P2: Charles Crowley, California University of PA; Algerian Hart, Western Illinois University and Vince Wilson, Western Illinois University
African American Perceptions of the Value of Experiential Learning in Sport
Management The purpose of this study was to explore the skills that were improved as a result of completing an experiential learning experience and to examine the use of the Coverdell World Wise Instrument to document African American student learning. Service activities are becoming equally as prevalent and are not just the focus of faith based institutions but prevalent at all kinds of higher educational institutions incorporate service learning activities (Gunaratna, Johnson, & Stevens, 2007), in addition to the experiential learning activities typical in business and sport management programs. The Corporation for National and Community Service (2009) reported that about 61.8 million Americans volunteered through organizations, providing 81 billion hours of service valued at approximately $162 billion to America's communities. More and more, students seek opportunities to be of service and to gain valuable experience which enhance their skills. Sport management coursework provides academic concepts yet the addition of experiential learning, professors can direct theory into practice for the benefit of the student and also to the community. Additionally, student course evaluations and program surveys invariably ask for more "hands on" experience. According to Jameson (2007), competition today has increased so employers are looking for individuals with the best skill and experience. Many disciplines focus on experiential learning due to the competitive work force. Some scholars believe that experiential learning has been around for centuries beginning with Confucius "I hear, I know. I see, I remember. I do, I understand." Further, service learning activities are used to fulfill the notion that "learning is best used in service to others." P3: Geremy M. Cheeks, Texas A&M University and Akilah Carter-Francique, Texas A&M University
Perception versus Reality: Black College Athletes’ Perceptions and Stereotypes of HBCU Athletic Programs The purpose of this exploratory pilot study is to understand the perceptions and stereotypes associated with Historically Black College and University (HBCU) athletics. Understanding recruitment is vital to any intercollegiate program, knowing the deterrents or motivational factors that contribute to the college choice of student-athletes is a distinct advantage and can have a direct impact on the financial well-being and stability of an intercollegiate athletic program. Previous literature cites a distinct disparity between the financial backing of HBCUs and their predominantly White counterparts which subsequently creates a barrier for equitable institutional growth and opportunity (Albritton, 2012; Gasman, Baez, & Turner, 2008; Gasman & Bowman III, 2012; Gasman & Tudico, 2008; Jenkins, 1991; Redd, 1998). Thus, the recruitment of competitive and top-tier athletic talent is integral to the progression and financial support of HBCU athletic programs and the institutions which they represent. Using an adapted version of the Student-Athlete College Choice Profile (Gabert, Hale, & Montalvo, 1999), Black student-athletes from PWIHEs and HBCUs perceptions and stereotypes on HBCUs were obtained and analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The results presented may provide insight on and promote the progression of dialogue surrounding HBCU athletics and their present day conceptions.
Session Title: Between Perception and Reality Lies Someone's Truth: Research on
The U.S. college sport system as presented by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has relied heavily on the promotion of an image that celebrates the accomplishments of young people within the larger context of higher education. Foundationally, the perceptions that arise around the value of college sport emanate from several belief structures, most notably that whatever occurs in the college sport environment is educationally defensible and is designed to ensure the health and safety of the athletes involved as well as other parties associated with college and university athletic programs. In this session, the disconnection between the perception of college sport and the reality will be examined through four different lens, specifically the evolution of the NCAA's use of the expression "collegiate model"; the response of Penn State fans following the publication of the Freeh Report, which concluded that a "football-first culture" served to obfuscate the crimes of a child predator; the question of whether certain sports at the college level foster interpersonal violent behavior among athletes; and the degree to which the college athlete health care system may actually jeopardize the health and safety of athletes. Participants: P1: Richard Southall, University of South Carolina
A House Divided Cannot Stand: A Historical Interrogation of the NCAA's Collegiate Model of Athletics Throughout most of the 20th Century the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) was the unchallenged arbiter of college sport, viewed as a beneficent hegemon, relying on a moral authority exerted through the creation and perpetuation of legitimating symbols and the adoption of a dominant institutional logic. This logic, which has only recently been identified as the Collegiate Model of Athletics, has enjoyed hegemony among both supporters and critics, achieved through an institutionalized enforcement apparatus, as well as example setting, persuasion, and coercion. Most notably, the NCAA's hegemony has been rooted in -- and dependent upon -- a created "folklore" (i.e. student-athlete, amateurism, collegiate model), which has reinforced and maintained an entire system of beliefs, superstitions, opinions, and ways of seeing and acting. For most of the 20th century a good deal of college-sport research and critique existed within an NCAA mythology, in which college sport's ills were viewed as simply the result of the commercialized college-sport industry having "lost its way" -- abandoning its "pure" amateur roots. However, there has also existed a contradictory consciousness, which has questioned the NCAA's created mythology. Building from this historic backdrop, this presentation will first examine recent interrogations of NCAA college-sport hegemony, including those of critical theorists, as well as college-sport "insiders" (e.g. conference commissioners, athletic directors). Consistent with Gramsci such contradictory examinations reflect schisms within the NCAA hegemon, have united subordinate social groups (e.g. college athletes, athletes' rights advocates, critical theorists), and have been the impetus for recent federal litigation (i.e. O'Bannon v. NCAA)." P2: Jason Lanter, Kutztown University
Penn State Fallout: Sport Fan Perceptions of Intercollegiate Athletics The conversations about Penn State (PSU) and intercollegiate athletics appeared to be impacted by each individual's connection to the university. This investigation examined sport fans' perceptions of intercollegiate athletics after the release of the Freeh Report. Participants completed an online survey that assessed their social association with PSU, psychological identification with the PSU football team, and perceptions about intercollegiate athletics. The main hypothesis was that individuals who had a social association with PSU via graduation (or had high identification with the football team) would be more supportive and positive about intercollegiate athletics compared to individuals without this affiliation (or those with low identification). The high-identified participants reported that football coaches hold less power on their college campuses compared to the low-identified participants. High-identified participants also perceived intercollegiate athletics as being less commercialized than low-identified participants. In contrast to the hypothesis, those participants with a social association to the university perceived intercollegiate athletics as being more commercialized than participants without that association. For those participants with a social association, the low-identified individuals viewed intercollegiate athletics as more negatively impacting academics compared to those high in identification, whereas no difference was reported for those without a social association. P3: Joel Cormier, Eastern Kentucky University and Samyra Rose Safraoui, Eastern Kentucky University
Athlete Aggression at the Collegiate level: Gaining the Competitive Advantage As part of the performance ethic, athlete over conformity to aggression has gained much recent attention in the popular news and sport media in how it impacts issues surrounding concussions, performance enhancement drugs (PEDs), and on and off the field violence. When it comes to these issues, what role does aggression play in college sports? This paper and presentation investigates attitudes and behavior involving athlete aggression utilizing survey research of athletes at NCAA Division I-III institutions in Florida and Kentucky. The purpose of this study is to determine if certain sports at the collegiate level are linked with particular types of aggression. A comparative analysis utilizing means, medians, modes, standard deviations, and multiple t-tests will be used to assess the data with results from this study to potentially identify the most common aggressive tactics in college sport. The evidence and discussion will be centered on how to educate players, coaches, administrators, and officials with the intention of reducing the amount of player violence. Further research may expand upon the present study by investigating motives, prevention strategies, and the overall culture of college sport. P4: Ellen J. Staurowsky, Drexel University and Michael Proska, Drexel University
Armand Armstead v. USC: Exploring the College Athlete Health Care System In the fall of 2010, University of Southern California (USC) football player Armand Armstead suffered a heart attack which he later alleged was the result of the administration of the painkiller Toradal by USC personnel. Seeking damages due to the threat to his long term health and diminishment of his value as a football player, Armstead sued the university and doctor claiming that he was not told about the potential side effects of the drug that players believed made them "supermen." Within the framework of a college athlete's rights model, this case will serve as a springboard to explore issues associated with athlete health care in the college sport system as manifest in the approach colleges and universities in the Pac-12 and Southeastern (SEC) conferences take to medical coverage policies. Attention will be paid to the types of medical coverage offered; how long medical coverage is offered after athlete eligibility expires; the degree to which athletes are afforded informed consent; and athlete access to second opinions from independent health care providers. The implications of these policies will be discussed along with recommendations to ensure that the rights of college athletes to health and safety protections are in place.
Session Title: (Bio)Pedagogical Struggles: Exploring the Negotiation of Body Size
In this session, presenters report the results of their qualitative inquiries and discuss how individuals struggle with the dominant obesity discourse as it intersects with white, bourgeois, heteronormative body ideals and mainstream discourses of health, gender, and beauty. The first presentation specifically looks at the teaching body as a bio pedagogical tool that can challenge and/or reinforce normative ideas of the ideal (healthy) body. The second one focuses on the impact of heteronormative body ideals for queer women and speaks to queer women's sports teams as sites of resistance to dominant norms but also as sites for body and gender policing. The last presentation looks at young urban American Indian females and shows how indigenous ways of knowing have little to no apparent influence on their understandings of the body and health, with the result that ideas around health, beauty and body size are conflated. All presenters adopt a poststructuralist stance and contribute in a significant way to critical obesity scholarship. Participants: P1: Erin Cameron, Lakehead University
The Teaching Body: Important Considerations for Educators in Higher Education Discussions of student resistance to the teaching of critical reflection in sport, health, and physical education (Fernandez-Balboa, 1998; Hickey, 1996; Ovens, 2004), provoke feelings of recognition for me. For I, like others, have encountered overt student resistance when challenging the commercialization, commodification, technologization, and scientization of sport, exercise, and bodies (Cameron, 2012). Inspired by this resistance, particularly the resistance directed at learning about bodies from a critical perspective, this presentation begins to examine one of the mediating factors of such critical approaches to teaching -- namely, the teachers' body -- in (re)producing dominant body ideologies within sport, health, and physical education (Kirk, 2010). While a growing body of literature is drawing attention to how schools and universities are turning bodies into political sites of privilege and oppression, where health has become synonymous with fit, thin, trim, strong, and ableness (Cameron et al., in press; Evans, Rich, Davies, Allwood, 2008), this presentation specifically looks at the teaching body as a bio pedagogical tool that can challenge and/or reinforce normative ideas of the ideal and the healthy body. It draws attention to the fact that students not only come with socialized expectations of what they will learn, but also of who teaches (Douglas & Halas, 2011), particularly within the fields of sport, health, and physical education. Informed by critical, feminist, and post structural theories in health and education, and drawing upon the nascent field of fat studies, I will present preliminary data from my doctoral research that highlights just as we know the gender of the messenger matters in teaching (Moore, 1997), there is increasing awareness that the size of the messenger also matters. Given that the very act of teaching, standing in front of a classroom, brings attention to the body, it is important for all educators in higher education to consider how the teaching body informs and governs the way students live, relate, and regard their bodies and the bodies of others (Wright & Harwood, 2009). P2: Claire Carter, University of Regina and Krista Baliko, University of Regina
Being Queer, Being Healthy? The Impact of Heteronormative Body Ideals for Queer Women Based upon interviews with more than thirty queer women aged 25-45 from Toronto, Vancouver and Regina, this paper examines queer women's exercise routines and their body image/s in relation to heteronormative body ideals. Preliminary analysis of the interviews reveals complex and contradictory negotiations of gender and bodily appearance. The women trouble gender in terms of having muscular and androgynous appearing bodies, but also draw upon dominant health discourses to reinforce the thin ideal. Community spaces, specifically queer women's sports teams, are found to be sites of body and gender policing as well as resistance to dominant norms. This paper addresses the impact of current anxiety around women's body size and feminine appearance for queer women to provide insight into theorizing on gender and social belonging. P3: Shannon Jette, University of Maryland and Erica Doxzen, University of Maryland
Being Healthy, 'Looking Good': Urban American Indian Female Youths' Constructions and Lived Experiences of Health and the Body Drawing upon data collected through in-depth interviews, in this paper we explore how urban American Indian (AI) females (aged 11-17) living on the East coast of the United States negotiate biomedical messages about health and the body that are often at odds with (and discredit) traditional Native worldviews (Deloria, 1999) at the same time that they construct this group as 'at risk' of a number of negative health outcomes, including overweight and obesity (UIHC, 2007). Discussing the findings through a feminist poststructuralist lens, we outline how the majority of the youth took up what scholars have called the dominant obesity discourse in which health is equated with body size (i.e., healthy bodies have a 'normal' body size), with indigenous ways of knowing having little to no apparent influence on their understandings of the body and health. We further examine how ideas around health, attractiveness/beauty and body size were conflated and appear to be translated into social pressure to be thin within the school environment, sometimes in the form of bullying. Moments of resistance will also be discussed. Findings contribute to the limited qualitative research examining the health and body practices of urban AI females, as well as critical obesity scholarship. P4: Kass Gibson, University of Toronto
The Impact of the Concept of Kinesiology on the Concept of Physical Culture This presentation presents preliminary analyses from an ongoing ethnographic investigation of the Human Physiology Research Unit at the University of Toronto. More specifically, the project investigates how research focusing on physiological mechanisms and markers of cardiovascular performance are enhanced, curtailed, shaped and ultimately deployed, by broader ethical, social, and cultural trajectories. This presentation addresses the place of biological and physiological research in the emergence and transmission of cultural logics and societal values. In doing so special attention is paid to theorizing the recursive relationship between biological and sociology in order to understand how the physical body and its political, social, and moral potentialities are interwoven into historical trajectories of cultural production and societal organization via sport science research.
Session Title: Cripping Cultures of Capacity: Disability Movement(s) in an Ableist
Session Type:Paper presentation session
Organizers: Danielle Peers, University of Alberta
Presider: Jason Laurendeau, University of Lethbridge
Note: FULL/4 Session Abstract:
In this session, panelists explore how specific athletic and artistic movement cultures impact upon the subjectivities, materiality’s, and life possibilities of those who experience disability. The panel takes a critical stance towards widespread 'expert' attempts to normalize, medicalize, inspirationalize, or essentialize moving bodies of difference. Panelists discuss their embodiments and/or their practices, which are deeply embedded within disability movement cultures: cultures that are struggling in their engagement with the interlocking structures of oppression that unevenly distribute life chances within both local communities and more global contexts. Through their presentations, panelists will incite audiences to re-imagine their political and affective relationships to the bodies, identities, stories, practices and communities of disability and difference. Participants: P1: Danielle Peers, University of Alberta
From Inspirational Paralympian to Revolting Gimp: The Personal Costs and Political Possibilities of Failing Magnificently The supercrip, to date, has been largely understood by critical disability scholars as an ideological media trope that misrepresents 'inspirational' hyper-athletic disabled people, and has negative impacts upon disabled people who do not demonstrate adequate capacities. What I offer, here, is a more intimate, complex and historically-specific Foucauldian analysis of inspirationalization processes within a Canadian sporting context. I engage these processes at the micro-level: using poststructuralist auto-ethnography to excavate my own subjectivation as an inspirational Paralympian supercrip. I then follow an ascending analysis of power to trace genealogically some key forces and effects of inspirationalization at more institutional levels. Lastly, I contemplate the potential personal costs and political effects of failing at inspiration: of becoming, what I call, the revolting gimp. The revolting gimp, I argue, can often be as affectively and politically upsetting as the double meaning of "revolting" implies. In this paper I hope to multiply and complicate our critiques and political strategies in relation to the pervasive cultural phenomenon of inspiration. I want to move audience members to trouble the celebratory claim "supercrips are inspiring," at the same time as moving them to recognize the wondrously troubling potential of the claim "gimps are revolting!" P2: Lindsay Eales, University of Alberta
“Come on People, Do Something!” Social Justice and Integrated Dance Performance In the summer of 2012, twelve integrated dancers from iDANCE Edmonton created and performed a collaborative performance ethnography. Through this collective knowledge-making and meaning-making research process, we creatively and agentially examined how to build more socially just communities within and through integrated dance. Dancers shared widely varying experiences of (mental) illness, impairment, disability, and ableism. We also shared experiences of other, often interlocking, forms of structural oppression based on: immigration status; racialization; poverty; and normative gender and body shape expectations. The vulnerable artistic and intellectual exchanges within this pluralistic group resulted in an integrated dance performance entitled (Dis) quiet in the Peanut Gallery. This paper explores this performance in order to examine the ways that we encounter and perform social injustice, and social justice, in our dance practice and our everyday lives. This paper explores how we use integrated dance as a form of collective critique, a strategy for survival, a site of activism, and a way to enact complex utopias. Furthermore, it explores how we use integrated dance performance as a larger call to action: evocatively inciting audiences to recognize and act on social injustice by creating more open, inclusive and creative communities.