P4: Andrew R. Meyer, Baylor University; Christopher J. Wynveen, Baylor University and Andrew R. Gallucci, Baylor University
Muscular Christian Themes in Contemporary American Sport: A Scale Development Addressing calls for empirical studies in the area of sport, religion and spirituality this presentation describes the development of the Contemporary Muscular Christian Scale (CMCS). Premised on the writings of Thomas Hughes and the doctoral dissertation of Meyer (2010), 23 items were generated through a literature review. Items were organized by coded themes—have strong and well-exercise bodies, a body is given to be trained and brought into subjection, a body used for the protection of the weak, a body for the advancement of all righteous causes, a body to subdue the earth. In order to identify the dimensions represented by our muscular Christianity scale, we subjected our data to a principle components analysis (PCA) utilizing an Oblimin rotation to allow for correlation among the dimensions. We calculated a Cronbach's alpha for each of the resulting dimension as an indicator of internal consistency. The PCA revealed that our items comprised five dimensions, each representing unique, but related, aspects of muscular Christianity: 1) protect, 2) control,3) created, 4) influence, 5) and exercise. The CMCS is a valid, internally consistent, and practically useful instrument to measure muscular Christian values in contemporary sport settings. Confirmatory factor analysis is recommended to validate factor structure.
Critical feminist sports scholars have long characterized sport as a site where dominance and inequality are perpetuated. Similarly, it has been noted that sports fan communities can be reproductive of inequality. In this session we explore the mechanisms through which discrimination and exclusion are perpetuated amongst sports fans. Who has power, and why? Who is marginalized, and how? And finally, how can we as sport sociology researchers best study and interrogate the unequal distribution of power in sports fan communities? Participants: P1: Katie Esmonde, Purdue University, West Lafayette; Cheryl Cooky, Purdue University, West Lafayette; and David L. Andrews, University of Maryland, College Park
Towards a Third Wave Feminist Analysis of Sports Fandom The purpose of this project is to examine and explore the gendered meanings and definitions of sports fandom. Using semi-structured interviews with eleven women who identified as fans of sport at the institutional center (Messner, 2002), we found that the narratives of sports fandom illustrate the complex ways women fans define themselves in or define themselves out of conventional and dominant discourses of sports fandom. Very few participants challenged the masculinization of sports fandom, while some engaged in the reproduction of those discourses and gendered stereotypes that exclude women. We recommend that researchers conceptualize sports fandom as contested activities (Coakley, 2009) in order to challenge the degradation of femininity in sports fan communities. P2: Dunja Antunovic and Michelle Rodino-Colocino, Pennsylvania State University
A Shrine to Your Team: The Construction of Sport Fandom in DIY's Man Caves The panic around the "crisis in masculinity" has reawakened during the Great Recession in the US, when news media, pointing to the rising unemployment of men and the feminist victories of women's superficially apparent economic progress, has declared the "end of men." As a response to this crisis emerged the cultural phenomenon of man caves - a process through which men reclaim a space in the domestic sphere and re-appropriate it for their own purposes. In the man cave, men escape from their wife and kids in order to rejuvenate nostalgic sentiments, reunite with their male friends, and perform activities that build up their masculine capital. Sports fandom provides a central site where masculinity is produced and re-enacted, but with women's increased presence in sports participation and fandom, the "bro bunker," men's "natural habitat" has come under siege (Tschorn, 2012). This paper examines the cultural phenomenon of man caves as packaged by DIY Network's home improvement show Man Caves. Led by former NFL player, Tony Siragusa, Man Caves offers viewers a toolbox on how to be "real men" and thereby provides a guide to men's relationship to sport. P3: Katharine Jones, Philadelphia University
"Unacceptable" Words: Are Attitudes Towards Homophobic and Sexist Abuse in English Football Changing? Liverpool Football Club recently announced a new program to educate their employees who interact with the public about unacceptable words. Photos of the document on the web show that it covers negative ideas about race/religion, gender, sexual orientation, and disability. "Don't be a woman," "play like a girl," "fairy" and "queer" are some of the words that appear on the list that were heard at games by the 100 English soccer fans I interviewed from 2001-2011. Interestingly, many interviewees, gay as well as straight, female as well as male, did not think these words were offensive in a football context. Recent research and media coverage of homophobia in football suggests that times are changing in terms of attitudes towards sexuality (Bush, Anderson & Carr, 2012; Cashmore & Cleland, 2012; Magrath, Anderson & Roberts, 2013); however, other research suggests that homophobia remains an integral part of the English game (Caudwell, 2011; Hughson & Marcus, 2011). My research examines how traditional ideas about gender and sexuality (particularly hegemonic masculinity [Connell, 1987]) combine to marginalize some fans, while other fans worry that campaigns to eradicate sexist and homophobic abuse challenge the ways they conceive of and perform fandom.
Session Title: Sport, Culture, and Education at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)
Session Type:Workshop session
Organizers and Presiders: Joseph N. Cooper, University of Connecticut and Billy Hawkins, University of Georgia Session Abstract:
The purpose of this workshop is to highlight scholarly research on the historical and contemporary significance of sport within the cultural contexts of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Since the late nineteenth century, HBCUs have served as sites of cultural empowerment for African Americans and sites of resistance against dominant European American cultural values that marginalize African American experiences in the United States (U.S.). Specifically, sporting practices such as intercollegiate athletic programs have provided African Americans with opportunities to not only develop their athletic talents, but also fulfill leadership roles they are often denied predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in the U.S. Prior to the 1960s, many African American athletes attended HBCUs and many of them went on to achieve professional and international success in their respective sports. At these institutions, athletic participation was inextricably linked to African American cultural/racial uplift, expression, and preservation. Even today, HBCUs continue to serve as platforms for African American cultural unity and celebration (e.g. annual homecoming events, football and basketball classics, etc.). Papers in this session will highlight the historical and/or contemporary role of sport at HBCUs. Empirical, historical, and conceptual/theoretical abstracts are welcomed. Participants: P1: Gary Sailes, Indiana University
David vs. Goliath: A Comparison of Administrative & Fiscal Operations at Predominantly White Institution (PWI) and Historically Black College/University (HBCU) Athletic Departments This case study sought to explore the differences in administrative, operational and fiscal management strategies between Historically Black Colleges & Universities (HBCU) and Predominantly White Institutions (PWI). A professional African American male who served as athletic director at one HBCU and multiple PWIs was provided responses to open ended questions on his experiences and observations as an athletic department head at PWI's and an HBCU. The subject's unique objective/subjective responses provided confirmation of obvious circumstances but also provided insight into the internal operations, management styles, expertise and opportunities within each institution. Consequently, operations within any institution is determined by the special circumstances within that particular institution. Our subject provided insights that also included personal interactions, self-produced barriers, management styles and race based outcomes that are specific to HBCU's and PWI's. P2: J. Kenyatta Cavil, Texas Southern University
Athletic Directors' Perceptions on Leadership Competencies Based on Social Learning Theory to Determine the Effectiveness of Administering HBCU Athletic Programs NCAA Division I FCS Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) athletic programs' effectiveness based on APR and win-loss ratio indicators are relatively poor, however, their attendance at HBCU sport events is noteworthy. This study was designed to identify variables that athletic directors perceived would determine the athletic program's potential, through their leadership competencies, for effectiveness in the current NCAA Division I FCS structure based on a social cognitive theory framework. The purpose of the study was to identify possible leadership competencies that athletic directors could use that would enhance an HBCU athletic program's potential to survive and thrive at the NCAA Division I FCS level. Employing a concurrent mixed design, a questionnaire and phone interviews were used to collect data from athletic directors at HBCUs with Division I programs. Data were analyzed through descriptive and nonparametric inferential statistics to describe and report findings. Descriptive statistics revealed that the athletic director's perception on leadership competencies in managing change and expertise in understanding their organization were the most influential in impacting the success of their athletic programs. These results may be useful to athletic directors and others engaged in planning for the sustainability of athletics at HBCUs. P3: Joseph N. Cooper, University of Connecticut, firstname.lastname@example.org Billy Hawkins, University of Georgia
Sites of Resistance: An Examination of Cultural Congruence between a Historically Black University and Black Male Student Athletes Since their inception, Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) in the United States (U.S.) have served as sites of cultural empowerment for Blacks and sites of resistance against dominant European American values. At these institutions, culturally relevant institutional practices were designed and established to empower Black students and enable them to develop holistically. More specifically, intercollegiate athletic programs at HBCUs were established as extensions of the educational mission. These programs were designed to use athletic participation as a tool for personal development, cultural expression, racial uplift, and social mobility through educational attainment. Using an institutional theory and anti-deficit framework, the purpose of this paper was to identify key institutional characteristics at Historically Black University (HBU) in the southeastern U.S. that enhanced Black male student athletes' college experiences. Data collection methods included a Student Athlete College Experiences Questionnaire (SACEQ) and two focus group interviews. Key findings revealed the cultural congruence between the institutional environment at a HBU and Black male student athletes' sociocultural backgrounds enhanced their holistic experiences (academic, athletic, and social) in college. P4: Demetrius Pearson, University of Houston and Eddie T. C. Lam, Cleveland State University
Ethnic Diversity and Basketball: Purveyors of An American Sport Form Basketball is an American sport form and cultural staple that has been internationally exported for over a century. Currently it is played by on six continents, and has begun to rival soccer as the world's most popular athletic pastime (Abbott, 2010; Kim, 2010; Sparga, 2008). Evolving from a Springfield College gym class in 1891, the game's unique features (e.g., nominal costs associated with equipment, facilities, and training) have facilitated its national and international appeal. Sundry individuals and groups share responsibility for basketball's popularity. This archival socio-cultural and historical analysis highlights some of the influential purveyors of the sport, and their salient contributions. Results of the study indicate that in addition to its creator, Dr. James Naismith, the following individuals and organizations were instrumental in the dissemination of the game: Robert Gailey, Chuck Taylor, John McClendon, independent professional touring teams (e.g., Harlem Renaissance), Colored Intercollegiate Athletic Association (CIAA), Harlem Globetrotters, U. S. Armed Forces, International Basketball Federation (a.k.a. FIBA), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the American Dream Team. Research data also revealed that basketball's urban genesis contributed to it being one of the most ethnically diverse American sports (Brooks & Althouse, 2013; Isaacs, 1984; Kyle & Stark, 1990; Mechikoff, 2010).
Session Title: Gender and Embodiment
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/4 Participants: P1: Jennifer C. Wigglesworth, Queen’s University
Bodysurfing and Questions of Embodiment Sport sociologists have addressed stand-up board surfing; however, bodysurfing appears to have received little attention within the field of sport sociology. In this paper I examine the sport of bodysurfing, paying particular attention to questions of embodiment within the sport. Discourses about surfing produce different subject-positions for body surfers and board surfers. Common discourses surrounding bodysurfing conceptualize the activity as more intimate and more "natural" but less legitimate than riding a surf board. In this paper I consider the embodied effects of the discursive opposition between bodysurfing and board surfing. I draw upon my own bodysurfing experiences in attempt to complicate narratives of the bodysurfer and I offer a complex image of her as a powerful and creative performing body in surfing culture. The lived body is a storied body and how bodysurfers talk about their sport is partly responsible for how bodysurfers come to understand their bodies, their experiences, and their identities. The bodysurfer is also an emotional body, where emotions are products of social inscriptions that are in turn the product of surfing practices. An embodied analysis of the bodysurfer is necessary as it offers a way to think about all bodies as lived and experienced through doing, not solely through representation. P2: Christine Carey, McMaster University
Gender, Embodiment and Self-Regulation: Surveillance in Female Distance Running Subcultures This thesis draws on data collected through semi-structured interviews with cross country and track athletes to investigate how female distance runners experience their sport in relation to gender and embodiment. The runners identified gender as affecting their sport by way of shorter distances for women's races, heightened involvement of coaches in corporeal matters such as diet and weight, as well as sex verification policies. Distance running was also specifically identified as a sport that intensifies societal pressures for women to be thin. Grounded in Foucault's concept of 'docile bodies', this thesis explores how dominant discourses on gender and the body are reproduced within the subculture of distance running through surveillance practices. P3: Katja Pettinen,Mount Royal University
Global Flows and Bodily Skill: The Case of Taijutsu in North America Given that somatic traditions like dance, sports or martial arts tend to foreground assumptions about bodily movement that vary across cultural and social contexts, such assumptions often collide in the globalized context of body practices. Cartesian assumptions about mind/body relations, seemingly ubiquitous in the west, for example, contrast in telling ways with differing conceptions of somaticity in contexts like Japan. This paper is based on a detailed, eight year long case study of a non-competitive Japanese martial art as it is practiced and taught in North America (Canada and the U.S.). Taijutsu is a relatively "new" martial art, given that it was formalized into a global organization by a single teacher, Masaaki Hatsumi in the 1970s. Since Hatsumi is the sole originator and the main teacher of the art, but, since 2000, teaches only in Japan, most of the Western advanced practitioners travel to Japan to study with Hatsumi, often repeatedly. Based on ethnographic and textual analysis, I outline the ways in which Taijutsu at times challenges more Cartesian based approaches to teaching and learning, not because Taijutsu is somehow more "effective" at somatic learning but rather because it follows a differing path toward embodiment, for example, emphasizing the role of the senses. By examining Taijutsu in the context of cross-cultural global flows, I am able to index some of the Cartesian based conceptions of skill acquisition prevalent in North America and to foreground issues of cultural particularity and cultural competency in relation to bodily practices. P4: Tricia M.K. Xing, Brock University
Embodied Experiences through Yoga Practice: Exploring the Potential for Promoting Empowerment and Agency with Homeless Youth The body and embodiment have a significant presence within the sociology of sport scholarship (Hockey & Collinson, 2007). However, one area which necessitates an exploration of embodiment is yoga. Yoga practice is fundamentally rooted in the mindful control of the body by connecting breath work (pranayama), poses (asanas) and meditation (pratyahara). These practices cultivate a critical awareness of and responsiveness to bodily sensations which in turn foster power and control through the body and mind. Guided by sociological theories of the body (Grosz, 1994; Shilling, 2003), the purpose of this conceptual paper is to explore the potential of yoga as a site of empowerment and agency with homeless youth who face a plethora of challenges that infringe upon their ability to experience empowerment and agency in their lives. Three research questions guide this inquiry: (a) What is the potential of yoga as an embodied practice for fostering critical awareness of mind and body experiences? (b) What do sociological theories of the body say about mind and body experiences for cultivating empowerment and agency? and (c) How might better understanding how homeless bodies are implicated in being empowered or unempowered lead to developing cultural competence for working with homeless youth?
Session Title: Sport for Development I
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/4 Participants: P1: Abigail C. Hill, Brock University, Cheri Bradish, Brock University and Lucie Thibault, Brock University
An Examination of Carroll's Four Categories of Social Responsibility in Relation to Stakeholder Relationships Sport for Development (SFD) uses the power of sport to support international development initiatives that affect social change and empower under-resourced communities (Levermore, 2008a). Currently, there are more than 1,000 SFD organizations globally (Doyle, Payne, & Wolff, 2011) working to enact change and development initiatives in the least developed regions of the world. Stakeholders are key components of the long-term sustainability, development, and success of these SFD organizations. The purpose of this presentation is to address the relationships between SFD organizations and their stakeholders through the lens of social responsibility (SR). Through the analysis of interviews conducted with SFD leaders and their stakeholders, this presentation offers a modified version of Carroll's (1979) four categories of SR. This modified version addresses the differences that exist with SFD stakeholder relationships from the perspectives of the organizations and their stakeholders. Further, future directions and research will be discussed in relation to SR's role in SFD organizations. P2: Rob Millington, Queen’s University
Repackaging Development: The United Nations, Governmentality, and Sport for Development and Peace As a major proponent of sport for development and peace (SDP), the United Nations has actively incorporated sport into development policy through such things as Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and the Millennium Development Goals. Despite the contention that sport has an inherent ability to transcend national, cultural, and socio-economic boundaries "in virtually any community in the world", much of the research in support of SDP is focused on "best practices" and rest on a priori assumptions regarding the epistemological and material implications of sport for development. In this paper I explore how the furthering reach of development measures and markers into the realm of sport and health may expand governmental apparatuses and means of surveillance within the development context. To this end I argue that sport articulates with long-standing development practices and "awareness raising" endeavors’ that are undergirded by dominant paradigms of modernization and neoliberalism. Ultimately I consider how SDP acts as a technology of power through a discursive repackaging of quantifiable measures and symbolic images of "development" that further entrench ideological, corporeal, and political-economic divisions between the global North and South. P3: Jon Welty Peachey, University of Illinois and Adam Cohen, Texas Tech University
Sport-for-Development Monitor and Evaluation: Challenges, Barriers, and Strategies for Overcoming The purpose of this study is to examine challenges faced by scholars when conducting monitor and evaluation with sport-for-development (SFD) programs, and to uncover strategies used to overcome these challenges. While monitor and evaluation have increased in recent years, many scholars have noted difficulties in conducting research with SFD organizations. We are interviewing eight prominent international SFD scholars to provide a foundation for other researchers to address challenges in various cultural contexts. This study is in progress. Preliminary data suggest challenges encountered include lack of understanding of the research process by SFD organizations, accompanied by the stigma that academics are just "using" practitioners to further their own ends; the difficulty in measuring long-term impact and in isolating the impact of sport within a broader development mandate; and the academic tenure timeline which can discourage new scholars from initiating long-term projects. Strategies for overcoming these challenges revolve around involving SFD organizations in design of the research; holding informational meetings with participants; providing timely deliverables in the proper format; and taking time to form key partnerships with community agencies. Implications and recommendations will be drawn forth for scholars wishing to engage in monitor and evaluation efforts globally and with cultural sensitivity.