Paper 3–The Americas – These are the topics we covered in class. You will need to answer 3 questions out of 25



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Paper 3–The Americas – These are the topics we covered in class. You will need to answer 3 questions out of 25.
1. Independence movements

  • Independence movements in the Americas: political, economic, social, intellectual and religious causes; the role of foreign intervention; conflicts and issues leading to war

  • Political and intellectual contributions of leaders to the process of independence: Washington, Adams, Jefferson,

  • United States Declaration of Independence; processes leading to the declaration; influence of ideas; nature of the declaration; military campaigns and their impact on the outcome (suitable examples could be Saratoga and Yorktown)

  • emergence of the Monroe Doctrine


2. Nation-building and challenges

  • United States: Articles of Confederation; the Constitution of 1787: philosophical underpinnings; major compromises and changes in the US political system

  • War of 1812: causes and impact on British North America and the United States

  • Mexican–American War 1846 8: causes and effects on the region


3. United States Civil War: causes, course and effects 1840 77

Underground Railroad

  • Origins of the Civil War: political issues, states’ rights, modernization, sectionalism, the nullification crisis, economic differences between North and South

  • Abolitionist debate: ideologies and arguments for and against slavery and their impact

  • Reasons for, and effects of, westward expansion and the sectional debates; the crisis of the 1850s; the Kansas–Nebraska problem; the Ostend Manifesto; the Lincoln–Douglas debates; the impact of the election of Abraham Lincoln and the Emancipation Proclamation; Jefferson Davis and the Confederacy

  • Union versus Confederate: strengths and weaknesses; economic resources; significance of leaders during the US Civil War (suitable examples could be Grant and Lee, Sherman and Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson)

  • Major battles of the Civil War and their impact on the conflict: Antietam and Gettysburg; the role of foreign powers

  • Reconstruction: economic, social and political successes and failures; economic expansion

  • African Americans in the Civil War and in the New South: legal issues; the Black Codes; Jim Crow Laws


4. The development of modern nations 1865 1929

  • Causes and consequences of railroad construction; industrial growth and economic modernization; the

  • Causes and consequences of immigration; emigration and internal migration, including the impact upon, and experience of, indigenous peoples

  • Development and impact of ideological currents including Progressivism, Manifest Destiny, Social Darwinism,

  • Social, economic and legal conditions of African Americans between 1865 and 1929; the Great

Migration and the Harlem Renaissance; the search for civil rights and the ideas, aims and tactics of Booker T Washington, WEB Dubois and Marcus Garvey
5. Emergence of the Americas in global affairs 1880 1929

  • United States’ expansionist foreign policies: political, economic, social and ideological reasons

  • Spanish–American War: causes and effects (1898)

  • United States’ foreign policies: the Big Stick; Dollar Diplomacy; Moral Diplomacy; applications and impact on the region

  • United States and the First World War: from neutrality to involvement; reasons for US entry into the First World War; Wilson’s peace ideals and the struggle for ratification of the Versailles Treaty in the United States; significance of the war for the United States’ hemispheric status

  • Impact of the First World War on two countries of the Americas: economic, political, social, and foreign policies


7. The Great Depression and the Americas 1929 39


  • The Great Depression: political and economic causes in the Americas

  • Nature and efficacy of solutions in the United States: Hoover; Franklin D Roosevelt and the New Deal; critics of the New Deal


8. The Second World War and the Americas 1933 45

  • Hemispheric reactions to the events in Europe: inter-American diplomacy; cooperation and neutrality;

  • Franklin D Roosevelt’s Good Neighbour policy, its application and effects

  • The diplomatic and/or military role of two countries in the Second World War

  • Social impact of the Second World War on: African Americans, Native Americans, women and minorities; conscription

  • Treatment of Japanese Americans

  • Reaction to the Holocaust in the Americas

  • Impact of technological developments and the beginning of the atomic age

  • Economic and diplomatic effects of the Second World War in one country of the Americas


9. Political developments in the Americas after the Second World War 1945 79


10. The Cold War and the Americas 1945 1981

  • Truman: containment and its implications for the Americas; the rise of McCarthyism and its effects on domestic and foreign policies of the United States; the Cold War and its impact on society and culture

  • Korean War and the United States and the Americas: reasons for participation; military developments; diplomatic and political outcomes

  • Eisenhower and Dulles: New Look and its application; characteristics and reasons for the policy; repercussions for the region

  • United States’ involvement in Vietnam: the reasons for, and nature of, the involvement at different stages; domestic effects and the end of the war

  • United States’ foreign policies from Kennedy to Carter: the characteristics of, and reasons for, policies; implications for the region: Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress; Nixon’s covert operations and Chile;

  • Carter’s quest for human rights and the Panama Canal Treaty

  • Cold War in either Canada or one Latin American country: reasons for foreign and domestic policies and their implementation


11. Civil rights and social movements in the Americas

  • African Americans and the Civil Rights Movement: origins, tactics and organizations; the US Supreme court and legal challenges to segregation in education; ending of the segregation in the South (1955 65)

  • Role of Dr Martin Luther King in the Civil Rights Movement; the rise of radical African American activism (1965 8): Black Panthers; Black Muslims; Black Power and Malcolm X

  • Role of governments in civil rights movements in the Americas

  • Youth culture and protests of the 1960s and 1970s: characteristics and manifestation of a counterculture


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