Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Wanderley Marchi, Jr., Universidade Federal do Paraná, and Bárbara Schausteck de Almeida, Universidade Federal do Paraná
Mega Sporting Events: A Threat to the Brazilian Sovereignty? The magnitude of the mega sports events in recent years has brought numerous requirements for cities and countries elected to host them. Whereas the impacts of these requirements are particular to each political, economic and social reality, we propose an analysis of this process for the Brazilian case. Specifically, we aim to identify how national laws and other regulations were modified to meet the demands of sports entities responsible for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. For this, we performed an analysis of the laws created and modified under those mega sports events, discussing the basis of these requirements and how these changes alter earlier historic social achievements. This discussion is contextualized with the impacts reverberated in the media prior to the adoption of these laws, in which they argued about the influence of private interests on national sovereignty or a so-called ‘state of exception.’ Among the initial proposals and those approved, we indicate that there was a balancing of hotspots of debate, safeguarding both the private and public interests in the final drafting of these laws. Despite balancing, the negotiation in case the 2014 World Cup was politically tense and time consuming, compromising the images of FIFA and of the Brazilian government in this process. To conclude, we note that despite the confrontations, there was no prospect of retreat or questioning the need to host the events. We understand that the state of belief is what legitimizes the demands beyond the institutions involved. P2: Claudia Samuel Kessler
Women who Play Soccer in Brazil: A Cultural Matter? This paper will present a landscape of Brazilian policy as it relates to women's futebol (soccer). Futebol in Brazil operates as "male preserve"(Dunning and Maguire, 1997). This presentation outlines the development of women's futebol from the prohibition of women's futebol in Brazilian law (1941), the repeal (1979), and through the thirty years since the law was repealed. The paper concludes with a discussion of current conditions. Presently, few sportive structures have been developed to support female futebol. The sport lacks sponsorship. Brazilian women players don't have a national championship similar to men. Athletes continue to struggle with stigma related to their sexuality. P3: Thomas J. Aicher, University of Cincinnati and B. Nalani Butler, University of Tennessee
You Won the Bid for the World Cup, Why are you Mad? The Brazilian Protests’ Impact on Foreign Perceptions Mega-events engender positive and negative impacts for the host communities, including economic, social/cultural, and environmental (Getz, 2008). While the economic impacts are questioned, a broader consensus argues intangible factors occur from hosting events (Szymanski, 2002). For instance, the 'free promotion' from hosting mega-events has been used as a form of justification for large investments because it increases awareness and enhances image of the host community (Deccio & Baloglu, 2002). Alternatively, host community residents of these mega-events have grown weary of the financial investments and have demonstrated concerns of increased taxation and cost of living (Konstantaki & Wickens, 2010). These two impacts are juxtaposed as Brazil prepares to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics. Concerns about the mismanagement of funds and increase in taxes has led to numerous protests, several including violent clashes between protestors and officials, which have flooded international media. Following the methods of previous research (Preuss & Alfs, 2011), we will review international media coverage of the protests to develop a fuller understanding on the impact of global media coverage on international perceptions of Brazil and the mega-events it plans to host. A full discussion of results will be provided in the presentation.
Session Title: Olympic Narratives of the Nation
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Caroline Piquette, Laurentian University; Michele Lajeunesse, Laurentian University and Barbara Ravel, Laurentian University
The Biggest Story of the Olympic Games for Canada? Examining the Construction of Christine Sinclair as a Canadian Hero At the 2012 London Olympic Games, Team Canada won bronze in the women's soccer tournament. The team was led by Captain Christine Sinclair who after scoring a hat trick in the semi-finals and capturing the tournament's top scorer title became the flag bearer for the Olympic closing ceremony. Using a textual analysis of Canadian electronic media sources, we investigate the media construction of Christine Sinclair as a Canadian hero following the Olympic tournament. In this paper, we highlight several factors that contributed to Sinclair becoming a Canadian hero: her outstanding individual performance, the dramatic and controversial semi-final loss, the rivalry against the US Team as well as the win in the game for third place. We discuss Sinclair's role in directing the nation's attention to a (relatively minor) summer team sport in Canada, her relevance for and place in (women's) sport in Canada as well as the importance placed on Team Canada's bronze medal performance. P2: Daniel C. Burdsey, University of Brighton, UK
One Guy Named Mo: Race, Nation and the London 2012 Olympic Games The triumphal track and field performances of British athlete Mo Farah at the London 2012 Olympics—gold medalist in the men's 5000m and 10000m events—were lauded not only for their athletic endeavor, but also for their perceived validation of the rhetoric of diversity and inclusion in which the Games were ensconced. However, this paper presents a more complicated and critical reading of the relationship between Britishness, multiculturalism, the politics of inclusion and the London Games. It demonstrates how dominant narratives utilized in coverage of Farah—a black, Somali-born, Muslim man and the son of a refugee—by politicians and the media reflect complex, contradictory and exclusionary attitudes towards Islam, Britishness, race and nation in twenty-first century Britain, and reinforce the current government's agenda on multiculturalism and immigration. The analysis argues that the celebration of minority ethnic sport stars is fragile and contingent; their successes and identifications with Britishness do not prevent experiences of discrimination and exclusion, either for them or their wider communities. One year after the 2012 Games, record levels of support for the anti-immigration UK Independence Party and rising levels of Islamophobia suggest that the putative multicultural legacy of Farah's achievement is far from realization. P3: Haozhou Pu, Florida State University and Michael D. Giardina. Florida State University
Ye Shiwen, Collective Memory, and the 2012 London Olympic Games: Notes on the Production and Consumption of National Victimhood The idea of 'collective victimhood', as a cultural and political identity, has long been cultivated within the active construction of Chinese nationalism. Through a case study analysis of Ye Shewin, the Chinese swimmer who was widely alleged to be involved in doping by Western media during the 2012 London Olympic Games, this study examines the cultural pedagogy behind the national production and active consumption of such 'victimhood'. Read over and against the anti-China protests in the global torch-relay before the 2008 Beijing Olympic games, the allegations of Ye Shiwen's alleged doping animate a deeper sense of victim mentality in the public against the backdrop of China's avid revival from "century of humiliation". Here the Olympic stage is no longer limited to performing an image of the "victor" for national pride; rather, it also functions to ironically perpetuate an autonomous "victim" profile and contribute to the legitimization of the Communist regime. This study therefore explores the pedagogical normalization of victim identity in Chinese society exercised through the "victimization" efforts oriented around Ye Shiwen (and other Chinese athletes). It also examines the function of collective memory in re(shaping) and transforming such victimhood into a delicately nuanced and productive collective victimhood, and how such victim narratives intersect with China's future political dynamics as a rising power.
Session Title: Issues in American Football
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Kent L. Kaiser, University of Northwestern-Saint Paul and Caleb Glass, University of Northwestern-Saint Paul
Black or White: A Study on Expectations and Assumptions about the Leadership (Quarterback) Position in American Football Relying on Cultivation Theory and related concepts, this paper uses an innovative method to illustrate how media consumers' expectations and assumptions about black and white athletes are shaped by the media. A survey was administered to test the hypothesis that subjects would associate the leadership position of quarterback in American football with being Caucasian. The survey instruments included a packet of anonymous collegiate football player picture cut-outs – half black and half white – and a mock football field with slots to paste the cut-outs into the appropriate positions on the field. The cut-and-paste responses about which race of player should hold the leadership (quarterback) position showed a significant divergence from equality but no significant difference from the reality of the National Football League, thus demonstrating the power of the media (likely the place where subjects would have gained preconceptions and biases about which race of players would have leadership potential) in perpetuating stereotypes. In addition, subjects were given the opportunity to say why they chose the cut-out they did for the quarterback position; these narrative answers give insight into the subjects' expectations and assumptions and are discussed, as well. P2: Sarah A. Lazzeroni, Portland State University
The NFL and Concussions: A White Collar Crime Perspective on the Current Concussion Litigation The controversy over concussions and violence in the NFL was crystallized in the Master Administrative Complaint filed on behalf of thousands of former NFL players in 2012. The players allege that the NFL engaged in negligence and fraud by misrepresenting information about concussions at the expense of the players, while simultaneously promoting and glorifying the violence of professional football for financial gain. The NFL has responded to the lawsuit with a motion to dismiss based on the grounds that Section 301 of the Labor Management Relations Act (LMRA) should preempt the case from going forward in court. They argue that the collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) created by the league and the NFL Players’ Association (NFLPA) should be used to resolve this dispute. Whatever the outcome of the case, it will have serious implications for the future of football, inevitably altering the responsibilities of the NFL, its teams, doctors, and players. It is important to place these events within the larger context of criminological literature on white collar crime and law. An argument will be made that the NFL's actions reflect many aspects of crimes typically defined as white collar, including (but not limited to) the fact that financial gain seems to be the motivation. Additionally, these events will be considered alongside the history of the LMRA and collective bargaining agreements in order to understand how such things may have created a climate more amenable to corporate abuses of power, including the NFL's alleged conduct. P3: Matt Hawzen, Queen's University
Reading Tebow as a Neolib-Role Model: The Cultural Politics of Charity and the (Re)Production of Class Dynamics and White Power in the NFL King (2006) argues neoliberal governmentality has been concretized in charitable practices, which "points to the ways in which participation in giving, of time or money, is viewed not simply as a preferable way to fund public services, but as a vehicle for instilling civic and self-responsibility in the American people" (King, p. xxvi). In 2011 when Tebow Mania gripped the North American soul NFL quarterback Tim Tebow emerged as a perplexing cultural icon whose legacy was largely defined by his involvement in charity organizations and humanitarian efforts. As the Chairman of the Tim Tebow Foundation, Tebow's "good" morals and quintessential leadership became highly publicized constructing him into a role model for charitable practice. How does Tebow as a role model propel the NFL-corporate philanthropy nexus and how do class and race intersect within this context? In this critical analysis I argue that mainstream media perpetuated upper class dynamics and white power embedded in the neoliberal conjuncture by constructing Tebow as a "neolib-role" model through discussions centered on capitalist production, leadership, and charitable practices. Tebow's version of good citizenship was defined by projections against deviant bodies and was considered paragon for how individuals in American society should act.
Session Title: Sports Fans and Fanatic Behaviors I
Gender Constructions and Negotiations of Female Soccer Fans: A Case Study in Denmark While both the media and the academic literature focus primarily on male fans, in particular on violence and the prevention of hooliganism, little is known about female football supporters. This is also true in Denmark, a country that is known for its high degree of gender equality. This article aims to give insight into gender constructions and negotiations of female football fans in the stands. Drawing on a social constructivist perspective to gender and Bourdieu's (1984) approaches to field, capital and habitus, we explored the experiences and opinions of female fans. The methods employed were stadium observations as well as qualitative, guideline-based interviews with female supporters of three different clubs. The observations and interviews reveal that traditional gender norms, prejudices and sexism are widely spread in the fan stands, and are often accepted and trivialized by the female fans themselves. Female fans have to comply with specific rules of conduct in the stadium, where "masculine" behavior is regarded both for male and female supporters as ideal fan behavior. However, there is also space for gender negotiations, as longs as female supporters neither display "hyper masculinity" nor "emphasized femininity" in their gender performances. Female fans do not only comply with and reproduce the rules of conduct in the stadium, but also apply different forms of resistance against sexism and the use of football as game and a space of and for men. The founding of a women's fan group can be interpreted as means of opposition to the dominance of men. P2: Joseph M. Bradley, University of Stirling
Historical Legacies and Living Identities: Recalling Ireland and British Colonialism in Scottish Football Today This presentation reflects on aspects of British colonialism, the historical cleavage and conflict within and between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain and how this has impacted on football in Scotland. It looks at how these histories have influenced and shaped national, political and communal attitudes and identities and how these can sometimes be expressed in the traditions of football institutions, but especially through respective fandoms. This work concludes that it is only by using a measure of historical enquiry that we can begin to understand the world famous football rivalry between Rangers and Celtic Football Clubs, sometimes branded as the ‘Old Firm.’ P3: Ken Sumida, University of Otago; Ben Wooliscroft, University of Otago and Mike Sam, University of Otago
Individual and Collective Psychological Ownership of Sports Fans in the Japanese Professional Football League When investigating fans, sports marketing studies has used the organizational identification perspective, considering fans as belonging to the team. Using a fan centric perspective, where fans are considered to own a team, we quantitatively investigate the degree of psychological ownership exhibited by fans. The study focuses on the validity of psychological ownership scales in the sports fan situation, and the difference between psychological ownership, organizational commitment and team identification. A questionnaire with measures of individual psychological ownership, collective psychological ownership, organizational commitment and organizational identification from extant literatures was administered to 395 subjects—attendees at a Japanese professional football league (J-League) game—resulting in 310 usable responses. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to test reliability and validity of the scales. Reliability and convergent validity were found, for psychological ownership. The analysis shows that psychological ownership is distinct from the other psychological concepts measured. Subjects were categorized into four levels of fan: super fans, committed fans, ordinary fans and spectators. The relationship between psychological ownership, organizational commitment and team identification will be discussed during the presentation.
Session Title: Sports Fans and Fanatic Behaviors II
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 P1: Allison J. Musser, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Jacqueline McDowell, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
“When You Put On the Orange Wig, It's Time to Ball”—A Collegiate Men's Basketball Support Group's Motivations and Experiences Face painting, strange outfits, and people screaming and jumping. This may sound like a circus or carnival, but attendees of professional and collegiate sporting events enter an unusual environment where sports fans turn into fanatics. What drives fanatical behavior? This presentation highlights research that explored the motivations and experiences of a collegiate men's basketball support group. An ethnographic study was conducted in which the primary researcher sat with a student fan group at two men's home basketball games at a large Midwestern university. The researcher also interviewed five members about their motivations and experiences in the group. The findings included several motivations found previously in the literature such as entertainment and escape, but included a new one: Insider Access. Other apparent themes included a perception of game impact, sense of community, and the importance of sport rituals. Implications of this research include understanding the emotional connection between fans and their team and adding to the literature regarding fan motivations. Additionally, this study and presentation attempt to advance knowledge regarding human behavior in group settings. P3: Kiernan O. Gordon, Miami University (OH)
Stadiums and 'Emotional Energy': An Examination of Fans' Connections to Ohio Stadium through the Interaction Ritual Lens Sport fans often choose to attend stadiums because of some degree of emotional attachment to a team or participant involved in a contest, if not to experience the stadium itself. Sport stadiums consist of many elements that facilitate an emotionally loaded experience for those who attend them, of which memory is an important component. This interaction between emotion, memory, and sport place facilitates a nostalgic spectator experience (Gordon, forthcoming) and is a key element of this research. This project examined the nexus between emotion, memory, and sport place through interviews with three 'big' fans of Ohio State football, each of whom attended over one hundred games throughout their respective lifetimes and considered themselves to be avid followers of the team. A unique qualitative methodology, called 'photo-elicitation interviewing' (Collier & Collier, 1986 ), was utilized to ascertain the experience of attending a game at Ohio Stadium. These responses were interpreted through an emergent micro sociological perspective, called 'interaction ritual theory' (Collins, 2004), to provide insight into the activities that reinforce fans' connections to sport teams and their respective stadiums, as well as the extent to which emotion and memory influence the decision to attend a sporting event and/or follow a particular team. P4: Andrew McKinney, City University of New York Graduate Center
The Most Valuable Fans in the World: Bleacher Report and the Fan Production of Value This presentation is an examination of the role of the sports fan in a globalized, networked economy. Through a case study of the popular sports blog network Bleacher Report, this presentation is an attempt to flesh out how sports fans aid the production of value in what David Rowe and Brett Hutchins have referred to as "networked media sport." From its origins, Bleacher Report has relied almost entirely on the unpaid labor of fan writers to fill out the site. Utilizing this large army of fans who they claim to "empower" and "amplify," constant production of new content is produced cheaply. This content produces value by drawing the page views that web analytics covert into advertising rates. Fans are also readers and spectators: clicking, commenting, and providing the eyeballs that constitute what the web analytics are measuring. Utilizing theoretical insights from a long running debate in audience studies that characterizes the audience as laborers selling their surplus-watching time, I argue for a re-evaluation of what can be understood as surplus labor or surplus time when fans occupy both the producer and consumer parts of the political economic equation.
Session Title: Female Identity Development in Sport