, man betrays his origins. Man betrays God, his creator and teacher. Man also betrays himself - his destiny. He betrays his destiny as a moral being, as a being in the "image of God" with all the creativity, spirituality and responsibility that follows; man has fallen short of that which he was created for. And when this happens, the way God signals to him is through the ground. Let the adama indicate to Adam where he stands and how far he has moved.
The adama is a barometer. The greater the friction and lack of harmony between man and God, the greater the distance will be between adam and adama. The tension between man and his primary ingredient is a measure of the distance between man and his original purpose. The distance between man and his origins is a reflection of the distance between man and his destiny.
In a spiritually sensitive world, in the world before the flood, such indicators exist. The earth sends us a Divine message: "Do not betray your origins, do not betray yourself, do not betray your creator." In a post flood world, God assesses that the human desire for sin is too great. Man is going to sin, and there will be ways to correct man's actions, but the method of the adama is too subtle, maybe too cruel. Man is already too distanced from his origin to learn the lesson. It will fall on deaf ears. Adam is incapable of perceiving the delicate message of adama.
There is one place, however, where the adam-adama connection exists even after the flood. That place is Eretz Yisrael, the Promised Land - the land of connection between a people and its God.
We read in the second paragraph of the Shema:
"If you follow the commandments that I enjoin upon you this day ... I will give rain for your land in season...you shall gather in your new grain, wine and oil.... Take care not to be lured away to serve other gods and bow to them, for the Lord's anger will flare up ...and there will be no rain and the ground (adama) will not yield its produce; and you will soon perish from the good land (adama) that the Lord is assigning to you." (Deuteronomy (Devarim) 11:13-17)
In the Land of Israel, the adam-adama connection is alive and well. If we do not obey God, we are threatened with both difficult agricultural conditions and exile. It all sounds a little familiar. We are witnessing the recurrence of the adam- adama relationship.
The Land of Israel then, is a spiritually sensitive land, a place that connects land and spirit. It holds in store a deeper connection with God and indicates to the Jewish people, through its very adama, God's pleasure or indignation. This connection, this barometer offers enormous blessings for good but frightening destruction for evil.
Our hope is that our land can give us the vantagepoint of our origins, assisting us in seeing our true spiritual destiny, so that we may once again find our way back to the garden of Eden.
B) Sichot of the Roshei Yeshiva
Harav Aharon Lichtenstein Shlit"A
The story of Kayin and Hevel is quite mysterious. First, Kayin's sin seems to derive from his desire to enter into a relationship with God. Second, we are left in the dark as the contents of his conversation with Hevel which led to the latter's murder. These questions and the strange nature of his punishment have led many to view him as a tragic hero.
On a simple level, it seems that Kayin's sin stems from his inability to balance appropriately the two primary aspects of Jewish observance: the interpersonal commandments and the spiritual relationship between Hashem and the individual. Such a lack of balance can lead to a complete divorce of the two sides. The gemara (Yoma 22-23) describes how the Kohanim would fight over the privilege to clean the mizbe'ach each morning. According to the mishna, the competition was so bitter that, in the rush to reach the mizbe'ach first, Kohanim would trip each other. The gemara cites an even more extreme story, where one Kohen kills another. In reality, there cannot be any distinction at all between these two aspects of Judaism; without either, a person's spiritual position is fundamentally deficient.
However, it is possible to understand Kayin's sin as not only as a lack of perspective regarding the importance of bein adam le-chaveiro (interpersonal conduct), but as a fundamental flaw within his bein adam la-Makom (service of God) itself.
The midrash cites two versions of the conversation between Kayin and Hevel prior to the murder. In the first, the two brothers agree to split the world, one taking all the metaltelim (portable objects), and the other taking all the karka (land). One points out that the other is wearing his clothes, and the other points out that his brother is standing on his ground. Over this argument, Kayin kills his brother. According to this interpretation, their argument is economic and social in nature, having little to do with God. It is easily understandable, given world history, that such conflicts lead to violence.
However, the midrash offers another account of the conversation. According to this version, Kayin and Hevel split the world evenly and logically; they were able to cooperate on economic and social issues. However, their dispute arose over the question of whose portion should contain the Beit Ha-mikdash (Temple). Obviously, there is nothing fundamentally wrong with such a desire. Quite the contrary, it is commendable that someone should want to have more opportunity for expression of spiritual longing and connection to God. Similarly, Kayin's original desire that God accept his sacrifice is legitimate. Do we not pray three time a day for God's acceptance?
But where Kayin failed was in his motivation. Kayin did not want God's acceptance for its own sake, nor did he desire the Beit Ha-mikdash for spiritual gratification. The same actions which can demonstrate one's desire for a connection to God can also result from an egocentric approach applied to the religious realm. Such actions are flawed at their core, and lead to a rejection of true morality and spirituality that can culminate even in murder.
In our own service of God, we should be very, very careful of this fine line. While Chazal do say that "Kin'at sofrim tarbeh chokhma" ("The zealousness [or jealousy] of scribes increases wisdom"), we should also remember that when handled inappropriately, it is also "marbeh kin'a" (it increases jealousy). Only by being exceedingly vigilant in this area can we be assured that our worship will be accepted, and that we can build our personal mikdash "al taharat ha- kodesh," in holy purity.
C) INDEPTH PARSHAT SHEVUAH
Toldot Ha-shamayim Ve-ha'aretz
Man's Sins Transform the World
I) SEFER BEREISHIT - SEFER TOLDOT
The Yerushalmi (Nedarim 9:4) identifies the pasuk "Zeh sefer toldot adam" (Bereishit 5:1) as a "klal gadol" - a comprehensive principle - more significant than even "Ve- ahavta le-reiakha kamokha." This significance reflects the pasuk's central role in defining the agenda of Sefer Bereishit.
Bereishit covers the history of mankind from its inception to the crystallization of the Jewish people with the re-unification of the twelve brothers in Mitzraim. The sefer sustains a historical framework by deliberately listing the genealogies, "toldot," of each generation (5:1; 6:9; 10:1; 11:10,27; 25:12,19; 31:1; 37:1).
The sefer's goal, though, is not purely historical, but rather interpretive. Although many peoples were formed in the two thousand years covered by Bereishit, the Torah distinguishes a certain line as chosen. Bereishit justifies this distinction by recounting the events that merited the preference of one brother over another - Hevel over Kayin, Noach over his generation, Shem over Yafet and Cham, Avraham over Nachor and Haran, Yitzchak over Yishmael, and Ya'akov over Eisav .