P3: Matt Ventresca, Queen's University and Jennifer Brady, Queen's University
Food for Thought: Thinking about Food, Sport and the Athletic Body
This paper emerges from a curiosity about food's role as a technology to improve athletic performance. Relatively little scholarly attention has been given to the theoretical and epistemological assumptions through which food and eating are implicated as vehicles to reproduce the athletic body. Our argument builds upon past work that considered the media panic following National Football League running back Arian Foster's decision to "go vegan" in advance of the 2012 season (Brady & Ventresca, 2013). While tied to broader issues related to masculinity, race and regional identities, much of the anxiety surrounding Foster's food practices was fueled by concerns about how a plant-based diet would affect Foster's strength, endurance and overall performance. This paper broadens the scope of our analysis and explores the theoretical considerations that underlie how food is understood as putatively different from other substances ingested, injected and absorbed by athletes preparing for competition. Considering the food practices of athletes in this light can work to blur the boundaries between natural and synthetic, healthy and unhealthy, legitimate and banned substances. Given that any athlete is located within an entanglement of financial and commercial interests, however, we also interrogate how these boundaries materialize in the context of global media and advertising economies. P4: Brenda A. Riemer, Eastern Michigan University and Leigh Ann Danzey Bussell, University of West Georgia
Institutional Control, Puppets, and Students University Presidents appoint a faculty member to the role of the Faculty Athletic Representative (FAR). The role of the FAR is to advocate for the NCAA rules on campus, be aware of student-athlete perspectives, and to be more active in enforcement. “The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) requires each of its member institutions to appoint an FAR who must be on the faculty or administrative staff and may not hold a position in the athletics department” (Miranda & Paskus, 2013, 10). Most FARs have been in higher education for over 20 years, and they tend to be tenured. Additionally, approximately 24% of FARs were student-athletes (Miranda & Paskus). Although the NCAA survey about FARs is highly positive, there is also a question of ethics. Are FAR's appointed in a way that promotes ethics in higher education and athletics? This presentation will examine the role of the FAR from two ethical will discuss how depending on the ethics of the institution, the FAR can be a puppet for additional institutional control of the student athlete.
Transnational Migration and Identity Negotiation: The Role of Sport for 1.5 Generation South Koreans in New Zealand To date, the majority of research on migrant identity negotiation has focused primarily on the 1st generation migration decision makers. However, identity issues linked with transnational migration are "not only related to those who have recently arrived, but are also relevant for subsequent descendants" (Ali & Sonn, 2010, 417). Consequently, there is increasing recognition by sociologists that as a particular group, the "1.5 generation deserves more attention in migration and transnationalism studies" (Bartley & Spoonley, 2008, 63). General speaking, the 1.5 generation can be understood as bilingual, bicultural and hyphenated immigrants who are born between the first and second generation (Park, 1999; Rumbaut & Ima, 1988). What makes the 1.5 generation unique is their combined transnational migration and intergenerational location which creates tensions of living 'in-between' two different languages, two different cultures and two different 'national' identities. Therefore, this study examines the process and experience of how the S. Korean 1.5 generation in NZ negotiates their identity in two different spaces: home and school. In particular, it focuses on the role of sport as a significant cultural site and practice where the 1.5 generation negotiates their identities within these two spaces. A key finding is how sport in the both school and home contexts serves as an important site where social networks and integration can be established but also where the 1.5 generation S. Koreans can assert their ethnic identity. P2: Yomee Lee, State University of New York, Cortland
Asian American Men and Women in Sports While Asian Americans continue to be the fastest growing minority in the U.S., relatively little have been written on their experiences in sports. Drawing on Critical Race Theory, particularly by centralizing their marginalized voice, this research attempts to reveal the intricate realities of Asian American men and women in sports. Asian American men and women encounter particular sets of ideas about their identities. Asian American males are subject to experiencing specific 'ideological assaults' that categorize them as feminized, emasculated and desexualized men. On the other hand, Asian American women face the ideas that they are submissive, subordinate and passive. These racial ideologies stand in stark contrast with sports, as sports often work as a primary cultural site for hegemonic masculinity. Therefore, when Asian American men and women participate in sports, they are likely to face two polarizing concepts that further complicate their realities. By employing qualitative research method, this study seeks to reveal how Asian American men and women's sporting experiences intersect with complex racial and gender dynamics. P3: Caiyan W. Chen, York University
More Work, Less Play: Power, Household Work and Leisure Experiences of Chinese Immigrant Women in Canada This research focuses on Chinese immigrant women’s experiences of household work and leisure in Canada. Socialist feminist perspective is used for an analysis of in-depth conversations with ten Chinese immigrant women with children. Results show that Chinese immigrant women experienced a significant increase of household work and a dramatic decrease on leisure pursuits after immigration and/or the birth of their children, implying that gender inequalities are reproduced and reinforced. Chinese immigrant women encounter and negotiate forms of tension resulted from the striking difference of being in China and being in Canada, their change in social status and their changed gender status. This research may contribute background knowledge for the practitioners in recreational programs and social works specialized in immigrant settlement services. Future research could be the motives for immigration, the actual experiences of immigration; a comparative study between Chinese immigrant women and women of other ethnicities is also suggested.
P4: Chia Hui Cheng, and Dong-Jhy Hwang, National Sport University, ROC
The Reason of Athletes Naturalized and Identity: Some Respective from Asia Olympic Games are the quadrennial sporting event and the focus of world. It is not only excellent performance from the athletes in the Olympic competition, but also country fans show motherland's identity from the excellent performance of players and showing national feelings and imagination Community. Therefore, sport and the construction of identity is closely related. In recent years the Olympic Games and other sporting events were found, representing the same country athletes appear different face. Indirectly illustrates athletes from different places, but represent the same country. Under the influence of globalization migration of athletes from Asia is increasingly commonplace, but the situation is different from the naturalized. Review of the literature found that in Taiwan most of the articles talked about athletes migration reasons and identity. However, the reasons of athletes naturalized and how to influence the identity will be the focus of this study. Hence, this study was to investigate athletes naturalization causes and impact on identity from Asia. These athletes got medals from Olympic Games or international competition for naturalized country already. Through by historical research method to collect literature and news to analysis the question. As the results showed that, the reason for the athletes naturalized were marriage, political factors, career planning, however identity was not dichotomy, the process of identity is accompanied by different naturalization reasons.
Session Title: Women in Leadership in Sport
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Esther Lee, University of Georgia and Dr. Billy Hawkins, University of Georgia
Tracing Leadership Functions Critical to the Advancement and Accomplishment of LPGA in Korea: A Qualitative Inquiry In recent years, there have been several prominent developments in the golf industry in Korea, including the establishment and expansion of the Korea Golf Association (KGA), the Korean Ladies Professional Golf Association (KLPGA), and the successes of Korean female golfers on the U.S. Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA). The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance and impact of various leadership roles, functions, and activities on the golf industry's growth and achievement in Korea, in general, and with Korean women golfers. A snowball sampling method was used to recruit the participants. Five leaders from the Korean women's golf industry were interviewed using a semi-structured, an open-ended interview questionnaire. A thematic analysis was used to interpret qualitative data for key themes related to the phenomena. Findings of the study indicated that Se Ri Pak's success, parents' dedication, players' hard work, and the leadership roles of KLPGA contributed to the development of Korean golf industry. The findings of the study can help the future sport management researchers and practitioners learn about how to formulate a balanced culture of mass sport participation and elite sport competition. Keywords: women's golf in Korea, Korean women's golf, leadership in Korean women's golf. P2: Megumi Seki, Osaka Prefecture University
Cheerleaders, Girlfriends and Mothers: The Evolution of Women's Work Inside College Football Teams in Japan The purpose of this study is to show how the role of women working as "Joshi managers" (girl managers) for all-male college football teams in Japan has evolved. The higher the ratio of these "girl managers" to male football players, the more menial the tasks the women are required to perform. The methods of data collection employed included participant observations, interviews and content analysis. Results obtained by comparing two college football teams (all-male) indicate that the duties and responsibilities of "girl managers" increased when the percentage of "girl managers" to male players remained above 30%. In the past, socializing between men and women members of the club was prohibited. However, as the number of "girl managers" increased, pressure to socialize with the male players also increased. In fact, pressure to perform menial tasks and to socialize with male players led several "girl managers" to quit working for theirs team. Therefore, despite the growing number of females within the club, socializing between these women and the male players has in fact strengthened and maintained the dominant power of the male players. P3: Todd W. Crosset, University of Massachusetts; Janet Fink, University of Massachusetts, and Nefertiti Walker, University of Massachusetts
Finding a Way to Make that Work: Age Heterogamy and Employment Homogamy among Married Female Sport Managers with Children This presentation is a slice from an on-going 10 year longitudinal multi-method study exploring the impact of gender on the career trajectory men and women holding sport management degrees. The focus of this presentation is the family formations of sport managers. Although women's participation in sport has expanded dramatically, sport remains a male dominated profession (Carpenter & Acosta, 2010) and the jobs "gendered" (Aker, 1990). We anticipated that women in the sport industry would create a variety of family forms in order to accommodate the long irregular hours, relatively low pay and jobs that assume employees are either single or have a spouse to provide child care and domestic labor (Gerson, 1997). The findings are based on a survey distributed to 300 sport management degree holders and fifteen life histories of women sport managers. All the respondents graduated from one institution between 1988 and 1999.The survey sample is comprised of equal numbers of men and women. The life histories are recorded and transcribed semi-structured phone interviews. Results suggest that male sport management degree holders tend to form neo-traditional families. Female sport managers families are more varied then men's. Heterosexual female sport managers, married with children, tend to combine older male partners employed in the industry (employment homogamy and age heterogamy) with small families. The results supports Pyke and Adam's (2010) contention that the motivations of women for marry up in age cannot be easily characterized and complicates our understanding of age double standard in the marriage market (England & McClintock, 2009).
Exploring Themes and Trends in Sociology of Sport Literature: An Institutional Theory Perspective The sociology of sport literature has grown to an extent that allows a systematic approach to the themes and trends that drive research in this area. In order to identify these vectors of growth, sources cited in articles published in Sociology of Sport Journal and Journal of Sport and Social Issues between 2003 and 2011 were examined in terms of sources referenced. Identifying highly cited sources that are often used together in the same articles allows the creation of clusters of similar influential publications, which together can be used to map the field as a whole. The software Sitkis was used to obtain the citation data, to which a dense network sub-grouping algorithm was applied. The resulting clusters show that the field is driven by research in embodiment, technologies of self, power, discourse, spatiality, injury, risk taking, globalization, racism, gender, homosexuality, nationalism, and colonialism. One interesting pattern in these clusters is the preeminent role played by authors like M. Foucault, P. Bourdieu, and R. Connell, a phenomenon that can be explained with the help of institutional theory as an effort of an "applied" field to find legitimacy by developing research from reference disciplines that concerns sport or is closely linked to it (e.g., through the concept of corporeality). This attempt to achieve legitimacy has the paradoxical effect of de-legitimizing sport sociology as an independent discipline and reinforcing its dependency on its reference disciplines. P2: Dunja Antunovic, Pennsylvania State University
Rewriting the Feminist Tale: Shifting Discourses around Title IX Since the implementation of Title IX, a law that prohibits discrimination based on sex at educational institutions in the United States, women's sports have seen a tremendous growth. In a recent essay, Michael Messner (2011) observed that the “feminist fable,” which tells the story of women's progress in sports, did not completely transform gender hierarchies, but instead contributed to the emergence of a gender ideology he calls "soft essentialism." According to soft essentialist narratives girls learn that they have the freedom to choose to participate, while boys are taught that they naturally belong to the competitive domain of sports. In this essay, I employ feminist standpoint theory (Wylie, 2011) and, particularly, the concept of "willful ignorance" (Tuana, 2006) to expose one factor that may have led to the emergence of soft essentialism as the dominant gender ideology in sport. To provide empirical evidence to the theoretical assertions, this paper relies upon examples from media coverage to illustrate how authorities concerned with the shifting gender relations in sport responded to the changes that have occurred in the US sports landscape since the 1970s. Most significantly, the paper argues that the persistent positioning of Title IX as a "battleground" by (some) male coaches and administrators, accelerated by media coverage, is one way in which "soft essentialism" continues to ascend. As such, this paper suggests that the rewriting of the "feminist fable" must incorporate a shift in discourses around Title IX. P3: Kristi Tredway, University of Maryland
Toward a Feminist Physical Cultural Studies: Reflections from an “Outsider Within” The term “feminist physical cultural studies” was first used by Holly Thorpe, Karen Barbour and Toni Bruce (2011) in the special issue of SSJ dedicated to Physical Cultural Studies. This brought the term into being as a distinct concept, not as an add-feminism-and-stir concept. Because I am both an insider (as a PhD student in PCS) and an outsider (a feminist and a lesbian whose work does not mesh with the current core of PCS), I have been compelled to work towards building a “feminist physical cultural studies.” On paper, it seems like a seamless fit. In action, though, there seems to be a large disconnect. Can PCS be feminist? What needs to be included and/or excluded from PCS to make it feminist? Using the critiques of PCS from Belinda Wheaton's presentation at NASSS 2012 along with the subsequent audience discussion, the feminist underpinnings within British Cultural Studies, and using Alison Jaggar, Patricia Hill Collins and others to outline specific components of feminist theory that are in (almost) all feminist work, I will offer answers to these questions.