Palatine Hill



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Romulus


He founded Rome. A legendary hero. Had a twin brother Remus. The boys were rescued by a she-wolf after being sent down the Tiber river. Rome was named after Romulus after he beat his brother in a battle on top of a mountain.

Palatine Hill


One of the 7 Hills of Rome…The battle place of Romulus and Remus and this is where Rome was founded. Houses were built on the top and farms at the base.

753 BC


When Rome was founded

509 BC


Rome became a Republic

44 BC


Julius Caesar was named Dictator for life after many battle in a civil war then he took power from the senate and named himself Dictator. Later the senate killed him. A great military leader

27 BC


Augustus (Julius Caesar’s great nephew and later adopted son). Also known as Octavian. Name first Emperor. He rebuilt Rome and started the Pax Romana

Republic


A government in which people elect their leaders. (The US is a republic)

Seven Hills of Rome

Where Rome was built. Farmers used the rich soil at the base and living on the tops allowed them to protect themselves. Colosseum, Forum, Temple (pantheon) and Circus Maximus

Near Tiber River and trade routes.



Peninsula


Body of land surrounded by water on 3 sides. Rome (Italy) was/is a peninsula. Provided good protection and trade routes because it was at the mouth or the Mediterranean Sea.

Tiber River


A river that Rome was founded next to that was used for source or water to drink and farm, and bathe. Romulus and Remus floated down this river… helped protect Rome

Patricians


Wealthy land owners who held all the high positons in the government. Upper class of the Roman

Plebians


Lower class: Slaves, farmers or average (small) land owners. Males got to vote but could not hold important positions in government. Caused tension because they wanted more rights so the 12 tables was created.

12 tables


Established basics rights and duties for the Roman citizens. Written constitution: rights to different groups and detailed property rights. (The Bill of Rights is based on this.)

3 branches of Roman Government


Legislative Branch: senate advised consuls and set policies: Assemblies: made laws selected officials.

Judicial Branch: 8 judges oversaw the courts and governed provinces. (state)

Executive Branch: led the government and commanded the armies. 2 consuls


Senate


300 members senate advised consuls and set policies: Assemblies: made laws selected officials.


Consuls


Each ruled for 1 : led the government and commanded the armies.

Punic Wars


Rome VS. Carthage lasted for about 200 years. In 146 BC Rome captured Carthage and Rome by that time expanded from Spain to Greece. EFFECT: wealth to Rome, slaves, unemployment grew, plebeians were not happy…lead to a Civil War

Civil war


A war within 1 country War between Patricians and Plebeians. 82 BC Patricians Won with Sulla as their general. .

Julius Caesar


A strong war general. He came back from expanding Rome in battles, took over the Senate, and named himself Dictator for Life. (absolute ruler). In the same year ( 44 BC) the Senate killed him.

Augustus


AKA: Octavian Great Nephew to Caesar, also Caesar’s adopted son. 1st emperor of Rome, Created the Pax Romana, trade grew, beautified Rome, and strengthened the defense of the empire. Name means Exalted One. Created a civil Service and collected taxes. Built roads

Pax Romana


Roman Peace: 200 years of stability and peace: Empire grew to its’ greatest size, strong Navy for defense, trade is prospering

Gentile


A person not of the Jewish Religion.

Constantine

Emperor (306AD) and Military General who allowed Christianity to be practiced in Rome. He stopped the prosecutions of Christians. Saw cross in sky…

Made it legal in Rome to practice Christianity in the year 312 AD. Made Sunday a Holy day and built Churches and put Christian symbols on coins.




Diocletian


In 284 he was Absolute Ruler, did not consult Senate. A Roman Emperor who split the East and the West of Rome in 285 AD . Ruled the East.

Edict of Milan


312 AD: made Christianity a legal religion in Rome (not the only religion)

Early Romans were? Farmers

Compare the life of the rich and the poor in ancient Rome.

About 1 million people live in Rome at the height of the Roman empire. Most of them were poor and unemployed. They could not be part of the government. They lived in old run down apartments. They did not have much to eat. The did not have running water or toilets. They dropped their trash (and feces???) out the window. Fire was an issues.

The rich lived in large comfortable homes in the countywide. They lived luxurious lives. Had upper-class jobs in the governments. They ate fine meals and better food. Went to the theater, steam room at the public bath houses, they had plumbing (running water came from aqueducts) and they held fancy parties.

The government tried to help the poor by providing grain to try to prevent unrest from the poor.

Who made up the senate? 300 members (patricians)

How did Christianity change Rome.

Rome became monotheistic for the first time. At first Rome tolerated Christianity as long as the Christians did not threaten their rule by denouncing the Roman Gods and the control of the Emperor. More and more people were becoming Christian. Eventually Roman Emperors felt threatened so they persecuted the Christians. (burnt them or stole their belongings). Constantine made Christianity legal with The Edict of Milan. Theodosius made Christianity the 1 legal religion of Rome in 380 AD.

Explain how the location of Rome was good for farming and defense because: The Tiber river provide water for faming and crops. They also had a strong Navy for protection. They were on a Peninsula which provided for good trade routes. They built their houses and city on the 7 hills so they can see and protect themselves.

Why did Roman rulers in the early AD years see Christianity as a threat because: At first Rome tolerated Christianity as long as the Christians did not threaten their rule by denouncing the Roman Gods and the control of the Emperor. More and more people were becoming Christian. Eventually Roman Emperors felt threatened so they persecuted the Christians. (burnt them or stole their belongings). The Roman emperors were afraid of Revolts.

What happened to the Christians prior to Constantine? They were persecuted because they were seen as a threat.

At first Rome tolerated Christianity as long as the Christians did not threaten their rule by denouncing the Roman Gods and the control of the Emperor. More and more people were becoming Christian. Eventually Roman Emperors felt threatened so they persecuted the Christians. (burnt them or stole their belongings). The Roman emperors were afraid of Revolts.

What caused Constantine to change his mind about Christianity? You know the story. Include what he did to prove his respect for Christianity while he was emperor. He gave land back to those that had been persecuted. He built churches and made Sunday a Holy Day. He moved the capital to Byzantium and re-named it Constantinople---the center of Christian religion for 1000 years.

Choose 5 ways to explain how Rome influenced things we use/do today. (pages 517-519)

Roads aqueducts architecture: domes, vaulted, concrete, arches, government, Christianity,

Circus Maximus

Colosseum

Forum


Pantheon


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