Session Title: Assemblage, Media Analysis, and Place
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/4 Participants: P1: Judy Liao, University of Alberta
“Only Thing that I'm guilty of is Taking too many Jump Shots:” Assemblage Media Analysis of Diana Taurasi's Doping Charge In November, 2010, during FIBA's EuroLeague season, the US media reported that American basketball player, Diana Taurasi, tested positive for a banned substance in Turkey. Besides being suspended and, later on, cut by Fenerbahçe Istanbul, Taurasi also faced a potential Olympics ban. Denying any drug use, she appealed her case with the Court of Arbitration for Sport based on flaws in the testing process and was eventually exonerated in February, 2011. Through an analysis of this (almost) scandal, I hope to explore normalization of female athletic bodies in the media. Borrowing a Deleuzian concept, I analyze the US media coverage of Taurasi's positive drug test as assemblage, a collection of elements configured into a whole to produce effects in a given context (Deleuze & Guattari, 1987; Goodchild, 1996; Malins, 2004; Markula, 2004; Wise, 2011). This concept of assemblage allows me to analyze elements and relations that are drawn in and arranged to articulate Taurasi's drug using body, and to explore complex and contingent forces (Colebrook, 2002; Patton, 2006; Olkowski, 1999) intersecting in the media. My analysis shows a shifting narrative about doping bodies as informational profiles. It also highlights the sense of 'professionalism' underlying a separation of Taurasi's public/private body. P2: Oliver J.C. Rick, University of Maryland
Physical Culture in the Urban Assemblage: Discussing Cycling through the Baltimore Bike Party The city of Baltimore is an extremely complex assemblage of actants, across a wide range of agencies, impacting upon cycling as part of the city. Some of the actions within this complex urban formation adhere to and are expressive of common tropes that have surrounded Baltimore—specifically in Marxist grounded work from David Harvey—and cling to the obdurate structures of the city (Hommels, 2010). However, what is also clear is that there is not a simple story to be told about Baltimore and cycling as part of the city. Unintended and unexpected associations and formations abound, and through my time spent in the city interviewing and observing I hope to expand upon several of these common, and surprising stories through the Baltimore Bike Party (BBP). As such this paper looks to take up Farias' (2010) encouragement to analyze the city, through cycling, "beyond the strong structuralist programme" (p. 1); where, instead, I will attempt to flatten the city, understanding it as an assemblage, following the associations that are Baltimore city. P3: Michael T. Friedman, University of Maryland
They are All Different in the Same Way: Place and Placelessness in Postmodern Baseball Stadiums Since 1989, 24 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams have opened new stadiums. In developing facility designs, architects, public officials and team officials attempted to emphasize local culture and baseball history. As a result, many stadiums feature design elements reminiscent of local architecture or historic baseball facilities, offer views of the surrounding urban and/or natural contexts, promote local businesses, and are decorated with relics and artwork commemorating athletes and important moments from the team's, region's and/or baseball's past. However, as designers have followed a common template of revenue-oriented programmatic elements and many have been involved with multiple facilities, displays of local distinctiveness are superficial and have been replicated broadly throughout the sport. For example, Baltimore's Orioles Park at Camden Yards features a local food specialty, pit barbeque, offered by 1960s Orioles star first baseman Boog Powell. Similarly, although Pittsburgh's PNC Park, San Francisco's AT&T Park, Chicago's Cellular One Field, and Milwaukee's Miller Field do not offer pit barbeque, each features a distinctive food item offered by a long-retired player. This presentation explores the tensions between place-making efforts of designers and the ways in which their mimicry paradoxically has generated placelessness. P4: Mark DiDonato, Florida State University
Respatialization of Play in the Neoliberal City This project examines the transformations and modifications of publicly managed play spaces in the state capital of Florida, Tallahassee. First, we examine demographic changes in Tallahassee and Leon County. Second, we investigate new and closed public spaces of play and the implications these changes could have in the local community. To further enhance our findings, we uniquely position public play spaces within city demographic maps. The use of GIS mapping creates and fosters discussion for an analysis of the potential effects these policies have on the local community. GIS has been used in social science research in regards to socio-demographic characteristics, assessment of services, map census data, map boundaries, and to forecast additional services for policy decision making (Knowles, 2000; Queralt and Witte, 1998) We consider, based on the visual examination, who benefits from these decisions and who detrimentally suffers. Lastly, we explore potential relationships between the influence public-private partnerships have on the policies and decisions made in regards to public play spaces and how these influences affect the local community.
Session Title: Olympics and Globalization
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Nicolien van Luijk, University of British Columbia
The International Olympic Committee and the United Nations: A Neo-Liberal Partnership? The International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the United Nations (UN) have had an ongoing relationship over the past 80 years that culminated in granting the IOC Permanent Observer status at the UN General Assembly in 2009. This is an honor reserved for quasi-states and inter-governmental organizations: very rarely do non-governmental organizations obtain this position. UN representatives argued for the inclusion of the IOC because of its role as the largest youth-based sports organization in the world and because of sport's influence on the socio-economic lives of people. This paper will examine existing and emerging links between the IOC and the UN to gain an understanding of how and why this partnership developed. The paper will utilize political theories of neoliberalism and globalization to assist in this analysis. I argue that there are various factors that have influenced the relationship between a global sports organization and an international development organization, including the neoliberalization of development, the global power of sport, and processes of legitimation for both the IOC and UN. This is a preliminary paper that will set the stage for ongoing PhD research that seeks to critically examine this partnership and the role of sport more broadly in international development. P2: Terrence G. Teixeira, International Olympic Academy
The Impact of Sport on City Branding: The Role that Hosting the Olympic Games has on a City's Brand Equity How did the tiny town of Lillehammer manage to gain worldwide recognition? When did Korean technology become synonymous with quality? Which well-known event did Sydney associate itself with to boost the appeal of the city? And what led to the dramatic increase in international tourism in Barcelona? The answers to all of these questions are related to the hosting of the Olympic Games. The Olympics are a unique opportunity where the eyes of the entire world are focused on one particular city, providing it with unparalleled global exposure. Drawing upon the concept of brand equity developed by Aaker (1991), this presentation will demonstrate that the Olympic Games are a powerful tool that can influence public opinion and transform a city's brand. By incorporating examples from various Games, the four elements of brand equity – brand awareness, perceived quality, brand association and brand loyalty, will be examined to determine how they each contribute to creating, re-positioning or promoting a city's brand at the international level. Although the importance of branding has long been understood with regard to traditional goods and services, research into the field of branding cities is a more recent trend. This shift in discourse is of growing interest, especially in today's global environment where cities need to differentiate themselves through a positive, distinct and memorable brand image if they wish to attract the world's consumers, tourists, investors and mega-sports events. Thus, the findings from this presentation will contribute to the existing research in this budding field by adapting the theory of brand equity to a city context. P3: Linda K. Fuller, Worcester State University
Sex Verification for the Olympic Games: History, Hysteria, and Hyperandrogenism Following the disclosure, at the 1932 Los Angeles summer Olympics, that Gold medalist track runner Stanislawa (aka Stella) Walsh was really a man, followed by other examples, the IOC decided to embark on gender verification methods that were considered questionable at best. For 2012 London, in a supposed attempt at fairness, its policy including banning female athletes with hyperandrogenismâ – a condition wherein they have naturally high testosterone levels. With these new restrictions, many eyes were on Caster Semenya, a highly successful South African runner whose gender identity was in question – especially my eyes, as I was in South Africa at the time, reviewing local media and talking to many people about her. This presentation reports on the topic, then, at both meta- and person levels, providing a classic case of gendered politics.
Session Title: Socioeconomic Inequalities and Sport
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Jay Scherer, University of Alberta; Jordan Koch, University of Alberta, and Nicholas L. Holt, University of Alberta
I'm Not Down: Negotiating Labor and Leisure in the Downtown Core of a Divided Western Canadian City In 2011, we began 'hanging out' (Willis, 1978) with less affluent and often homeless young men at various inner-city recreational centers in Edmonton, Alberta—a city with amongst the highest levels of social and economic inequality in Canada. Over the course of this three year ethnography, we regularly observed how these facilities and recreational programs provided these men with a brief respite from life on the street, in addition to pleasurable opportunities to form meaningful relationships with social workers and peers. However, these settings also provided a crucial backdrop for many of the young men to rationally discuss a host of economic issues in their lives, including the circumstances under which they were willing to 'freely' sell their labor power in the era of precarious labor in the neoliberal city. In this presentation, then, we examine the networks of laboring subjectivities that cooperate and communicate as the multitude of the poor—most of whom embody a range of visible and 'hidden injuries of class' (Sennett & Cobb, 1973)—invent "strategies of survival, finding shelter and producing forms of social life, constantly discovering and creating resources of the common through expansive circuits of encounter" (Hardt & Negri, 2009, p. 254). P2: Mark A. DiDonato, Florida State University and Joshua Newman, Florida State University
Respatialization of Play in the Neoliberal City This project examines the transformations and modifications of publicly managed play spaces in the state capital of Florida, Tallahassee. First, we examine demographic changes in Tallahassee and Leon County. Second, we investigate new and closed public spaces of play and the implications these changes could have in the local community. To further enhance our findings, we uniquely position public play spaces within city demographic maps. The use of GIS mapping creates and fosters discussion for an analysis of the potential effects these policies have on the local community. GIS has been used in social science research in regards to socio-demographic characteristics, assessment of services, map census data, map boundaries, and to forecast additional services for policy decision making (Knowles, 2000; Queralt & Witte, 1998). We consider, based on the visual examination, who benefits from these decisions and who detrimentally suffers. Lastly, we explore potential relationships between the influence public-private partnerships have on the policies and decisions made in regards to public play spaces and how these influences affect the local community. P3: Lisa Swanson, Towson University; Jacob Bustad, University of Maryland-College Park and David Andrews, University of Maryland College Park
Training to Win: Parenting, Privilege and 'Elite' Youth Sport Performance Training This paper examines the relationships between socioeconomic status, social, cultural and economic advantage and privilege and the training and development of young athletes. As evidenced by the continuing increase in organizations focused on the advanced training of youth athletes, the merging of exercise sciences and the demand for these services has particular implications for the realities of physical activity experiences and participation. Our research therefore investigates the links between parenting, guidance and improved athletic performance by exploring the motivations, expectations and practices of youth sport development. As such, we utilized ethnographic fieldwork involving the observation and analysis of training sessions at one particular organization and field site (ʺElite Trainingʺ) in the Baltimore metro area, as well as interviewed parents and guardians whose children are enrolled in advanced training courses. As a study of how familial socioeconomic resources and conceptions of sport and physical activity impact the development of youth athletes and athletics, this research contributes to sociological understandings of (youth) sport and physical activity, socioeconomic status, and the exercising of social advantage within youth athletics.
Session Title: Rethinking Violence in Sport
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Note: FULL/3 Participants: P1: Tracy A. Supruniuk, York University
Rethinking Sports Violence: Comparing American and Canadian Labour Law and Practices of Enforcement Much of the discussion around violence and professional sports in Canada and the U.S. has centered on the legality of sports violence as it relates to criminal law, or on the relationship between sports violence and gender. This paper considers violence within the context of workers' rights and the responsibility of employers to ensure safe working conditions for professional athletes. Comparing labor law and its enforcement in Canada and the United States, I look at the ways in which the work spaces of professional athletes often constitute what Agamben calls a 'state of exception' whereby athlete-workers are denied the same rights and protections afforded to other workers. The exclusion of athlete-workers from these basic protections makes for unsafe working conditions. This has allowed for the exploitation of both amateur and professional athletes, as well as injury rates often much higher than other high-risk work sectors. P2: Chris M. McLeod, Florida State University and Mike E. Armstrong, Independent Scholar
Reality TV and Violent Profit: The Spectacular Construction of Front-Row Fighters In this paper we explore the role of reality television as a pedagogical apparatus reproducing the conditions of the neoliberal laborer in spectacular society. Taking the Ultimate Fighting Championship reality TV show as our case study, we posit that the show's success can be attributed to more than its ability to generate profit and popularity but its potential to increase profits through minimizing labor costs. As Couldry (2008) asserts, reality television acts as a "secret theater of neoliberalism," teaching the viewership how to become good employees in the advanced global capitalist labor force. Utilizing a theoretical framework informed by Bourdieu and Debord we suggest the mediation of the labor process (seen in the growing number of sport-based reality shows) holds the potential to act as a spectacle pedagogy, teaching the audience of potential laborers the monetary and social value in violence and the individual characteristics required for success. P3: Jennifer J. Hardes, University of Alberta and Bryan Hogeveen, University of Alberta
Re-Thinking Violence, Masculinity and the Martial Arts with Jean-Luc Nancy This paper examines the dominant conceptualization of the fighter's body as masculine and violent. Drawing on our corporeal experiences in the sports of Boxing, Brazilian Jiu Jitsu and Taekwondo, our analysis joins part of a broader engagement with Crossley's (1995) call for 'carnal' sociological accounts of the body (e.g., Allen-Collinson & Hockey, 2011; Breivik, 2013; Hockey & Allen-Collinson, 2009; Hogeveen, 2009; 2013; Spencer, 2012). It also forms part of an emerging 'body' of literature that specifically attends to the milieu of the sporting, martial, or combative fight space, where such carnal engagement occurs (e.g., Hogeveen, 2013; Hogeveen & Hardes, forthcoming; Spencer, 2009; 2012; Wacquant, 2004, 2011). This paper turns to Jean-Luc Nancy to engage in a carnal sociology that not only generates insight into these rich bodily experiences, but actively foregrounds how the body and its experiences are relationally constituted. Emphasizing this constitutive relationality gives us the tools to unfold and shift the dominant narrative regarding the fighter's body as a necessarily violent, indeed blood-thirsty, corporeality. In doing so, it allows us to open up more ethical ways of engaging with, and theorizing, combative sport experiences.
Session Title: Assessing and Developing Coaches and P.E. Teachers
Session Type:Paper Presentation session
Participants: P1: Lara Killick, University of the Pacific
Assessment and Development of PE teachers' Intercultural Competence using the Intercultural Development Inventory® (IDI®) USA's changing demographics are having a profound effect on the skills needed to be in an effective PE teacher. The emergence of a more culturally diverse student population results in a multiplicity of knowledge forms, epistemic systems, 'appropriate' communication, non-verbal behaviors and preferred styles of teaching and learning. However, there has been limited evaluation of the strategies Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) programs can use to develop future practitioners' ability to identify, accept and adapt to these differences in the learning environment. Drawing on a developmental framework (Bennett, 1993; Hammer, 1999), this presentation employs the Intercultural Development Continuum (IDC) and Intercultural Development Inventory® v3 (IDI®) to evaluate the effectiveness of an eight-week capstone experiential learning program (ELP) in advancing participants' intercultural competence. The presentation introduces preliminary findings, evaluates the assessment model employed and concludes with recommendations for future research and programmatic/curricula interventions. P2: Sandra Peláez, McGill University
Potential Contributions of Coaches’ Moral Education: The Participants’ Perspectives The present intervention study aimed at assessing coaches’ perspective of moral issues after participating in a two-hour workshop. Exploring this relationship is important as research indicates that, in general, coaches devote more effort to teach sport-related issues (e.g., sport strategies) rather than moral-related issues (e.g., cheating) that may arise in the sport setting. Fourteen elite male hockey coaches aged 26-59 (M= 37.5;SD= 8.87) years old involved in the same provincial league volunteered. The study consisted of a 2-hour workshop intervention built upon theInquiry Learningapproach(Kuhlthau, Maniotes, & Caspari, 2007)and a 12-month individual follow-up interview. Interviews were qualitatively analysed following Braun and Clark’s (2006) guidelines.Findings were organized around two core themes. The first theme,coaches’ understanding of morality,revolved around values that guided coaches’ behaviors, as well as, coaches’ moral knowledge, awareness, and challenges they faced. The second theme,coaches’ preferences for moral educationdiscussed participants’ appreciation of the workshop, as well as, participants’ suggestions for future interventions.Coaches’ viewpoints shed light on both coaches’ educational/informational limitations and practical issues coaches dealt with. This is important tounderstand coaches’ educational needs at the time of designing educational intervention aiming at enhance coaches’ moral awareness.
White Boys Will Be Men: Revitalizing Masculinity and Restoring the Nuclear Family in Early 1990s Hollywood Baseball Films In the United States, the 1980s through late 1990s was a tumultuous period of intense cultural and political debate on the proper ways to raise children and the well-being of the nation's youth. These anxieties were linked with concurrent fears of the "threat" posed to White heteronormative masculinity by the women's movement, the increasing visibility of alternative sexualities, and affirmative action policies that sought equal opportunity in the workplace for women and racial minorities. In this paper, I conduct a textual analysis of a series of baseball films produced for family audiences between 1993 and 1994: The Sandlot, Rookie of the Year, and Little Big League. Their overarching narrative features a vulnerable White boy's need for belonging, stability, and self-esteem, and ultimately emphasizes his rejuvenated confidence and newfound self-reliance. These films play a significant pedagogical role. They suggest that sport is an exclusively male space where boys become men, strive to win, gain independence, and take responsibility for their families over flawed adults. The films' omission of complex, wider social and cultural issues—and amplification of boys' triumphs and wisdom—allays concerns for particular audiences about the alleged decline of the White patriarchal nuclear family.