P4: Sarah E. Stokowski, Eastern Illinois University and Dr. Robin Hardin, University of Tennessee
The Cultural Meaning of Collegiate Student-Athletes Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities and/or ADHD Society as a whole often lacks understanding of invisible disabilities, or those disabilities that are not visually apparent. Thus, due to the lack of societal awareness of invisible disabilities, such as learning disabilities and ADHD, those with such disabilities find it difficult to fully understand their disability. The purpose of this study was to (a) understand how collegiate student-athletes perceive themselves as individuals with learning disabilities and/or ADHD, and (b) to understand how the participants feel those within their social world (i.e. family, peers, teachers, and coaches) perceive them as individuals with learning disabilities and/or ADHD. NCAA Division I football student-athletes with diagnosed learning disabilities and/or ADHD participated in semi-structured interviews. This study was guided by Intergroup Contact Theory, in which behaviors and attitudes are interconnected and human interaction can potentially promote understanding (Allport, 1954). The results showed that the majority of the participants did not know or understand what their disability was. Many participants chose not to acknowledge their disability and some did not even accept they had a disability out of fear of being labeled as dumb by their peers. These findings can assist in establishing a globalized effort to promote a greater understanding of invisible disabilities.
The City and the Spectacle: Vancouver and the 2010 Winter Games Inner-City Inclusive Commitment Statement Sport mega-events are increasingly accompanied by the arrival of evictions, displacements, and relocations experienced by host city populations. Vancouver's bid corporation attempted to mitigate such potential negative outcomes, helping to broker a commitment statement in 2002 securing certain protections for Vancouver's inner-city neighborhoods in anticipation of hosting the Winter Olympic Games in 2010. This paper will trace the origins of this document, the Inner-City Inclusive Commitment Statement (ICICS), through extensively chronicled communications between the bid corporation and the range of community and non-profit organizations involved with the creation of the ICICS. While such optimistic pledges from the ICICS were incorporated into the bid and later deployed in the rhetoric of the organizing committee, it is the degree to which such promises were eventually delivered upon—both in the lead-up to the Games and their aftermath—which is deserving of the greatest scrutiny. This paper will contribute to ongoing discussions of space, power, and social justice in the sport mega-event host city (Broudehoux, 2007) as well as the creation of interdictory spaces in Olympic host cities (Flusty, 1994, 2001). P2: Liv Yoon, University of British Columbia
Nice Korea, Naughty Korea: Media Framings of North Korea and the Inter-Korean Relationship in the 2012 London Olympics and Paralympics In this presentation, I report findings from an analysis of mainstream news-media framings of North Korea and the inter-Korean relationship in the London 2012 Summer Olympics. The research was guided by the following questions: 1) How was North Korea's involvement in the Olympics portrayed within different news-media? 2) How did mainstream news-media in South Korea and in a selection of other national contexts frame the inter-Korean relationship in the London 2012 Olympic Games? and 3) What differences were there, if any, between the South Korean coverage of these topics and other international news-media coverage, and what are their implications? I aim to explain and contextualize my findings with existing literature on news media coverage of conflict, sport, and nationalism with particular attention to the interrelated concepts of ideology, hegemony, and Orientalism (Said, 2003). The analysis is guided by Norman Fairclough's (1995) Critical Discourse Analysis approach to examining how language operates in framing events and topics in a manner that may make some points or perspectives more visible than others. The overarching goal of the study is to provoke thinking about the role of sport media producers in peace promotion and in the perpetuation of conflict and cultural violence, the potential impacts of mass media on audiences, and possibilities for developing more critically-informed approaches to creating media messages. P3: Maura B. Rosenthal, Bridgewater State University and Jennifer K. Mead, Bridgewater State University
“I Streamed the Women's Gold Medal Soccer Match on my Phone:” NBC Universal's Coverage of the 2012 London Olympic Games The 2012 London Olympic Games were the most widely disseminated games in history. Focusing on NBC Universal's live televised and live-streamed web coverage, we sought to determine whether and how commentators used powerful language to describe female athletes in basketball, soccer and beach volleyball. Play-by-play commentators overwhelmingly described female athletes as exciting and powerful. Female athletes were compared to male athletes, and much of the coverage focused on the dominance of the U.S. women. NBC Universal paired veteran, male color commentators with female analysts who were former Olympians in the live coverage of soccer and basketball. Implications of this broadcasting decision and specific ways nationality, sport, and gender intersect in the coverage will be focal points in this paper. Given Comcast Corporation's recent acquisition of 100% of NBC Universal, the paper will end with a brief discussion of how the Sochi games are being marketed. P4: Yuka Nakamura, York University
A Space to Play: Evaluating Neighborhood’s Adjacent to Proposed Pan Am Facilities and the Potential to Promote Sport Participation Three goals of the 2015 Pan/Parapan American Games is to inspire children to play sport, engage local communities to embrace the Games, and to celebrate and involve Toronto's multicultural community. To frame the event in this way is not surprising, particularly the desire to catalyze sport participation, and the connection to multiculturalism, a dominant ideology of how Canada's national identity is constructed. Nevertheless, there is little evidence that suggests that mass participation increases after hosting a major sporting event, and ethno racial groups continue to face barriers to participation that cannot be addressed simply by hosting the Games. Indeed, engaging local communities to connect with the Games becomes untenable, especially since this goal is grounded in the assumption that opportunities, spaces, facilities and programming exist in the first place. This paper discusses findings from a preliminary study examining the potential impact on sport participation in the communities surrounding the facilities that will be built for the upcoming Toronto 2015 Pan/Parapan American Games. Specifically, the paper assesses the neighborhoods adjacent to the Pan Am complexes being built on the University of Toronto Scarborough Campus and York University grounds, as well as the refurbishment of Ivor Wynne Stadium in Hamilton, Ontario. This assessment includes demographic data about community residents; an inventory of sport and recreation providers, programming and facilities in the area; and key informant interviews with sport and recreation providers in these neighborhoods. The paper also proposes a potential framework for evaluating spaces for their potential to promote sport participation.
Session Title: Marginalizing Aboriginal/Indigenous Peoples in Physical Activity
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Courtney Mason, University of Ottawa and Josh Koehli, University of Alberta
Marginalization and Barriers to Participation in Physical Activity and Gardening Programs for Urban Aboriginal Youth This presentation investigates barriers to physical activity, sport and exercise for Aboriginal youth in urban Edmonton, Alberta and Ottawa, Ontario. Focusing on the experiences of inner city Aboriginal youth, this analysis considers the common structural, institutional, intrapersonal and cultural constraints that are regularly encountered. Studies that comprehensively assess the complex factors that impact participation in physical activity for urban Aboriginal peoples are very limited. This study privileges Aboriginal perspectives by drawing on semi-structured interviews with youth over a four-year period. In addition, observation of youth participation in physical activity outreach programs and community garden initiatives contribute to the evidence attained. We assert that any measures directed at improving policy related to the physical activity experiences of Aboriginal youth must directly consider the multiple socio-economic, political and cultural issues that affect their lives. P2: Tricia D. McGuire-Adams, University of Ottawa
Exploring the Marginalization of Indigenous Women in Physical Activity Through concerted discussion and critique I consider how one can implement decolonized physicality with the aim to examine personal regenerative change through physical activity. My research will look physical activity programs and theories such as the trans theoretical model (Prochaska & DiClemente, 1983) to identify how they may be used to mobilize Indigenous women to regenerate their physicality. Colonization and oppression have had detrimental effects upon the physicality of Indigenous peoples and it is important to examine how current physical activity research may assist with regenerating physicality (Adams, 2008). My presentation examines Indigenous women's approach to physical activity and the nascent marginalization complexities regarding participation in physical activity. More specifically, I explore how Indigenous women engage and disengage in physical activity. Current research seeks to understand why marginalized women are faced with barriers and, at the same time, create barriers to participation in physical activity (Ponic et. al., 2011). I offer a perspective to further understand the complications of Indigenous women's participation in, or lack of participation in, physical activity. P3: Lauren A. Brooks, University of Ottawa
Elders in Motion: Physical Activity Programming for Aboriginal Older Adults The 2006 Canadian Census found that the Aboriginal population aged 65 and over has increased 43.0% since 2001 (Statistics Canada, 2010). Despite this dramatic increase in older Aboriginal peoples, there is a dearth of research concerning this cohort, especially regarding their engagement with physical activity. Using a postcolonial lens, I sought to understand if and how the NWT Recreation and Parks Association's (NWTRPA) Elders in Motion (EIM) program is adapted for NWT communities and to understand the challenges that program leaders and communities have faced regarding the implementation of the program and how they have dealt with these challenges. Findings from seven semi-structured interviews show that EIM is most successful when run by program leaders who have a close relationship to the Elders, the NWTRPA needs to improve communication between communities and with health departments and governing bodies in order to increase support for the program, the most beneficial part of the program for Elders is the increased social inclusion, and the most challenging part of EIM for program leaders is having the resources to run it, including financial, personnel, and training.
Note: FULL/4 Participants: P1: Evan Brody, University of Southern California
Imagining Gay Athletes: Discourse, Representation, and Television's Fictional LGBT Athlete Beginning with NBC's first regular television broadcast in 1946, televisual imagery has often served as a guide to, and reflection of, American culture (Thompson 2007, p. 137). Far from a simple producer of entertainment, the electronic landscape developed into an arbiter of taste, a measure of approval, and a source of acceptance. As Angela McRobbie adds, "The media have become the key site for defining codes of sexual conduct. They cast judgment and establish the rules of play" (2007, p. 31). This project maps and unpacks fictional televisual portrayals of gay athletes in order to understand how this relationship is discursively produced and represented. While this juncture has garnered increases in representations over the past year, as seen on popular shows such as "Necessary Roughness" and "Drop Dead Diva", among others, television, in fact, has a long and contradictory relationship to portrayals of gay athletes. This project presents both a genealogy of representational practices as well as a theoretical engagement with these portrayals in order to illuminate how they establish normative understandings of athletics and the LGBT experience. Using an intersectional analysis, it also interrogates how discourses of race, masculinity, and sexuality are either engaged or omitted in order to produce the fictional televisual LGBT athlete. P2: Anima Adjepong, University of Texas at Austin
Investing in Systems of Privilege: Gender, Race and Sexuality on and off the Rugby Pitch Using poststructuralist feminist theory and intersectionality, this paper centers heterosexuality and whiteness in analyzing women's sport experiences. My interviews with women rugby players examine how women who play a sport characterized by masculinity describe their experiences as rugby players. I argue that reflecting on how race and sexuality constitute these athletes' experiences illuminates the different ways in which the categories of masculinity and femininity are racially constructed, constantly in flux, and contested. My analyses suggest that women's investment in the privileges accrued to them as white and heterosexual women detracts from the full range of "empowerment" available to them through their participation in sports. I argue that the processes through which whiteness and heterosexuality maintain each other as systems of privilege are reproduced within the context of sports and have implications off the playing field as well. P3: Tricia M.K. Xing, Brock University; Dawn Trussell, Brock University and Austin Oswald, Brock University
“I just Wanted to be Me”—Perceptions of GLB Youth and Navigating Youth Sport Involvement Organized sport has a long history of a culture of homophobia that prevents "gay men, lesbians, and transgendered people from fully participating in sport" (Davison & Frank, 2007, p. 178). The purpose of this paper is to build on some of the existing LGBTQ research by sport scholars (see King, 2008) to better understand how organized youth sport experiences are connected to and affected by the coming out process of young adults who openly self-identified as gay, lesbian and/or bisexual (GLB) during their adolescent years. Interviews with nine, now young adults, illuminated three primary themes: (a) finding an accepting culture/environment; (b) managing and leaving sexuality at the door; and (c) excelling as an athlete as a means for social inclusion. The subjective descriptions of their lived-experiences enhance existing scholarship by providing insight around the contextual factors that shaped how they maintained, dropped or chose their sport involvement, how their managed their gender performance and disclosure of their sexuality, and the potential of youth sport to legitimize their identity and sexuality. The significance of 'cultural competence' (Johnson & Waldron, 2011) for practitioners and educators to reduce stigmas, oppression, and heterosexism in organized youth sport is also emphasized. P4: Trisha M. K. Xing, Brock University
I Just Wanted to be Me: Perceptions of GLB Youth and Navigating Youth Sport Involvement Organized sport has a long history of a culture of homophobia that prevents "gay men, lesbians, and transgendered people from fully participating in sport" (Davison & Frank, 2007, p. 178). The purpose of this paper is to build on some of the existing LGBTQ research by sport scholars (see King, 2008) to better understand how organized youth sport experiences are connected to and affected by the coming out process of young adults who openly self-identified as gay, lesbian and/or bisexual (GLB) during their adolescent years. Interviews with nine, now young adults, illuminated three primary themes: (a) finding an accepting culture/environment; (b) managing and leaving sexuality at the door; and (c) excelling as an athlete as a means for social inclusion. The subjective descriptions of their lived-experiences enhance existing scholarship by providing insight around the contextual factors that shaped how they maintained, dropped or chose their sport involvement, how their managed their gender performance and disclosure of their sexuality, and the potential of youth sport to legitimize their identity and sexuality. The significance of 'cultural competence' (Johnson & Waldron, 2011) for practitioners and educators to reduce stigmas, oppression, and heterosexism in organized youth sport is also emphasized. Davison, K; Frank, B. (2006). '"Sexualities, Genders, Bodies and Sport: Changing Practices of Inequity,"' In: P. White & K.Young (Eds.), Sport and Gender in Canada, Second Edition, Oxford University Press,Toronto. King, S. (2008). What's Queer About (Queer) Sport Sociology Now? A Review Essay. Sociology of Sport Journal, 25, 419-442. Waldron, J. J., & Johnson, C. J. (2011). Are you culturally competent? Understanding the relationship between leisure and the health of lesbians.
Hail Mary: Masculinity and the Courting of the Gay Dollar The gay niche market currently has the highest per capita buying power of any minority group in the United States (Oakenfull & Greenlee, 2005) Therefore, it is small wonder that as more liberal attitudes towards gays and lesbians have become popular in the United States, capitalist marketing engines have begun to focus on the gay population. The neoliberal infused NIKE campaign to #BeTrue, the inclusion of "Gay Days" in several sport arenas, the "It Gets Better" athlete videos, and various other strategies have created a dialogue between the traditionally heteronormative world of sport and the sexual minority population. Part of these strategies has involved the repackaging and rebranding of masculinity to target gay males. However, sport marketing has traditionally used gendered and homophobic "othering" as key methods of differentiation between an athlete and a non-athlete, between a man and not a man. Additionally, the gay community has used athletics as both a fetish and a trapping of masculinity. The interaction between the gay community and the sports industrial complex is fraught with deeper tensions of masculinity and lost privilege. This presentation will unpack the power relations at play in the courting of the gay dollar and problematize the often simplified dialectical relationship between gay men and sport. P2: Erica Rand, Bates College
Swishing to the Swoosh: Reflections on LGBT Activism under Big-Money Sponsorship In June, 2013, as a result of my work to develop transgender inclusion policies for Bates College Athletics, I attended the Nike LGBT Sports Summit. Organized by the biggest movers for LGBT access and equity in sports, the Summit brought together, by invitation only, activists from diverse sports, schools, athletic groups, and LGBT organizations to strategize about concrete next steps. This talk begins in that summit to study the politics of LGBT sports activism under big-money sponsorship in the era of the NHL's partnership with "You Can Play," the GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network) Sports Project, and the Nike # BE TRUE Collection that "celebrates universality of sport." I came to the summit prepared to face a conflict between my commitment to the summit's activist purpose and my strong disinclination to participate in what has come to be called "pinkwashing": the use of publicized LGBT support to camouflage dubious corporate or government politics on the same or other fronts. But the intensity of living that conflict – where we were asked to demonstrate respect in the "house of Nike" both by recognizing systemic, multi-issue oppression and by refraining from wearing competing brands – transformed my understanding of the compromises and bedfellows of funded activism. I argue that the complicated costs to the queer merit study against the assimilationist pulls of "marriage equality" but play out differently, or perhaps especially more vividly, in a realm of activity characterized by entrenched gender segregation and the gendering of athleticism itself. P3: Jules Boykoff, Pacific University in Oregon
Politics and the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics in Russia In July 2013, controversy burst onto the scene as Russia prepared to host the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi. Russian lawmakers had passed anti-gay legislation signed by President Vladimir Putin” outlawing “homosexual propaganda,” with violations punishable by sizable fines. The law made it “illegal to spread information about non-traditional sexual behavior” to minors; foreign tourists deemed "pro-gay" could be expelled from the country. In this paper I examine the imbroglio in the context of other political disputes that received less attention in the mass media. Such controversies include: the funding structure of the Games, slated to be the most expensive ever at $51 billion; human-rights abuses aimed at workers building Olympic venues; corruption and fraud vis-á-vis Olympic construction; environmental degradation; the passage of an array of laws designed to squelch political dissent; armed dissident groups threatening to disrupt the Games, which will sit amidst a longstanding conflict zone; and the history of the diasporic Circassian people who until the mid-1800s lived in the area where the Games will be held. I analyze the politics that have emerged as Sochi 2014 approaches, comparing developments with political dissension that surfaced astride previous Olympic Games.