P1: Deana E. Simonetto, McMaster University
Getting Injured: Experiencing an Injury in the Context of Family Life
The sociological literature on sports-related injuries has examined the ways athletes understand and experience becoming injured, managing injuries, and recovering from injuries (Young et al. 1994; Sparkes 1996, 1999; Pike 2000; Charlesworth 2004). This paper addresses the ways in which families, specifically spouses, of professional football players experience the athlete's injury. Drawing on interviews with 22 football players and 13 spouses from the Canadian Football League (CFL), I describe how families experience (1) the immediate situation of an injury, (2) the recovery period; and (3) the athlete's return to football. The findings indicate that football families are deeply affected by injuries and we need to understand elite-sporting injuries in the context of family life. I conclude by arguing that professional sporting-injuries are not just experienced by the athlete but that research needs to consider injuries in the context of family life.
P2: Jason Laurendeau, University of Lethbridge and Dan Konecny, University of Lethbridge
“… Prepare and Protect [our] Children:” Outdoor Recreation, Youth Vulnerability, and “Social responsibility” among Search and Rescue Volunteers
In this paper, we employ data from semi-structured interviews to interrogate the discourses of risk upon which search and rescue volunteers draw in their narratives about "lost subjects," particularly children and adolescents. Drawing on Donnelly's (2004) consideration of the "culture of risk" and Lupton's (e.g., 1999, 2011, 2012) discussions of the imperative that we "protect" our children from harm, we explore the complexities and contradictions of contemporary risk discourses, and the ways in which these are connected to the (re)production of children and youth as vulnerable subjects.
P3: Jacqueline Yeldon, Acadia University and Robert Pitter, Acadia University
Expected and Accepted: Social Factors that Impact the Meaning of Pain in Boys' Hockey
For many athletes pain is the body's natural mechanism of defense against injuries and overuse. However, its important signaling and diagnostic features are often overshadowed by social factors such as the desire to conform to the sport ethic (Hughes & Coakley, 1991; Nixon, 1992). Emerging literature in the area of youth sport has identified that children, like adults, react to pain by both expecting and accepting it as a normal or even ideal outcome of sport (Malcolm, 2006; Nemeth, 2009; Stafford, 2013). This paper discusses preliminary results from a study of boys' pain experiences in competitive and recreational hockey. We surveyed boys 9 to 14 years of age and then interviewed them in focus groups about how they define and make sense of pain related to hockey. We identify the developmental and social factors that influence these perceptions and reactions to pain by accounting for the athletes' ages, athletic abilities, commitment levels, and teams' caliber as competitive or recreational. Through our findings we seek to address the harmful yet widespread trend of young athletes playing through exhaustion and injury. We argue that an inclusive and psychosocial understanding of sport-related pain is the first step in promoting a sporting environment centered on the safety and health of each young athlete.
P4: Vicky L. Grygar, University of Toronto
Power in the Canadian Hockey League (CHL): From the Players' Perspective
The Canadian Hockey League (CHL) is the world's leading developmental junior ice hockey league. Comprised of 1,400 hockey players, aged 15-21 years old on 60 teams in three divisions, the CHL is a primary supplier of talent for the National Hockey League. In recent years, several issues surrounding unjust practices within the CHL have been brought to the forefront, and the issue of player treatment has become the subject of much public scrutiny. Positioned to shed light on this controversial topic, this presentation examines the vulnerability of players in the CHL. Based on a series of interviews with former and current CHL players, as well as investigative documents, the study situates their lived experiences within specific power relations. The research is theoretically grounded in the writings of Michel Foucault, by utilizing his respective interpretations of the workings of power in order to understand the interplay between CHL players and authoritative hockey figures (e.g., coaches, general managers, owners), and a more deeply ingrained sense of the effects of power on individuals in the major junior hockey system. Ultimately, this study aims to contribute to discourses of social justice within youth high-performance sport.
Session Title: College Athletics in the U.S.
Session Type: Paper Presentation session
P1: Adam Love, Mississippi State University and Matthew W. Hughey, University of Connecticut
Out of Bounds? Racial Discourse on College Basketball Message Boards
While the frequency of overt racism has decreased in most public spaces, being replaced by more subtly racialized narratives, the Internet appears to be an exception where explicit racism continues to proliferate. Online message boards dedicated to US collegiate basketball are sites where groups dominated by white male users discuss the lives and performances of young, primarily black student-athletes. Against this backdrop, the current study specifically investigates the racialized nature of discourse on college basketball message boards in cases where players are involved in disciplinary incidents. We find that, although overt mention of race is rare in these spaces, racialized assumptions and expectations often still shape the ways in which players' actions are interpreted. The reasons for the presence of such 'color-blind' discourse will be discussed.
P2: Charles D. Macaulay, University of British Columbia
Playing for Privilege: How College Athletics Attract White Males to Universities
This study examines how a university's interest within college athletics affects the demographic make-up of the student population. I focus particularly on the percentage of white males attending universities as white males are the largest consumers of sports media in North America. Using National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I universities (N=314) I examine expenses and conference to represent interest within college athletics. The research shows that a university's interest with college athletics as represented in expenses was not a significant factor in predicting the percentage of white males attending a university. However it was found that subdivision, Football Bowl Series, Football Championship Series, and Non-Football playing universities are important predictors of the percentage of the student body being made up of white males.
P3: DeAnne Davis Brooks, Greensboro College
The Mis-Education of the Athlete: Elite Sports Training as a Contradiction to Messages about Life-long Health-Related Physical Activity
An exploratory study using focus groups was used to investigate the question, "What do Black women who were Division I elite track and field athletes describe as influencing post-competitive physical activity?" This study was under-girded with a womanist epistemology and sought to deeply contextualize the physical activity experiences and choices of these women through explanations of their intersecting social understandings. Findings indicate that physical activity decisions were influenced by participants' social networks, socially-influenced self-presentation concerns, and experiences in the track and field arena. Results suggest that messages promoted in the athletic environment over-ride health-focused messages regarding physical activity, including messages touting the value of moderate or non-competitive physical activity. Sociocultural analyses may benefit coaches as they prepare athletes for competition and as they prepare individuals for engagement in life-long, health-related physical activity. This study also resulted in a diverse representation of experience and behaviors of Black women, suggesting that kinesiologists ought to lead the way in reducing the reliance on universal categories of difference. An acknowledgement of the intersecting social understandings and conditions that shape "Black women's" lives and their physical activity may provide additional information regarding PA knowledge, choice, and influences.
P4: Jonathan W. Evans, Baylor University and Jeffrey C. Petersen, Baylor University
Religiosity in Faith-Based and Non-Faith-Based Colleges: An Analysis of Student-Athletes and Non-Student-Athletes at the Division I FBS Level
The connection between sport and religion can be traced to 776 BC and the ancient Olympic Games (Obare, 2000). Currently, this connection has been magnified by the rise of various sports ministries, countless religious references made by athletes of every sport and level of competition, and the notoriety of outspoken religious athletes like Tim Tebow. Prior research identified differences between the religiosity of student-athletes and non-student-athletes (Bell, Johnson, & Petersen, 2009; Storch, Kolsky, Silvestri, & Storch, 2001). At public Division I institutions, student-athletes demonstrated a higher degree of religiosity compared to their non-student-athlete counterparts (Storch, et al., 2001). Conversely, student-athletes at a private, faith-based, Division III, institution, were less religious than the non-student-athletes (Bell, et al., 2009). This paper seeks to address this discrepancy by exploring student-athletes' and non-student-athletes' religiosity at private, Division I, FBS level institutions. Over 300 student-athletes and 250 non-student-athletes from two private institutions (one faith-based, one non-faith-based) were surveyed using the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith Questionnaire. A 2x2x2 ANOVA was used to examine the effect and interaction of the athlete status, institutional type, and gender on religiosity. Significant findings could assist college administrators and athletic personnel in both athletic recruitment and student-athlete services development.
Session Title: Experiences of Nature and Outdoor Sports
Session Type: Paper Presentation session
P1: B. Josey L. Field, University of Exeter, Cassandra Phoenix, and Tim Coles
Globalization or Americanization? An Exploratory Case Study of European Men's
Coast, Countryside and the National Trust: Exploring Young Adults' Experiences of Nature Through Sport
Motivated by an interest in human becoming and belonging and enlivened through an exploration of embodied habitation and movement, this presentation seeks to consider the notion of "escapism" as expressed by participants involved in active outdoor physical cultures (mountain biking, climbing, trail running and surfing). As part of a wider project orientated towards investigating and questioning current ideals and en-actions of [human and environmental] well-being, it hopes to mobilize theoretically informed, empirical research to explore the associations between humans and the natural environment in an attempt to illuminate different ways of being. Drawing upon interviews with 18 active adults (18-30 years) and the researchers own experience of trail running and climbing, participant's expressions of temporality, embodied emotionality and playfulness will be explored under the rubric of "escapism". It is argued that through movement in synchronization with an environment [unbound by a deterministic human hand], participants of outdoor physical cultures experience a mode of being which enables them, for a time, to encounter themselves [and the world] in a way not mundanely known. The potential implications of such a relationship will be explored in relation to participant's personal expressions of well-being and their interaction with others.
P2: Kyle A. Clarke, Queen's University [Requests presentation time on Thursday]
Journeys into the Winter Wilderness: Exploring the Traditional Winter Camping Experience
Traditional winter camping, as a specific form of wilderness camping and travel, has emerged as a distinct recreational activity in North America within the last twenty years. It is a unique outdoor pursuit with practices and philosophies that differ in significant ways from those of accepted contemporary wilderness camping models. Traditional winter campers reject many modern materials and ideas while choosing to embrace others, utilizing techniques and equipment that are an eclectic mash-up of North American Indigenous, nineteenth-century European and modern technologies. Members of this community believe that participation in this activity develops self-reliance, self-confidence and individual resilience, while providing an authentic, physical and natural means of reconnecting with nature. Traditional winter campers, like other alternative leisure groups, are opposed or resistant to many of the methods and meanings endorsed by their dominant parent culture. To practice traditional winter camping means to accept and embody a very specific set of values and beliefs dress, knowledge, experience, skill and performance are critical elements used to identify and form the identity of the camper. Through this paper I will explore this unique leisure subculture, its embedded contradictions, gate-keeping procedures and potential future impact on typical wilderness camping practices.
P3: Andrew R. Meyer, Baylor University and Kelli McMahan, Baylor University
Sport Related Spiritual Experiences: Understanding the Role of Solitude and Teamwork in a 14-Hour Endurance Relay Race
This original research addresses Watson's (2013) call for empirical studies in the areas of sport, religion and spirituality. Our proposed presentation explores the spiritual dimensions of an extreme sport experience within an extracurricular university program: The Great Brazos Relay (a 24-hour relay-running event). Our findings demonstrate that meaningful life experiences can occur during extreme sporting events. The researchers developed a survey, collected data, and analyzed race participant experiences relating to spirituality. Items were developed based on existing spirituality literature and similar screening measures. Surveys were completed online (n=31) followed by in-depth interviews (n=8). Multivariate relationships between survey and interview constructs were then determined and examined using NVivo v.10. This presentation identified two emergent themes related to spiritual experiences among participants. (1) The role of space, centering on ideas related to introspection, solitude and physical environment. (2) Outcomes concerning group dynamics, such as the reliance on team, sense of accomplishment and a sense of community. Results indicate that profound life mentality changes occurred during the 2012 Great Brazos Relay. These results indicate that whether the participants used spiritual language or not, a metaphysical experience was expressed. Future research should cross-validate these measures at other challenge oriented and adventure related activities.
Comparisons of Two Rural Communities in Life Capital, Sport Capital, and Life Quality
Li-Shiue Gau, Asia University, Taiwan, and Yu-Mei Wei, Asia University, Taiwan, Shiou-Rung Chang, Asia University, Taiwan, and Yung Dong, Asia University, Taiwan
This study adopted residents' perspective to measure their life capital, perceived sport capital of green exercise in their communities, and their life quality. It is hypothesized that if a community has higher life capital and community sport capital, the community is more likely to have higher life quality, because the community with more capital have more resources to pursue quality of life. Educational level and income were used as indexes to measure life capital. The scale of community sport capital had five dimensions: natural environments (natural resources), facilities (built equipment and fields), organizations (formal and informal sport groups), social support (shared culture to encourage doing exercise), and environmental consciousness (to what extent that residents love green exercise). Each dimension had 3 items. Six items were used to measure the quality of life. Data were collected in Luo-Tsuo community (n=200) and Da-lian community (n=200). One-way ANOVA showed that the Da-lian community had higher educational background in average, and had higher community sport capital in dimensions of natural environments, organizations, and social support than the Luo-Tsuo community. In average, residents in the Da-lian community perceived more meaningful life than those in the Luo-Tsuo community. Keywords: Green sport, rural area, rural community
Session Title: Embodiment and Health Issues
Session Type: Paper Presentation session
P1: Scott Carey, Queen's University
Sporting Acne: Embodied Negotiations of Health and Self through Abject Skin in Sport
In this paper I explore the relationship between acne, health and sport. Skin, as Cavanagh, Failler and Alpha Johnston Hurst (2013) write, has a "biological life, a social life, a fantasy life, a somatic life, a political life, an esthetic life, a life in the "lived body" and a cultural life—all of which inform one another to shape what it means and how it feels to inhabit skin" (p. 3). Departing from this train of thought, I pay close attention to the politics of skin—specifically, the medicalization of acne, dermatological regimes and the healthiest sport landscape to contextualize the different ways "unhealthy" or "pimpled" skin becomes lived in sport. Paradoxically, medicalized knowledge’s produce sport as a health "risk" to acne-prone skin (e.g. sweat, equipment/helmets, etc.) at the same time healthiest discourses construct the athlete body as "healthy body." Thus, I argue that acne and sport converge to produce a cultural context whereupon ideas pertaining to "health" materialize as unstable, contested and contradictory through the athlete's embodied experience of skin. This paper, then, is concerned with the (inter)subjective negotiations and corporeal tensions that are lived on and through the symbolic, psychical, phenomenological and bacterial surface of the athlete's skin.
P2: Julie Maier, University of Maryland, and Shannon Jette University of Maryland
“I Quit Because I was Worried about Germs:” The Exercise Experiences of Women with OCRD
In recent decades, there has been an increase in scholarship focused on the mental health benefits associated with physical activity, with researchers from a variety of disciplines promoting physical activity as a natural way to manage the symptoms related to numerous mental health issues. With increasing frequency, and in step with the American College of Sports Medicine and American Medical Association's recent initiative, "Exercise is Medicine," there is a call for exercise to be prescribed as an alternative or complement to psychotropic medications, psychotherapy, or other Western approaches to mental health care. While physical activity is undoubtedly beneficial to many, its incorporation into mental health treatment plans is in need of the same critical analysis other therapies and medicines have received. Indeed, there is a lack of qualitative work that looks at individuals' experiences living with mental illnesses and their relationship to physical activity as a potential treatment strategy. In order to help fill this gap, we draw on in-depth interviews with women living with Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD) in order to explore the complex relationship between physical activity and particular mental illnesses that emerge from their life history narratives.
P3: Haifa Tlili, Paris Descartes University
How Maghrebian Women Speak about Health, Body and Obesity in Montreal, France and Tunisia?
The study is based on participant-centered conversations with women from the Maghreb who live in different intercultural context, between 2009 and 2012. Fifteen women were interviewed in Montreal completed by 22 exploratory interviews in Paris and Tunis. The participants were French-speaking women between 18 and 45. I used a poststructuralist discourse analysis to investigate the recorded narratives. The analysis focused on how these women construct and experience the body and health, the role obesity discourse plays therein, and the ways in which young women's meanings and experiences about the body and health are constructed in specific cultural circumstances. In Montreal, most participants reproduced dominant Canadian discourses on obesity and individual responsibility for health. They also constructed themselves as hybrid subjects, modern women living in Canada but keeping strong Maghreb references around the body, food, as well as cultural and religious practices. In France and in Tunisia, discourses are less abundant and less paradoxical. Less worried, the participants also expressed themselves with criticism when they spoke about health institutions. Cultural and religious discourses are less used. But in Tunisia, some frustrations were observed, between what they knew about health or obesity and what they could do concretely.
P4: Yuchi Chang, Waseda University, Japan
Dancing for a Slimmer Body, Competing for International Diplomacy: The Representation of Globalized Belly Dance in Taiwan
Belly dance, which is adapted from Middle Eastern dance, has grown markedly as a women's leisure exercise in East Asia. In Taiwan, the fusion with other dances or cultural elements is commonly seen in belly dancing choreographies and costumes, although the dance is primarily promoted as a Middle Eastern tradition. According to data collected through in-depth interviews with 20 belly dancers and two organizers of belly dance associations, this study finds people who do belly dance in Taiwan are generally attracted by its benefits as a body-slimming exercise and its exoticism, rather than identifying themselves with Middle Eastern culture. Data also show that being inspired by the government's propagation of Sport Diplomacy, dancers are encouraged to integrate Taiwanese cultural elements into their performance when competing in international competitions, since it is thought of as a chance for Taiwan to receive worldwide recognition. This study argues that the marketing strategies adopted by the pioneering promoters of belly dance and government sport policies play important roles in shaping the cultural landscape of Taiwanese belly dance. While nationalism and consumerism have contributed to the diverse and hybrid representation of this Middle Eastern dance, its connection with the Middle East is even more tenuous.